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1.
J Dent Educ ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905621

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presented formidable challenges in our ability to impart in-person extra-mural clinical training, including the Geriatric and Special Needs Program, to a group of 20 fourth-year dental students. A new course delivery format was developed wherein students used a validated Rapid Oral Health Deterioration (ROHD) risk assessment tool to critically appraise clinical case information relating to a young adult with special needs. In the alternative virtual educational approach that was created, students applied an interprofessional practice concept leading to patient treatment planning outcomes. Providing adequate information, additional reading resources, a response template, clear instructions and a process-oriented assessment policy all ensured a good level of participation from students in the alternative learning format. An association was noted between students' staging of risk for ROHD and their subsequent recommendations for treatment.

2.
J Dent Educ ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965694

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The aim for this study was to identify important factors influencing patient satisfaction in a university dental clinic, through qualitative analysis. METHODS: From June 1, 2014 to January 30, 2018, 7827 patient satisfaction surveys were collected. A thematic analysis was conducted on the 10,956 patient responses to 3 open-ended questions. A thematic coding dictionary was inductively developed using thematic analysis managed with MAXQDA 2018 Standard, a qualitative data management software program. RESULTS: The thematic dictionary included 12 categories, developed from 48 working codes, and enabled the patient annotations to be grouped and sorted based on common themes to highlight significant aspects of the patient experience. Four notable themes that emerged from patient comments include: (1) satisfaction with the emotional care felt during their appointments; (2) satisfaction with skills and treatment provided and the connections made with various personnel; (3) the importance of establishing and maintaining patient expectations throughout their care; and (4) the high value patients place on clear communication with the patient, as well as the communication between departments, dental student and faculty, providers, and front desk. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight 12 key themes related to the patient experience at the College of Dentistry from the patients' perspective. These data provide insight into aspects of the dental experience that have a large effect on patient satisfaction. With this knowledge, steps can be taken to enhance the patient experience and, therefore, help dental schools move further in the direction of person-centered care.

3.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the Dental Clinical Learning Environment Instrument (DECLEI) in a Brazilian dental school. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dental Clinical Learning Environment Instrument was translated into Brazilian-Portuguese, and Brazilian DECLEI's items relevance and content validity were assessed using the content validity index (CVI). DECLEI was then distributed to 155 Brazilian undergraduate dental students attending the 7th and 8th semester of dental studies. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used as an initial exploration of the Brazilian DECLEI's internal structure. Item-total correlations for the remaining items were calculated to identify items with poor discrimination coefficients. The internal consistency reliability for the final set of 17 items was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The sensitivity of the instrument to measure differences between groups regarding year in dental school, race and sex was also assessed. RESULTS: The CVI was ≥0.80 for all 24 items of the Brazilian DECLEI indicating that all items were relevant to the local culture. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) provided evidence of a single dominant component containing 17 items (Cronbach's α = .86), and all 17 items met the benchmark of acceptable item-total correlation. Significant differences were found only when comparing 7th- and 8th-semester students. CONCLUSIONS: Dental Clinical Learning Environment Instrument has the potential to be used as a reliable instrument to measure clinical learning environments for Brazilian dental students.

4.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750734

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this paper was to validate the Romanian version of an ageism scale for dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The initial 27-item ageism scale was translated into Romanian and administered to 210 dental students in Craiova. The data were analysed using principal components analysis (PCA) with an orthogonal, Varimax rotation. The answers were then compared across several demographic variables using a combination of independent samples t tests and one-way between-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Adequate factorability was confirmed with a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) of 0.676 and a Bartlett's Test of Sphericity yielding P < 0.001. PCA revealed a 10-item scale distributed into three components that accounted for 58% of the overall variance. The first component contained 4 items related to the cost-benefit of providing care to older patients (α = 0.80). The second contained 3 items that revolved around the perceptions about older people and their value in the society (α = 0.59). The third contained 3 items related to gerodontology training (α = 0.46). Discriminant validity showed differences in the first component based on whether a student had an older family member. CONCLUSIONS: The 10-item, three components scale demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability.

