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1.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(5): pkaa035, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134820

RESUMO

Background: People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. However, it is unclear whether diabetes-related complications are associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods: A nested matched case-control analysis was conducted among the fee-for-service Medicare participants of the prospective Multiethnic Cohort (n = ∼123 000). Between 2001 and 2014, 433 incident cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were matched to 1728 controls by birth year, sex, race and ethnicity, and age at cohort entry. Participants were linked to data from the California and Hawaii cancer registries and Medicare claims. We used the diabetes complications severity index (DCSI) for the presence of 7 complications within 2 years prior to the diagnosis date of the index case. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association of DCSI with pancreatic cancer incidence. Results: Diabetes was present among 45.4% of cases and 34.1% of controls. Cases had higher DCSI score compared with controls (score ≥4: 32.8% in cases; 21.2% in controls). The most prevalent diabetes-related complications for cases were cardiovascular disease (61.2%), nephropathy (31.2%), and cerebrovascular disease (21.7%). Individuals with diabetes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14 to 1.91), nephropathy (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.32 to 2.33), cardiovascular disease (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.45 to 2.44), and metabolic complications (OR = 6.61, 95% CI = 2.49 to 17.50) were at increased risk of pancreatic cancer. For every 1-unit increase in DCSI score, participants had 18% greater risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.25). Conclusions: Participants with diabetes-related complications have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer. Identifying diabetes-related complications may help identify high-risk groups who can be studied for development of early markers for this fatal cancer.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1800-1808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing. RESULTS: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including DPP10 (PG×E = 1.96 × 10-4), KRT16 (PG×E = 2.3 × 10-4), CD14 (PG×E = 9.38 × 10-4), and CYP27A1 (PG×E = 1.44 × 10-3). There was a significant interaction between expression level of RP11-89N17 and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (PG×E = 3.23 × 10-5). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2. CONCLUSIONS: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use. IMPACT: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.

3.
Ethn Health ; : 1-14, 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508127

RESUMO

Objective: While cardiometabolic abnormalities are associated with elevated risk of morbidity, they may not occur in all individuals with obesity. Less is known about associations with mortality, especially cancer mortality. This study examined associations between cardiometabolic-weight categories and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all causes. Methods: Cox proportional hazards regressions of time to all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortalities were used to examine associations with cardiometabolic-weight status, in the Multiethnic Cohort (n=157,865). Cardiometabolic-weight status categories were: Metabolically Healthy Normal Weight, Metabolically Healthy Obese, Metabolically Healthy Overweight, Metabolically Unhealthy Normal Weight, Metabolically Unhealthy Obese, and Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight. Results: Higher mortality, especially for all-cause and CVD, was found for all metabolically unhealthy groups no matter the weight classification when compared to the Metabolically Healthy Normal Weight category across sex-ethnic groups. For all-cause mortality, a reduction in mortality was seen for males in the Metabolically Healthy Overweight category (HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93), especially for African American, Native Hawaiian, and Latino males. Mortality was elevated in the Metabolically Healthy Obese category for all-cause and CVD mortality in both sexes (HRrange: 1.08-1.93). Few associations were seen with cancer mortality. Conclusions: Past examinations of cardiometabolic-weight status and mortality have been hampered by a lack of diversity. In a racially/ethnically diverse population, metabolically unhealthy groups exhibited a substantially higher risk of death from all causes and CVD than metabolically healthy groups. A reduction in all-cause mortality was seen for some males classified as Metabolically Healthy Overweight; however, being classified as Metabolically Healthy Obese elevated mortality risk for males and females compared to Metabolically Healthy Normal Weight. Future research is needed to examine how sex-ethnic differences in body fat distribution and changes in weight over time influence associations between cardiometabolic-weight status and mortality.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1283-1289, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371551

