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1.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 8, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) are estimated to affect up to 15% of hospital inpatients in low-income countries (LICs). A critical but often neglected aspect of HAI prevention is basic environmental hygiene, particularly surface cleaning and linen management. TEACH CLEAN is an educational intervention aimed at improving environmental hygiene. We evaluated the effectiveness of this intervention in a pilot study in three high-volume maternity and newborn units in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: This study design prospectively evaluated the intervention as a whole, and offered a before-and-after comparison of the impact of the main training. We measured changes in microbiological cleanliness [Aerobic Colony Counts (ACC) and presence of Staphylococcus aureus] using dipslides, and physical cleaning action using gel dots. These were analysed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. We used qualitative (focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and semi-structured observation) and quantitative (observation checklist) tools to measure why and how the intervention worked. We describe these findings across the themes of adaptation, fidelity, dose, reach and context. RESULTS: Microbiological cleanliness improved during the study period (ACC pre-training: 19%; post-training: 41%). The odds of cleanliness increased on average by 1.33 weekly during the pre-training period (CI = 1.11-1.60), and by 1.08 (CI = 1.03-1.13) during the post-training period. Cleaning action improved only in the pre-training period. Detection of S. aureus on hospital surfaces did not change substantially. The intervention was well received and considered feasible in this context. The major pitfalls in the implementation were the limited number of training sessions at the hospital level and the lack of supportive supervision. A systems barrier to implementation was lack of regular cleaning supplies. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation suggests that improvements in microbiological cleanliness are possible using this intervention and can be sustained. Improved microbiological cleanliness is a key step on the pathway to infection prevention in hospitals. Future research should assess whether this bundle is cost-effective in reducing bacterial and viral transmission and infection using a rigorous study design.

2.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e038174, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary objective: to assess nine data quality metrics for 14 maternal and newborn health data elements, following implementation of an integrated, district-focused data quality intervention. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE: to consider whether assessing the data quality metrics beyond completeness and accuracy of facility reporting offered new insight into reviewing routine data quality. DESIGN: Before-and-after study design. SETTING: Primary health facilities in Gombe State, Northeastern Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Monitoring and evaluation officers and maternal, newborn and child health coordinators for state-level and all 11 local government areas (district-equivalent) overseeing 492 primary care facilities offering maternal and newborn care services. INTERVENTION: Between April 2017 and December 2018, we implemented an integrated data quality intervention which included: introduction of job aids and regular self-assessment of data quality, peer-review and feedback, learning workshops, work planning for improvement, and ongoing support through social media. OUTCOME MEASURES: 9 metrics for the data quality dimensions of completeness and timeliness, internal consistency of reported data, and external consistency. RESULTS: The data quality intervention was associated with improvements in seven of nine data quality metrics assessed including availability and timeliness of reporting, completeness of data elements, accuracy of facility reporting, consistency between related data elements, and frequency of outliers reported. Improvement differed by data element type, with content of care and commodity-related data improving more than contact-related data. Increases in the consistency between related data elements demonstrated improved internal consistency within and across facility documentation. CONCLUSIONS: An integrated district-focused data quality intervention-including regular self-assessment of data quality, peer-review and feedback, learning workshops, work planning for improvement, and ongoing support through social media-can increase the completeness, accuracy and internal consistency of facility-based routine data.

3.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(Supplement_2): ii9-ii21, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156943

RESUMO

Quality improvement (QI) is a problem-solving approach in which stakeholders identify context-specific problems and create and implement strategies to address these. It is an approach that is increasingly used to support health system strengthening, which is widely promoted in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, few QI initiatives are sustained and implementation is poorly understood. Here, we propose realist evaluation to fill this gap, sharing an example from southern Tanzania. We use realist evaluation to generate insights around the mechanisms driving QI implementation. These insights can be harnessed to maximize capacity strengthening in QI and to support its operationalization, thus contributing to health systems strengthening. Realist evaluation begins by establishing an initial programme theory, which is presented here. We generated this through an elicitation approach, in which multiple sources (theoretical literature, a document review and previous project reports) were collated and analysed retroductively to generate hypotheses about how the QI intervention is expected to produce specific outcomes linked to implementation. These were organized by health systems building blocks to show how each block may be strengthened through QI processes. Our initial programme theory draws from empowerment theory and emphasizes the self-reinforcing nature of QI: the more it is implemented, the more improvements result, further empowering people to use it. We identified that opportunities that support skill- and confidence-strengthening are essential to optimizing QI, and thus, to maximizing health systems strengthening through QI. Realist evaluation can be used to generate rich implementation data for QI, showcasing how it can be supported in 'real-world' conditions for health systems strengthening.

