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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 647, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620901

RESUMO

It is very important for managers to plan a road network that meets all the requirements for tourism development and management. The aim of this study was to evaluate and modify an existing road network for tourism purposes in the Arasbaran protected area. First, the map layers of effective criteria were prepared in GIS and were standardized by a fuzzy logic approach and finally combined considering their relative importance weights obtained through pair-wise comparison technique. A suitability map was then acquired. After that, 14 different scenarios of road network were designed to access the recreational area using PEGGER extension in ArcView. Then, they were evaluated in terms of technical, environmental, and socio-economic criteria to achieve the optimal-designed road network. Moreover, the existing road network was modified according to the optimal-designed road scenario. Finally, a modified version of the existing road network was proposed for tourism development and management in the Arasbaran region. Regarding the results, the slope criterion with a value of 0.289 was identified as the most important factor in providing a suitability map for road planning. The seventh scenario, with a road density of 3.34 m ha-1 and accessibility (hard) of 64.68%, was chosen as the optimal option to modify the existing road network due to the best performances in terms of minimum costs and environmental impacts on the basis of the highest value per unit length (72.26). According to the assessments and chi-square test comparison, the optimal-designed road network and the proposed road network were identified as better alternatives compared to the existing road. Based on this work, it can be concluded that the combination of GIS-MCDM approaches can properly assist in tourism planning and management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Transportes , Viagem , Florestas , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 634: 1385-1397, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710638

RESUMO

The effective implementation of sustainable forest management depends largely on carrying out forest operations in a sustainable manner. Climate change, as well as the increasing demand for forest products, requires a re-thinking of forest operations in terms of sustainability. In this context, it is important to understand the major driving factors for the future development of forest operations that promote economic, environmental and social well-being. The main objective of this paper is to identify important issues concerning forest operations and to propose a new paradigm towards sustainability in a changing climate, work and environmental conditions. Previously developed concepts of forest operations are reviewed, and a newly developed concept - Sustainable Forest Operations (SFO), is presented. Five key performance areas to ensure the sustainability of forest operations include: (i) environment; (ii) ergonomics; (iii) economics; (iv) quality optimization of products and production; and (v) people and society. Practical field examples are presented to demonstrate how these five interconnected principles are relevant to achieving sustainability, namely profit and wood quality maximization, ecological benefits, climate change mitigation, carbon sequestration, and forest workers' health and safety. The new concept of SFO provides integrated perspectives and approaches to effectively address ongoing and foreseeable challenges the global forest communities face, while balancing forest operations performance across economic, environmental and social sustainability. In this new concept, we emphasize the role of wood as a renewable and environmentally friendly material, and forest workers' safety and utilization efficiency and waste management as additional key elements of sustainability.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 562: 493-503, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27107648

RESUMO

Wood is a renewable resource and it actively contributes to enhance energy production under a sustainable perspective. However, harvesting, transport and use of wood imply several consequences and impacts on environment. There are different ways for managing forests dedicated to wood production and a sustainable approach is fundamental to preserve the resource. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for estimating the environmental impacts related to renewable resources. Traditional coppice is a common approach for forest management in several areas, including southern Europe and, specifically, Italy, Spain and the Balkans. Due to different terrain conditions, different types of forest operations are considered for wood extraction from coppices, where the main product is firewood used in domestic heating. The aim of this work was to compare the main common systems for firewood production in two different terrain conditions ('flat/low steep' and 'steep/very steep' terrains), in a representative environment for Mediterranean area, located in central Italy, by means of LCA. Seven different impact categories were evaluated in a cradle-to-gate perspective taking into account all the operations carried out from the trees felling to the firewood storage at factory. Results showed that the extraction phase was the most important in terms of environmental burdens in firewood production and the use of heavy and high-power machines negatively influenced the emissions compared with manual operations. Finally, considering the general low-inputs involved in wood production in coppice, the transport of workers by car to the work site resulted on consistent contributions into environmental burdens. An additional analysis about the modifications of CH4 and N2O exchanges between soil and atmosphere, due to soil compaction in the extraction phase, was made and based on bibliographic information. Results showed a sensible difference between disturbed and undisturbed soil.

6.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0143700, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26650682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of pack-years smoking and time since smoking cessation with risk of lung and heart disease. METHODS: We investigated the history of lung and heart disease in 903 HIV-infected patients who had undergone thoracic computed tomography (CT) imaging stratified by smoking history. Multimorbidity lung and heart disease (MLHD) was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 clinical or subclinical lung abnormalities and at least one heart abnormality. RESULTS: Among 903 patients, 23.7% had never smoked, 28.7% were former smokers and 47.6% were current smokers. Spirometry indicated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 11.4% of patients and MLHD was present in 53.6%. Age, male sex, greater pack-years smoking history and smoking cessation less than 5 years earlier vs. more than 10 years earlier (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.27-5.29, p = 0.009) were independently associated with CT detected subclinical lung and heart disease. Pack-years smoking history was more strongly associated with MLHD than smoking status (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MLHD is common even among HIV-infected patients who never smoked and pack- years smoking history is a stronger predictor than current smoking status of MLHD. A detailed pack-years smoking history should be routinely obtained and smoking cessation strategies implemented.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Vet Ital ; 51(2): 99-105, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26129660