RESUMO

The rapid pace of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to the real-time collection of population-scale data to inform near-term public health needs as well as future investigations. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium to address this unprecedented crisis on behalf of the epidemiology research community. As a central component of this initiative, we have developed a COVID Symptom Study (previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker) mobile application as a common data collection tool for epidemiologic cohort studies with active study participants. This mobile application collects information on risk factors, daily symptoms, and outcomes through a user-friendly interface that minimizes participant burden. Combined with our efforts within the general population, data collected from nearly 3 million participants in the United States and United Kingdom are being used to address critical needs in the emergency response, including identifying potential hot spots of disease and clinically actionable risk factors. The linkage of symptom data collected in the app with information and biospecimens already collected in epidemiology cohorts will position us to address key questions related to diet, lifestyle, environmental, and socioeconomic factors on susceptibility to COVID-19, clinical outcomes related to infection, and long-term physical, mental health, and financial sequalae. We call upon additional epidemiology cohorts to join this collective effort to strengthen our impact on the current health crisis and generate a new model for a collaborative and nimble research infrastructure that will lead to more rapid translation of our work for the betterment of public health.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Software , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Saúde Pública , Smartphone , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg·m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with colorectal cancer risk among 14,059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14,416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included two-step (i.e., Cocktail method) and single-step (i.e., case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.14; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.11-1.18; p-value: 9.75 x 10-17) than for men (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.20-1.32; p-value: 2.13 x 10-24). The two-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; p-observed: 0.0009; p-threshold: 0.005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint p-value: 2.43 x 10-10). Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.16-1.32; p-value: 2.60 x 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.19; p-value: 1.04 x 10-8) or TT (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.14; p-value: 0.02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.

6.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(2): pkz107, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211584

RESUMO

Background: There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of air pollution on chronic brain inflammation and microglia cell activation, but evidence of its carcinogenic effects is limited. Methods: We used kriging interpolation and land use regression models to estimate long-term air pollutant exposures of oxides of nitrogen (NOx, NO2), kriging interpolation for ozone (O3), carbon monoxide, and particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), and nearest monitoring station measurements for benzene for 103 308 men and women from the Multiethnic Cohort, residing largely in Los Angeles County from recruitment (1993-1996) through 2013. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the associations between time-varying pollutants and risk of malignant brain cancer (94 men, 116 women) and meningioma (130 men, 425 women) with adjustment for sex, race and ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status, smoking, occupation, and other covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex and race and ethnicity. Results: Brain cancer risk in men increased in association with exposure to benzene (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 7.55) and PM10 (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.00 to 3.23). Stronger associations with PM10 (HR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.26 to 7.23), O3 (HR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.09 to 7.88), and benzene (HR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.17 to 18.2) were observed among Latino men. Air pollution was unrelated to risk of meningioma except that O3 exposure was associated with risk in men (HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.02 to 3.06). Brain cancer risk in women was unrelated to air pollution exposures. Conclusions: Confirmation of these sex differences in air pollution-brain cancer associations and the stronger findings in Latino men in additional diverse populations is warranted.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

8.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 74(10): 1434-1441, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: As dietary intake and endocrine metabolism are vastly different by sex, we evaluated differences in the association of diet quality with body composition between men and women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Close to 2000 participants from the Multiethnic Cohort completed calibrated quantitative food frequency questionnaires at cohort entry (1993-96) and clinic visit (2013-16), from which the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) was computed. Adiposity measures were obtained through DXA and MRI at clinic visit. Multivariable-adjusted mean adiposity measures were estimated by tertiles of HEI-2010 scores using general linear regression. The associations of diet quality with high visceral fat (VAT) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were examined by logistic regression. To assess sex differences, cross-product terms with the HEI-2010 were added to the models. RESULTS: Mean HEI-2010 scores were higher for women than men at cohort entry (67.4 vs. 64.0) and clinic visit (73.6 vs. 71.0). Past and current diet quality was inversely associated with adiposity measures in men and women. Although interaction terms were not significant, the magnitude of the slopes and differences in adjusted means across tertiles suggested a stronger association for women than men. When comparing individuals who maintained a high vs. poor quality diet over 20 years, women but not men showed significantly lower risks for high VAT, whereas high HEI-2010 scores predicted a lower risk of NAFLD in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The inverse association of diet quality with adiposity was similar in both sexes, but diet quality appeared to have a stronger influence on VAT in women than men.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 549-557, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932410