4.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e037625, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the provision of evidence-based preventive and promotive interventions to women, and subsequently their newborns, during childbirth in a high-mortality setting. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional observations of care provided to women, and their newborns during the intrapartum and immediate postpartum period using a standardised checklist capturing healthcare worker behaviours regarding lifesaving and respectful care. SETTING: Ten primary healthcare facilities in Gombe state, northeast Nigeria. The northeast region of Nigeria has some of the highest maternal and newborn death rates globally. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data on 50 measures of internationally recommended evidence-based interventions and good practice. RESULTS: 1875 women were admitted to a health facility during the observation period; of these, 1804 gave birth in the facility and did not experience an adverse event or death. Many clinical interventions around the time of birth were routinely implemented, including provision of uterotonic (96% (95% CI 93% to 98%)), whereas risk-assessment measures, such as history-taking or checking vital signs were rarely completed: just 2% (95% CI 2% to 7%) of women had their temperature taken and 12% (95% CI 9% to 16%) were asked about complications during the pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of women did not receive the recommended routine processes of childbirth care they and their newborns needed to benefit from their choice to deliver in a health facility. In particular, few benefited from even basic risk assessments, leading to missed opportunities to identify risks. To continue with the recommendation of childbirth care in primary healthcare facilities in high mortality settings like Gombe, it is crucial that birth attendant capacity, capability and prioritisation processes are addressed.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 497, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delivery in a facility with a skilled health provider is considered the most important intervention to reduce maternal and early newborn deaths. Providing care close to people's homes is an important strategy to facilitate equitable access, but many women are known to bypass the closest delivery facility for a higher level one. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent mothers in rural Uganda bypassed their nearest facility for childbirth care and the determinants for their choice. METHODS: The study used data collected as part of the Expanded Quality Management Using Information power (EQUIP) study in the Mayuge District of Eastern Uganda between 2011 and 2014. In this study, bypassing was defined as delivering in a health facility that was not the nearest childbirth facility to the mother's home. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the relationship between bypassing the nearest health facility for childbirth and the different independent factors. RESULTS: Of all women delivering in a health facility, 45% (499/1115) did not deliver in the nearest facility regardless of the level of care. Further, after excluding women who delivered in health centre II (which is not formally equipped to provide childbirth care) and excluding those who were referred or had a caesarean section (because their reasons for bypassing may be different), 29% (204/717) of women bypassed their nearest facility to give birth in another facility, 50% going to the only hospital of the district. The odds of bypassing increased if a mother belonged to highest wealth quintile compared to the lowest quintile (AOR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.12-4.46) and decreased with increase of readiness of score of the nearest facility for childbirth (AOR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.69-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: The extent of bypassing the nearest childbirth facility in this rural Ugandan setting was 29%, and was associated primarily with the readiness of the nearest facility to provide care as well as the wealth of the household. These results suggest inequalities in bypassing for better quality care that have important implications for improving Uganda's maternal and newborn health outcomes.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 289, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Good quality maternal and newborn care at primary health facilities is essential, but in settings with high maternal and newborn mortality the evidence for the protective effect of facility delivery is inconsistent. We surveyed samples of health facilities in three settings with high maternal mortality to assess their readiness to provide routine maternal and newborn care, and proportions of women using facilities that were ready to offer good quality care. Surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2015 to assess changes over time. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in Ethiopia, the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and Gombe State in North-Eastern Nigeria. At each facility the staffing, infrastructure and commodities were quantified. These formed components of four "signal functions" that described aspects of routine maternal and newborn care. A facility was considered ready to perform a signal function if all the required components were present. Readiness to perform all four signal functions classed a facility as ready to provide good quality routine care. From facility registers we counted deliveries and calculated the proportions of women delivering in facilities ready to offer good quality routine care. RESULTS: In Ethiopia the proportion of deliveries in facilities classed as ready to offer good quality routine care rose from 40% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26-57) in 2012 to 43% (95% CI 31-56) in 2015. In Uttar Pradesh these estimates were 4% (95% CI 1-24) in 2012 and 39% (95% CI 25-55) in 2015, while in Nigeria they were 25% (95% CI 6-66) in 2012 and zero in 2015. Improved facility readiness in Ethiopia and Uttar Pradesh arose from increased supplies of commodities, while in Nigeria facility readiness fell due to depleted commodity supplies and fewer Skilled Birth Attendants. CONCLUSIONS: This study quantified the readiness of health facilities to offer good quality routine maternal and newborn care, and may help explain inconsistent outcomes of facility care in some settings. Signal function methodology can provide a rapid and inexpensive measure of such facility readiness. Incorporating data on facility deliveries and repeating the analyses highlighted adjustments that could have greatest impact upon routine maternal and newborn care.