RESUMO

The use of live vaccine strain RB51 for vaccination of domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at risk of infection with Brucella abortus is permitted notwithstanding the plans for the eradication and only under strict veterinary control. The antibodies induced by RB51 vaccination are not detectable using conventional diagnostic techniques; therefore, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic tool able to discriminate vaccinated from unvaccinated animals. The combination of a complement fixation test (CFT) with specific RB51 antigen (RB51-CFT) and a brucellin skin test has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic system to identify single cattle (Bos taurus) vaccinated with RB51. So far, no data are available in the international scientific literature regarding the use of this test association in water buffalo. For this reason the suitability of this test combination has been evaluated in a water buffalo herd. One hundred twenty-seven animals farmed in a herd of Salerno province (Campania, Southern Italy), in the context of a presumptive unauthorized use of RB51 vaccine were chosen for this study. All tested animals resulted negative to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for the detection of specific antibodies against Brucella field strains. Seventy-one animals (56%) developed RB51 antigen-specific CFT (RB51-CFT) antibodies against RB51 vaccine in a first sampling, while 104 animals (82%) gave positive result to a second serum sampling conducted 11 days after the intradermal inoculation of the RB51 brucellin. One hundred and seven animals (84%) showed a positive reaction to the RB51-CFT in at least 1 sampling, while 111 animals (87%) resulted positive to the RB51 brucellin skin test. Thus, analysing the results of the 3 testing in parallel, 119 animals (94%) were positive to at least 1 of the performed tests. The results suggest that the use in parallel of the RB51 brucellin skin test with RB51-CFT may represent a reliable diagnostic system to identify water buffaloes vaccinated with RB51 vaccine.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/sangue , Aborto Animal/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Brucelose , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Búfalos , Aborto Animal/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias , Brucella abortus/classificação , Feminino , Testes Cutâneos
8.
Environ Pollut ; 180: 299-303, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23807179

RESUMO

We examined the effect of ambient ozone on visible foliar injury, growth and biomass in field-grown poplar cuttings of an Oxford clone sensitive to ozone (Populus maximoviczii Henry × berolinensis Dippel) irrigated with ethylenediurea (EDU) or water for three years. EDU is used as an ozone protectant for plants. Protective effects of EDU on ozone visible injury were found. As a result, poplar trees grown under EDU treatment increased leaves, lateral branches and root density in the third year, although no significant enhancement of stem height and diameter was found. Ambient ozone (AOT40, 24.6 ppm h; diurnal hourly average, 40.3 ppb) may finally reduce carbon gain by reducing the number of branches, and thus sites for leaf formation, in ozone-sensitive poplar trees under not-limiting conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Populus/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Irrigação Agrícola , Populus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 134(37): 15277-80, 2012 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22950355

RESUMO

A dendrimer bearing two cyclam units linked by an azobenzene moiety, and luminescent naphthalene units at the periphery performs three different functions (light-harvesting, photoisomerization and coordination of metal ions) which can cooperate or interfere depending on the nature of the metal ion. It is thus an example of light controlled molecular tweezers in which Zn(II) coordination allows 100% efficient photosensitization of azobenzene switching, while Cu(II) shuts down azobenzene isomerization.

10.
Chemistry ; 18(36): 11277-83, 2012 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22847976

RESUMO

A chloride anion templation methodology is utilized in the construction of novel transition-metal rhenium(I) and ruthenium(II) bipyridyl appended [2]rotaxanes. (1)H NMR spectroscopic titrations reveal the ability of the rotaxanes to selectively bind chloride over the more basic oxoanions, with the ruthenium(II) bipyridyl appended rotaxane strongly binding chloride in 30% water. Photophysical investigations demonstrate the ability of the rotaxanes to sense anions in aqueous media, with chloride being selectively complexed, in general agreement with NMR spectroscopy determined anion binding data.


Assuntos
2,2'-Dipiridil/química , Cloretos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Rotaxanos/química , Elementos de Transição/química , Ânions/química , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Água/química
11.
Chemistry ; 18(28): 8765-73, 2012 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22689328

RESUMO

A new class of neutral cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with enantiomerically pure C(1)-symmetric phenol-oxazolines (3a,b) have been synthetized in high yields and fully characterized. Resolution of the corresponding Δ(R) and Λ(R) or Δ(S) and Λ(S) isomers was easily achieved by conventional flash chromatography. The corresponding Δ and Λ helicities have been confirmed by CD spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Regarding the absorption and luminescence properties with unpolarized light, no significant difference between Δ and Λ isomers has been observed. A strong blue luminescence is observed for deaerated solutions of complexes 5a and 5b in CH(3)CN.