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reducing colorectal cancer incidence and mortality through early detection would improve efficacy if targeted. We developed a colorectal cancer risk prediction model incorporating personal, family, genetic, and environmental risk factors to enhance prevention. METHODS: A familial risk profile (FRP) was calculated to summarize individuals' risk based on detailed cancer family history (FH), family structure, probabilities of mutation in major colorectal cancer susceptibility genes, and a polygenic component. We developed risk models, including individuals' FRP or binary colorectal cancer FH, and colorectal cancer risk factors collected at enrollment using population-based colorectal cancer cases (N = 4,445) and controls (N = 3,967) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry Cohort (CCFRC). Model validation used CCFRC follow-up data for population-based (N = 12,052) and clinic-based (N = 5,584) relatives with no cancer history at recruitment to assess model calibration [expected/observed rate ratio (E/O)] and discrimination [area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC)]. RESULTS: The E/O [95% confidence interval (CI)] for FRP models for population-based relatives were 1.04 (0.74-1.45) for men and 0.86 (0.64-1.20) for women, and for clinic-based relatives were 1.15 (0.87-1.58) for men and 1.04 (0.76-1.45) for women. The age-adjusted AUCs (95% CI) for FRP models for population-based relatives were 0.69 (0.60-0.78) for men and 0.70 (0.62-0.77) for women, and for clinic-based relatives were 0.77 (0.69-0.84) for men and 0.68 (0.60-0.76) for women. The incremental values of AUC for FRP over FH models for population-based relatives were 0.08 (0.01-0.15) for men and 0.10 (0.04-0.16) for women, and for clinic-based relatives were 0.11 (0.05-0.17) for men and 0.11 (0.06-0.17) for women. CONCLUSIONS: Both models calibrated well. The FRP-based model provided better risk stratification and risk discrimination than the FH-based model. IMPACT: Our findings suggest detailed FH may be useful for targeted risk-based screening and clinical management.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial genome encodes for thirty-seven proteins, among them thirteen are essential for the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Inherited variation in mitochondrial genes may influence cancer development through changes in mitochondrial proteins, altering the OXPHOS process and promoting the production of reactive oxidative species. METHODS: To investigate the association between mitochondrial genetic variation and breast cancer risk, we tested 314 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs), capturing four complexes of the mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway and mtSNP groupings for rRNA and tRNA, in 2,723 breast cancer cases and 3,260 controls from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. RESULTS: We examined the collective set of 314 mtSNPs as well as subsets of mtSNPs grouped by mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway, complexes, and genes, using the sequence kernel association test and adjusting for age, sex, and principal components of global ancestry. We also tested haplogroup associations using unconditional logistic regression and adjusting for the same covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. No significant mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway, gene, and haplogroup associations were observed in African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. In European Americans, a global test of all genetic variants of the mitochondrial genome identified an association with breast cancer risk (P = 0.017, q = 0.102). In mtSNP-subset analysis, the gene MT-CO2 (P = 0.001, q = 0.09) in Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) and MT-ND2 (P = 0.004, q = 0.19) in Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone)) were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings suggest that collective mitochondrial genetic variation and particularly in the MT-CO2 and MT-ND2 may play a role in breast cancer risk among European Americans. Further replication is warranted in larger populations and future studies should evaluate the contribution of mitochondrial proteins encoded by both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genoma Mitocondrial , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrition ; 66: 147-152, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine associations of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with diet quality in a multiethnic population. METHODS: The analysis included 160 353 African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, and non-Hispanic white participants aged 45 to 75 y who entered the Multiethnic Cohort study by completing a comprehensive questionnaire in 1993 to 1996 and did not report cancer or heart disease. Diet quality was assessed using four diet quality indexes (DQIs): the Healthy Eating Index 2010, the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, the alternate Mediterranean Diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. RESULTS: For three DQIs, the Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, mean scores were significantly higher in women than men, whereas the mean score of the alternate Mediterranean Diet was significantly higher in men than women. In both men and women, older age, higher education, being physically active, and multivitamin use were associated with scores above the median of DQIs, whereas overweight/obesity, current smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption (≥2 drinks/d) were associated with scores less than the median of DQIs. Race/ethnicity had inconsistent associations according to the DQIs. Being widowed, being a previous smoker, and having a low body mass index (<20 kg/m2) were associated with scores less than the median of DQIs in men but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality was associated with sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics in men and women. The associations with several factors, such as marital status, body mass index, and smoking status, differed by sex. These findings may help to identify at-risk populations for nutritional screening and to develop nutritional intervention strategies and educational materials.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
12.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248054