8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(3): e002135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201626

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a limited understanding of the importance of respectful maternity care on utilisation of maternal and newborn health services. This study aimed to determine how specific hypothetical facility birth experience of care attributes influenced rural Nigerian women's stated preferences for hypothetical place of delivery. Methods: Attributes were identified through a comprehensive review of the literature. These attributes and their respective levels were further investigated in a qualitative study. We then developed and implemented a cross-sectional discrete choice experiment with a random sample of 426 women who had facility-based childbirth to elicit their stated preferences for facility birth experience of care attributes. Women were asked to choose between two hypothetical health facilities or home birth for future delivery. Choice data were analysed using multinomial logit and mixed multinomial logit models. Results: Complete data for the discrete choice experiment were available for 425 of 426 women. The majority belonged to Fulani ethnic group (60%) and were married (95%). Almost half (45%) had no formal education. Parameter estimates were all of expected signs suggesting internal validity. The most important influence on choice of place of delivery was good health system condition, followed by absence of sexual abuse, then absence of physical and verbal abuse. Poor facility culture, including an unclean birth environment with no privacy and unclear user fee, was associated with the most disutility and had the most negative impact on preferences for facility-based childbirth. Conclusion: The likelihood of poor facility birth experiences had a significant impact on stated preferences for place of delivery among rural women in northeast Nigeria. The study findings further underline the important relationship between facility birth experience and utilisation. Achieving universal health coverage would require efforts toward addressing poor facility birth experiences and promoting respectful maternity care, to ensure women want to access the services available.

9.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 174, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving quality of care including the clinical aspects and the experience of care has been advocated for improved coverage and better childbirth outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the quality of care relating to the prevalence and manifestations of mistreatment during institutional birth in Gombe State, northeast Nigeria, an area of low institutional delivery coverage. METHODS: The frequency of dimensions of mistreatment experienced by women delivering in 10 health facilities of Gombe State were quantitatively captured during exit interviews with 342 women in July-August 2017. Manifestations of mistreatment were qualitatively explored through in-depth interviews and focus groups with 63 women living in communities with high and low coverage of institutional deliveries. RESULTS: The quantitative data showed that at least one dimension of mistreatment was reported by 66% (95% confidence interval (CI) 45-82%) of women exiting a health facility after delivery. Mistreatment related to health system conditions and constraints were reported in 50% (95% CI 31-70%) of deliveries. In the qualitative data women expressed frustration at being urged to deliver at the health facility only to be physically or verbally mistreated, blamed for poor birth outcomes, discriminated against because of their background, left to deliver without assistance or with inadequate support, travelling long distances to the facility only to find staff unavailable, or being charged unjustified amount of money for delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Mistreatment during institutional delivery in Gombe State is highly prevalent and predominantly relates to mistreatment arising from both health system constraints as well as health worker behaviours, limiting efforts to increase coverage of institutional delivery. To address mistreatment during institutional births, strategies that emphasise a broader health systems approach, tackle multiple causes, integrate a detailed understanding of the local context and have buy-in from grassroots-level stakeholders are recommended.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Gravidez , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
10.
CMAJ ; 191(43): E1179-E1188, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite progress toward meeting the Sustainable Development Goals, a large burden of maternal and neonatal mortality persists for the most vulnerable people in rural areas. We assessed coverage, coverage change and inequity for 8 maternal and newborn health care indicators in parts of rural Nigeria, Ethiopia and India. METHODS: We examined coverage changes and inequity in 2012 and 2015 in 3 high-burden populations where multiple actors were attempting to improve outcomes. We conducted cluster-based household surveys using a structured questionnaire to collect 8 priority indicators, disaggregated by relative household socioeconomic status. Where there was evidence of a change in coverage between 2012 and 2015, we used binomial regression models to assess whether the change reduced inequity. RESULTS: In 2015, we interviewed women with a birth in the previous 12 months in Gombe, Nigeria (n = 1100 women), Ethiopia (n = 404) and Uttar Pradesh, India (n = 584). Among the 8 indicators, 2 positive coverage changes were observed in each of Gombe and Uttar Pradesh, and 5 in Ethiopia. Coverage improvements occurred equally for all socioeconomic groups, with little improvement in inequity. For example, in Ethiopia, coverage of facility delivery almost tripled, increasing from 15% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9%-25%) to 43% (95% CI 33%-54%). This change was similar across socioeconomic groups (p = 0.2). By 2015, the poorest women had about the same facility delivery coverage as the least poor women had had in 2012 (32% and 36%, respectively), but coverage for the least poor had increased to 60%. INTERPRETATION: Although coverage increased equitably because of various community-based interventions, underlying inequities persisted. Action is needed to address the needs of the most vulnerable women, particularly those living in the most rural areas.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria , Gravidez , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(4): e001405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406587