12.
Top Curr Chem ; 323: 73-105, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22076080

RESUMO

Chemistry is a central science because all the processes that sustain life are based on chemical reactions, and all things that we use in everyday life are natural or artificial chemical compounds. Chemistry is also a fantastic world populated by an unbelievable number of nanometric objects called molecules, the smallest entities that have distinct shapes, sizes, and properties. Molecules are the words of matter. Indeed, most of the other sciences have been permeated by the concepts of chemistry and the language of molecules. Like words, molecules contain specific pieces of information that are revealed when they interact with one another or when they are stimulated by photons or electrons. In the hands of chemists, molecules, particularly when they are suitably combined or assembled to create supramolecular systems, can play a variety of functions, even more complex and more clever than those invented by nature. The wonderful world of chemistry has inspired scientists not only to prepare new molecules or investigate new chemical processes, but also to create masterpieces. Some nice stories based on chemical concepts (1) show that there cannot be borders on the Earth, (2) underline that there is a tight connection among all forms of matter, and (3) emphasize the irreplaceable role of sunlight.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Fótons , Rotaxanos/química , Química , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório
13.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 10(6): 1056-65, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21409208

RESUMO

Biological oxygen measurements by phosphorescence quenching make use of exogenous phosphorescent probes, which are introduced directly into the medium of interest (e.g. blood or interstitial fluid) where they serve as molecular sensors for oxygen. The byproduct of the quenching reaction is singlet oxygen, a highly reactive species capable of damaging biological tissue. Consequently, potential probe phototoxicity is a concern for biological applications. Herein, we compared the ability of polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-coated Pd tetrabenzoporphyrin (PdTBP)-based dendritic nanoprobes of three successive generations to sensitize singlet oxygen. It was found that the size of the dendrimer has practically no effect on the singlet oxygen sensitization efficiency in spite of the strong attenuation of the triplet quenching rate with an increase in the dendrimer generation. This unexpected result is due to the fact that the lifetime of the PdTBP triplet state in the absence of oxygen increases with dendritic generation, thus compensating for the concomitant decrease in the rate of quenching. Nevertheless, in spite of their ability to sensitize singlet oxygen, the phosphorescent probes were found to be non-phototoxic when compared with the commonly used photodynamic drug Photofrin in a standard cell-survival assay. The lack of phototoxicity is presumably due to the inability of PEGylated probes to associate with cell surfaces and/or penetrate cellular membranes. In contrast, conventional photosensitizers bind to cell components and act by generating singlet oxygen inside or in the immediate vicinity of cellular organelles. Therefore, PEGylated dendritic probes are safe to use for tissue oxygen measurements as long as the light doses are less than or equal to those commonly employed in photodynamic therapy.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Oxigênio/química , Porfirinas/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Éter de Diematoporfirina/toxicidade , Luz , Substâncias Luminescentes/toxicidade , Camundongos , Paládio/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Porfirinas/toxicidade , Oxigênio Singlete/química , Oxigênio Singlete/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 42(6): 2013-7, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20728656

RESUMO

The study compared the performance of four different logging crews with respect to productivity, organization and safety. To this purpose, the authors developed a data collection method capable of providing a quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior. Four crews were tested under the same working conditions, representative of close-to-nature alpine forestry. Motor-manual working methods were applied, since these methods are still prevalent in the specific study area, despite the growing popularity of mechanical processors. Crews from public companies showed a significantly lower frequency of risk-taking behavior. The best safety performance was offered by the only (public) crew that had been administered formal safety training. The study seems to deny the common prejudice that safety practice is inversely proportional to productivity. Instead, productivity is increased by introducing more efficient working methods and equipment. The quantitative analysis of risk-taking behavior developed in this study can be applied to a number of industrial fields besides forestry. Characterizing risk-taking behavior for a given case may eventually lead to the development of custom-made training programmes, which may address problem areas while avoiding that the message is weakened by the inclusion of redundant information. In the specific case of logging crews in the central Alps, the study suggests that current training courses may be weak on ergonomics, and advocates a staged training programme, focusing first on accident reduction and then expanding to the prevention of chronic illness.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Eficiência Organizacional , Agricultura Florestal/normas , Cultura Organizacional , Assunção de Riscos , Segurança/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trabalho/economia , Adulto , Doença Crônica/economia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Custos e Análise de Custo , Comportamento Perigoso , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço/economia , Itália , Masculino , Segurança/economia , Gestão da Segurança/economia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia
15.
Vet Ital ; 43(1): 97-102, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês, Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20411503

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of two different electronic pig identification methods on various closed-cycle fattening farms in Brescia, Bergamo and Modena provinces and to consider the effect of slaughter procedures on ear tag retention. On-farm tests involved the intraperitoneal injection of a transponder into 527 piglets aged 20-30 days using a 5 cm steel needle, and the use of an electronic ear tag in 114 piglets of the same age range. The percentage of reading controls of intraperitoneal transponders varied from 96.8-100%, with recovery of 70% at the slaughterhouse. Retention of electronic ear tags on arrival at the slaughterhouse was 75.43%. Activities performed during the slaughter process resulted in the loss of 4.65% of the electronic ear tags present at the beginning of the slaughter cycle. To evaluate the effect of procedures conducted in the slaughterhouse on ear tag retention, various tests were conducted in an industrial slaughterhouse in Modena province, using a total of 199 ear tags of three different brands. The percentage of ear tags recovered after the slaughter process varied from 89% to 96%.

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