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine whether using gender specific-portion size (GS-PS) improves the accuracy of nutrient intake assessment by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). For GS-PS quantification, a gram amount was assigned to each PS category for each food item for men and women separately using data from three 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs) in a calibration study of the Multiethnic Cohort (men = 1141, women = 1150). Nutrient intakes were calculated from the QFFQ using the original-PS and the GS-PS, and were compared with 24HDRs. When intakes of energy and 15 nutrients were compared, absolute intakes calculated using the GS-PS were closer to intake levels of 24HDRs in both men and women. Using GS-PS did not affect intakes expressed as nutrient density or correlations between 24HDRs and the QFFQ. The current findings indicate that considering gender in PS determination can increase the accuracy of intake assessment by QFFQ for absolute nutrient intakes, but not for nutrient densities.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Valor Nutritivo , Tamanho da Porção , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Neurology ; 92(18): e2089-e2100, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify prediagnostic plasma metabolomic biomarkers associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We conducted a global metabolomic study using a nested case-control study design within 5 prospective cohorts and identified 275 individuals who developed ALS during follow-up. We profiled plasma metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and identified 404 known metabolites. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the associations between metabolites and ALS risk. Further, we used machine learning analyses to determine whether the prediagnostic metabolomic profile could discriminate ALS cases from controls. RESULTS: A total of 31 out of 404 identified metabolites were associated with ALS risk (p < 0.05). We observed inverse associations (n = 27) with plasma levels of diacylglycerides and triacylglycerides, urate, purine nucleosides, and some organic acids and derivatives, while we found positive associations for a cholesteryl ester, 2 phosphatidylcholines, and a sphingomyelin. The number of significant associations increased to 67 (63 inverse) in analyses restricted to cases with blood samples collected within 5 years of onset. None of these associations remained significant after multiple comparison adjustment. Further, we were not able to reliably distinguish individuals who became cases from controls based on their metabolomic profile using partial least squares discriminant analysis, elastic net regression, random forest, support vector machine, or weighted correlation network analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Although the metabolomic profile in blood samples collected years before ALS diagnosis did not reliably separate presymptomatic ALS cases from controls, our results suggest that ALS is preceded by a broad, but poorly defined, metabolic dysregulation years before the disease onset.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Metaboloma , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
14.
Cancer Res ; 79(1): 274-285, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425058

RESUMO

Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between prediagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. ORs for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest vs. lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.31; P trend < 0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness (P heterogeneity = 0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of nonaggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase = 1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)2D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of nonaggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias. SIGNIFICANCE: This international collaboration comprises the largest prospective study on blood vitamin D and prostate cancer risk and shows no association with aggressive disease but some evidence of a higher risk of nonaggressive disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(9): 1011-1018, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115679

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of colorectal cancer in the United States declined substantially over the past 20 years, but evidence suggests that among younger adults (under 50 years at diagnosis), incidence is increasing. However, data on age- and stage-specific incidence trends across racial/ethnic groups are limited.Methods: All incident cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed from 1990 through 2014 in adults aged 20 years and older were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. Incidence rates (per 100,000), incidence rate ratios, and triannual percent changes in incidence were estimated for each age group at diagnosis (20-49, 50-74, 75+ years), sex, stage, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and 7 Asian American groups).Results: Of 349,176 incident colorectal cancer cases diagnosed from 1990 through 2014, 9% were in adults younger than 50 years. Increases in incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer, especially in regional/distant stage disease, were observed in most racial/ethnic groups (statistically significant for non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics, ranging from 0.9% to 2.9% every 3 years). Incidence also increased in Vietnamese and other Southeast Asian groups of screening age (50-74 years). The incidence of colorectal cancer in non-Hispanic blacks aged 50+ declined over the 25-year period, but remained significantly higher than in non-Hispanic whites.Conclusions: Further research is needed to understand the causes of the increasing incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer. The rising incidence of colorectal cancer among Southeast Asians of screening age and the persistently high incidence in non-Hispanic blacks also warrant attention.Impact: Our findings may have implications for revisiting screening guidelines in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(9); 1011-8. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192223, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425227

RESUMO

Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Variation in aspirin's chemoprevention efficacy has been attributed to the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a meta-analysis using two large population-based case-control datasets, the UK-Leeds Colorectal Cancer Study Group and the NIH-Colon Cancer Family Registry, having a combined total of 3325 cases and 2262 controls. The aim was to assess 42 candidate SNPs in 15 genes whose association with colorectal cancer risk was putatively modified by aspirin use, in the literature. Log odds ratios (ORs) and standard errors were estimated for each dataset separately using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex and study site, and dataset-specific results were combined using random effects meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed association between SNPs rs6983267, rs11694911 and rs2302615 with CRC risk reduction (All P<0.05). Association for SNP rs6983267 in the CCAT2 gene only was noteworthy after multiple test correction (P = 0.001). Site-specific analysis showed association between SNPs rs1799853 and rs2302615 with reduced colon cancer risk only (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively), however neither reached significance threshold following multiple test correction. Meta-analysis of SNPs rs2070959 and rs1105879 in UGT1A6 gene showed interaction between aspirin use and CRC risk (Pinteraction = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively); stratification by aspirin use showed an association for decreased CRC risk for aspirin users having a wild-type genotype (rs2070959 OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.68-0.86; rs1105879 OR = 0.77 95% CI = 0.69-0.86) compared to variant allele cariers. The direction of the interaction however is in contrast to that published in studies on colorectal adenomas. Both SNPs showed potential site-specific interaction with aspirin use and colon cancer risk only (Pinteraction = 0.006 and 0.008, respectively), with the direction of association similar to that observed for CRC. Additionally, they showed interaction between any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (including aspirin) use and CRC risk (Pinteraction = 0.01 for both). All gene x environment (GxE) interactions however were not significant after multiple test correction. Candidate gene investigation indicated no evidence of GxE interaction between genetic variants in genes involved in aspirin pathways, regular aspirin use and colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Aspirina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0185660, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957450