RESUMO

Government leadership is key to enhancing maternal and newborn survival. In low/middle-income countries, donor support is extensive and multiple actors add complexity. For policymakers and others interested in harmonising diverse maternal and newborn health efforts, a coherent description of project components and their intended outcomes, based on a common theory of change, can be a valuable tool. We outline an approach to developing such a tool to describe the work and the intended effect of a portfolio of nine large-scale maternal and newborn health projects in north-east Nigeria, Ethiopia and Uttar Pradesh in India. Teams from these projects developed a framework, the 'characterisation framework', based on a common theory of change. They used this framework to describe their innovations and their intended outcomes. Individual project characterisations were then collated in each geography, to identify what innovations were implemented where, when and at what scale, as well as the expected health benefit of the joint efforts of all projects. Our study had some limitations. It would have been enhanced by a more detailed description and analysis of context and, by framing our work in terms of discrete innovations, we may have missed some synergistic aspects of the combination of those innovations. Our approach can be valuable for building a programme according to a commonly agreed theory of change, as well as for researchers examining the effectiveness of the combined work of a range of actors. The exercise enables policymakers and funders, both within and between countries, to enhance coordination of efforts and to inform decision-making about what to fund, when and where.

12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(Suppl 4): e001297, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297252

RESUMO

Current methods for measuring intervention coverage for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health and nutrition (RMNCH+N) do not adequately capture the quality of services delivered. Without information on the quality of care, it is difficult to assess whether services provided will result in expected health improvements. We propose a six-step coverage framework, starting from a target population to (1) service contact, (2) likelihood of services, (3) crude coverage, (4) quality-adjusted coverage, (5) user-adherence-adjusted coverage and (6) outcome-adjusted coverage. We support our framework with a comprehensive review of published literature on effective coverage for RMNCH+N interventions since 2000. We screened 8103 articles and selected 36 from which we summarised current methods for measuring effective coverage and computed the gaps between 'crude' coverage measures and quality-adjusted measures. Our review showed considerable variability in data sources, indicator definitions and analytical approaches for effective coverage measurement. Large gaps between crude coverage and quality-adjusted coverage levels were evident, ranging from an average of 10 to 38 percentage points across the RMNCH+N interventions assessed. We define effective coverage as the proportion of individuals experiencing health gains from a service among those who need the service, and distinguish this from other indicators along a coverage cascade that make quality adjustments. We propose a systematic approach for analysis along six steps in the cascade. Research to date shows substantial drops in effective delivery of care across these steps, but variation in methods limits comparability of the results. Advancement in coverage measurement will require standardisation of effective coverage terminology and improvements in data collection and methodological approaches.

14.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020411, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360449

RESUMO

Background: Improving the quality of facility-based births is a critical strategy for reducing the high burden of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity across all settings. Accurate data on childbirth care is essential for monitoring progress. In northeastern Nigeria, we assessed the validity of childbirth care indicators in a rural primary health care context, as documented by health workers and reported by women at different recall periods. Methods: We compared birth observations (gold standard) to: (i) facility exit interviews with observed women; (ii) household follow-up interviews 9-22 months after childbirth; and (iii) health worker documentation in the maternity register. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) to determine individual-level reporting accuracy. We calculated the inflation factor (IF) to determine population-level validity. Results: Twenty-five childbirth care indicators were assessed to validate health worker documentation and women's self-reports. During exit interviews, women's recall had high validity (AUC≥0.70 and 0.75

Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/normas , Documentação/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682130

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Routine health information systems are critical for monitoring service delivery. District Heath Information System, version 2 (DHIS2) is an open source software platform used in more than 60 countries, on which global initiatives increasingly rely for such monitoring. We used facility-reported data in DHIS2 for Gombe State, north-eastern Nigeria, to present a case study of data quality to monitor priority maternal and neonatal health indicators. METHODS: For all health facilities in DHIS2 offering antenatal and postnatal care services (n = 497) and labor and delivery services (n = 486), we assessed the quality of data for July 2016-June 2017 according to the World Health Organization data quality review guidance. Using data from DHIS2 as well as external facility-level and population-level household surveys, we reviewed three data quality dimensions-completeness and timeliness, internal consistency, and external consistency-and considered the opportunities for improvement. RESULTS: Of 14 priority maternal and neonatal health indicators that could be tracked through facility-based data, 12 were included in Gombe's DHIS2. During July 2016-June 2017, facility-reported data in DHIS2 were incomplete at least 40% of the time, under-reported 10%-60% of the events documented in facility registers, and showed inconsistencies over time, between related indicators, and with an external data source. The best quality data elements were those that aligned with Gombe's health program priorities, particularly older health programs, and those that reflected contact indicators rather than indicators related to the provision of commodities or content of care. CONCLUSION: This case study from Gombe State, Nigeria, demonstrates the high potential for effective monitoring of maternal and neonatal health using DHIS2. However, coordinated action at multiple levels of the health system is needed to maximize reporting of existing data; rationalize data flow; routinize data quality review, feedback, and supervision; and ensure ongoing maintenance of DHIS2.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/normas , Saúde do Lactente/normas , Saúde Materna/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Gravidez , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209092, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality Improvement (QI) approaches are increasingly used to bridge the quality gap in maternal and newborn care (MNC) in Sub Saharan Africa. Health workers typically serve as both recipients and implementers of QI activities; their understanding, motivation, and level of involvement largely determining the potential effect. In support of efforts to harmonise and integrate the various QI approaches implemented in parallel in Tanzanian health facilities, our objective was to investigate how different components of a collaborative QI intervention were understood and experienced by health workers, and therefore contributed positively to its mechanisms of effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative process evaluation of a collaborative QI intervention for MNC in rural Tanzania was carried out. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 health workers in 13 purposively sampled health facilities. A deductive theory-driven qualitative content analysis was employed using the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health services (i-PARIHS) framework as a lens with its four constructs innovation, recipients, facilitation, and context as guiding themes. RESULTS: Health workers valued the high degree of fit between QI topics and their everyday practice and appreciated the intervention's comprehensive approach. The use of run-charts to monitor progress was well understood and experienced as motivating. The importance and positive experience of on-site mentoring and coaching visits to individual health facilities was expressed by the majority of health workers. Many described the parallel implementation of various health programs as a challenge. CONCLUSION: Components of QI approaches that are well understood and experienced as supportive by health workers in everyday practice may enhance mechanisms of effect and result in more significant change. A focus on such components may also guide harmonisation, to avoid duplication and the implementation of parallel programs, and country ownership of QI approaches in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Melhoria de Qualidade , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento Cooperativo , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Tutoria , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , População Rural , Tanzânia
17.
J Glob Health ; 8(2): 020420, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410739

RESUMO

Background: Basic newborn resuscitation for babies not breathing at birth is a highly effective intervention and its scale-up identified as a top research priority. However, tracking progress on the scale-up and coverage of this intervention is compromised by limitations in measuring both the number of newborns receiving the intervention and the number of newborns requiring the intervention. Using data from a facility and birth attendant survey in Gombe State, Nigeria, we aimed to advance the measurement agenda by developing a proxy indicator defined as the "percent of newborns born in a facility with the potential to provide newborn resuscitation". Methods: The indicator's denominator was defined as: the total number of births in facilities during a defined time period (facility records). The numerator was constructed from the number of those births that occurred in appropriately equipped facilities (facility inventory), where a birth attendant demonstrated basic resuscitation competence (assessed by a simulation exercise). The proportion of facility-births that took place in a setting with the potential to provide newborn resuscitation was then calculated. Results: The analysis included 17 383 births that occurred during May-October 2015 in 117 primary and referral facilities surveyed in November 2015. Overall 81% of the facilities did not have all items of essential equipment required for resuscitation; the items of equipment least frequently present included a timing device and resuscitation bag with two sizes of neonatal face mask. Only 3% of 117 birth attendants interviewed demonstrated competence to undertake resuscitation, all of whom were classified as skilled attendants and worked in referral facilities. We found that 20% of the 17 383 births took place in a facility with the potential to provide lifesaving resuscitation care. Conclusions: The indicator definition of neonatal resuscitation presented here responds to the need to advance the measurement agenda for newborn care and importantly adjusts for the volume of births occurring in different facilities. Its application in this setting revealed substantial missed opportunities to providing lifesaving care and highlights the need for a greater focus on input as well as process quality in all levels of health facilities.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/terapia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico , Equipamentos e Provisões/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria , Gravidez
18.
PLoS Med ; 15(10): e1002682, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376581