RESUMO

Obesity and cigarette smoking are correlated through complex relationships. Common genetic causes may contribute to these correlations. In this study, we selected 241 loci potentially associated with body mass index (BMI) based on the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium data and calculated a BMI genetic risk score (BMI-GRS) for 17,037 individuals of European descent from the Oncoarray Project of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). Smokers had a significantly higher BMI-GRS than never-smokers (p = 0.016 and 0.010 before and after adjustment for BMI, respectively). The BMI-GRS was also positively correlated with pack-years of smoking (p<0.001) in smokers. Based on causal network inference analyses, seven and five of 241 SNPs were classified to pleiotropic models for BMI/smoking status and BMI/pack-years, respectively. Among them, three and four SNPs associated with smoking status and pack-years (p<0.05), respectively, were followed up in the ever-smoking data of the Tobacco, Alcohol and Genetics (TAG) consortium. Among these seven candidate SNPs, one SNP (rs11030104, BDNF) achieved statistical significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, and three suggestive SNPs (rs13021737, TMEM18; rs11583200, ELAVL4; and rs6990042, SGCZ) achieved a nominal statistical significance. Our results suggest that there is a common genetic component between BMI and smoking, and pleiotropy analysis can be useful to identify novel genetic loci of complex phenotypes.


Assuntos
Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
19.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 10(9): 535-541, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729251

RESUMO

We previously developed and validated a risk prediction model for colorectal cancer in Japanese men using modifiable risk factors. To further improve risk prediction, we evaluated the degree of improvement obtained by adding a genetic risk score (GRS) using genome-wide association study (GWAS)-identified risk variants to our validated model. We examined the association between 36 risk variants identified by GWAS and colorectal cancer risk using a weighted Cox proportional hazards model in a nested case-control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. GRS was constructed using six variants associated with risk in this study of the 36 tested. We assessed three models: a nongenetic model that included the same variables used in our previously validated model; a genetic model that used GRS; and an inclusive model, which included both. The c-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were calculated by the 5-fold cross-validation method. We estimated 10-year absolute risks for developing colorectal cancer. A statistically significant association was observed between the weighted GRS and colorectal cancer risk. The mean c-statistic for the inclusive model (0.66) was slightly greater than that for the nongenetic model (0.60). Similarly, the mean IDI and NRI showed improvement when comparing the nongenetic and inclusive models. These models for colorectal cancer were well calibrated. The addition of GRS using GWAS-identified risk variants to our validated model for Japanese men improved the prediction of colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 535-41. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(7): 1016-1026, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377418

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 100 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk, the majority of which were discovered in women of European ancestry. Because of different patterns of linkage disequilibrium, many of these genetic markers may not represent signals in populations of African ancestry.Methods: We tested 74 breast cancer risk variants and conducted fine-mapping of these susceptibility regions in 6,522 breast cancer cases and 7,643 controls of African ancestry from three genetic consortia (AABC, AMBER, and ROOT).Results: Fifty-four of the 74 variants (73%) were found to have ORs that were directionally consistent with those previously reported, of which 12 were nominally statistically significant (P < 0.05). Through fine-mapping, in six regions (3p24, 12p11, 14q13, 16q12/FTO, 16q23, 19p13), we observed seven markers that better represent the underlying risk variant for overall breast cancer or breast cancer subtypes, whereas in another two regions (11q13, 16q12/TOX3), we identified suggestive evidence of signals that are independent of the reported index variant. Overlapping chromatin features and regulatory elements suggest that many of the risk alleles lie in regions with biological functionality.Conclusions: Through fine-mapping of known susceptibility regions, we have revealed alleles that better characterize breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry.Impact: The risk alleles identified represent genetic markers for modeling and stratifying breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1016-26. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
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