RESUMO

Hannah Leslie and colleagues of the High-Quality Health Commission discuss in an Editorial the findings from their report that detail the improvements needed to prevent declines in individuals' health as the scope and quality of health systems increase. Patient-centered care at the population level, improved utility of research products, and innovative reporting tools to help guide the development of new methods are key to improved global healthcare.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Análise de Sistemas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Terminologia como Assunto
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(11): e1186-e1195, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging data show that many low-income and middle-income country (LMIC) health systems struggle to consistently provide good-quality care. Although monitoring of inequalities in access to health services has been the focus of major international efforts, inequalities in health-care quality have not been systematically examined. METHODS: Using the most recent (2007-16) Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 91 LMICs, we described antenatal care quality based on receipt of three essential services (blood pressure monitoring and urine and blood testing) among women who had at least one visit with a skilled antenatal-care provider. We compared quality across country income groups and quantified within-country wealth-related inequalities using the slope and relative indices of inequality. We summarised inequalities using random-effects meta-analyses and assessed the extent to which other geographical and sociodemographic factors could explain these inequalities. FINDINGS: Globally, 72·9% (95% CI 69·1-76·8) of women who used antenatal care reported blood pressure monitoring and urine and blood testing; this number ranged from 6·3% in Burundi to 100·0% in Belarus. Antenatal care quality lagged behind antenatal care coverage the most in low-income countries, where 86·6% (83·4-89·7) of women accessed care but only 53·8% (44·3-63·3) reported receiving the three services. Receipt of the three services was correlated with gross domestic product per capita and was 40 percentage points higher in upper-middle-income countries compared with low-income countries. Within countries, the wealthiest women were on average four times more likely to report good quality care than the poorest (relative index of inequality 4·01, 95% CI 3·90-4·13). Substantial inequality remained after adjustment for subnational region, urban residence, maternal age, education, and number of antenatal care visits (3·20, 3·11-3·30). INTERPRETATION: Many LMICs that have reached high levels of antenatal care coverage had much lower and inequitable levels of quality. Achieving ambitious maternal, newborn, and child health goals will require greater focus on the quality of health services and their equitable distribution. Equity in effective coverage should be used as the new metric to monitor progress towards universal health coverage. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Características da Família , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Glob Health ; 8(2): 020804, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202519

RESUMO

Background: Population-based intervention coverage indicators are widely used to track country and program progress in improving health and to evaluate health programs. Indicator validation studies that compare survey responses to a "gold standard" measure are useful to understand whether the indicator provides accurate information. The Improving Coverage Measurement (ICM) Core Group has developed and implemented a standard approach to validating coverage indicators measured in household surveys, described in this paper. Methods: The general design of these studies includes measurement of true health status and intervention receipt (gold standard), followed by interviews with the individuals observed, and a comparison of the observations (gold standard) to the responses to survey questions. The gold standard should use a data source external to the respondent to document need for and receipt of an intervention. Most frequently, this is accomplished through direct observation of clinical care, and/or use of a study-trained clinician to obtain a gold standard diagnosis. Follow-up interviews with respondents should employ standard survey questions, where they exist, as well as alternative or additional questions that can be compared against the standard household survey questions. Results: Indicator validation studies should report on participation at every stage, and provide data on reasons for non-participation. Metrics of individual validity (sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and population-level validity (inflation factor) should be reported, as well as the percent of survey responses that are "don't know" or missing. Associations between interviewer and participant characteristics and measures of validity should be assessed and reported. Conclusions: These methods allow respondent-reported coverage measures to be validated against more objective measures of need for and receipt of an intervention, and should be considered together with cognitive interviewing, discriminative validity, or reliability testing to inform decisions about which indicators to include in household surveys. Public health researchers should assess the evidence for validity of existing and proposed household survey coverage indicators and consider validation studies to fill evidence gaps.


Assuntos
Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
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