5.
J Dent Educ ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700333

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to present a 5-year report about the outcomes of using a teaching tool that guides dental students through the thought process of the expert about how to assess the risk of rapid oral health deterioration (ROHD) among older adults and provide viable treatment alternatives. METHODS: A teaching tool was previously developed using ROHD risk factors identified in the literature and the steps that experts apply in their treatment decision making, summarized in 10 questions. During 5 years, 188 senior dental students were introduced to the teaching tool and asked to use the 10-question set to present a case they have treated during their Geriatric and Special Needs Program. Two evaluators were asked to grade the students on each question. Students were graded "G" if they answered the question and grasped the principles behind it, "A" if they only answered the question, or "M" if they missed the question. Additionally, the students were given a form to grade the importance of and comment on the exercise. RESULTS: More than 75% of the students had an A or G for most questions, agreement between the 2 evaluators was above 85%, and students' performances improved during the 5-year period. Additionally, 94.4% of the students considered the teaching tool as important or very important for the general dentist. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of the students had an A or G grade, examiner agreement was high, and the students appreciated the importance of this teaching tool for the general dentist.

6.
J Dent Educ ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526795

RESUMO

Global disruptions caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects all walks of life, and dentistry and dental education are no exceptions. Dental education uniquely blends didactic courses and hands-on clinical training seamlessly to prepare oral healthcare providers of the future. Apart from economical and access to care implications, closure of all the dental institutions in the United States affects their educational mission greatly, equally disturbing pre-doctoral and graduate training. Efforts are ongoing to continue the educational mission in dental institutions by delivering scheduled course content remotely using multiple online tools. In spite of those efforts, since clinical experiences cannot be completely replaced by any available alternative method of instruction that is delivered remotely, students are missing out on valuable patient-based clinical experiences. In this perspective article, we briefly discuss the several implications of COVID-19, in the context of dental education. We then highlight some of the lessons we can learn from this pandemic which we hope will have several positive implications, including curricular changes, increased public health awareness and preparedness for future public health emergencies.

7.
J Dent Educ ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500586

RESUMO

Global disruptions caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects all walks of life, and dentistry and dental education are no exceptions. Dental education uniquely blends didactic courses and hands-on clinical training seamlessly to prepare oral healthcare providers of the future. Apart from economical and access to care implications, closure of all the dental institutions in the United States affects their educational mission greatly, equally disturbing pre-doctoral and graduate training. Efforts are ongoing to continue the educational mission in dental institutions by delivering scheduled course content remotely using multiple online tools. In spite of those efforts, since clinical experiences cannot be completely replaced by any available alternative method of instruction that is delivered remotely, students are missing out on valuable patient-based clinical experiences. In this perspective article, we briefly discuss the several implications of COVID-19, in the context of dental education. We then highlight some of the lessons we can learn from this pandemic which we hope will have several positive implications, including curricular changes, increased public health awareness and preparedness for future public health emergencies.

8.
J Dent Educ ; 2020 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592225

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a promising therapy for arresting and preventing caries in difficult to treat, high-risk populations, including institutionalized older adults. This study investigates the knowledge and perceptions about SDF of graduating dental students in multiple U.S. dental schools, as well as their willingness to use SDF in their practices. METHODS: A survey was designed consisting of 21 total questions: 6 questions regarding students' demographic information and their SDF content exposure contextualization, 8 questions tailored to investigate 2 domains regarding students' knowledge about SDF (properties and indication), and 7 questions aiming to investigate 3 domains regarding students' perceptions about SDF (SDF usefulness, appropriateness of using SDF, and willingness to use SDF when in private practice). The survey was then distributed to graduating dental students at 7 U.S. dental schools. RESULTS: A total of 386 surveys (response rate of 55%) was collected from 7 schools in the Spring of 2019. The median score resulting from the SDF content exposure questions was 3 (SD = 1.43) from a range of 0-5. The median score from knowledge about SDF properties was 4 (SD = 1.18) from a range of 0 to 6. In the multivariate analysis, a linear model found that the covariates "SDF Usefulness", "SDF Appropriateness" and "SDF Patient Willingness to Use" were significantly associated with higher student willingness to use SDF (R2  = 0.395). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the graduating students have a positive perception of SDF regarding its usefulness and appropriateness. Graduating students appear inclined to utilize SDF upon entering private practice.

9.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(7): 519-526, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US population is aging. Most older adults are retaining their natural teeth for longer, and fewer are becoming edentulous. METHODS: Among people 65 years and older, there is greater heterogeneity than at any other time in the life cycle because these cohorts are influenced by historical experiences and the sociodental events during their life spans. These events and experiences have affected their health behaviors and, consequently, their systemic and oral health. This article is an update on 2 previous articles that described birth cohorts spanning from 1900 through 1945, whereas this article describes 5 specific cohorts born from 1920 through 1980. RESULTS: The authors used data from the literature to describe the historical and socioeconomic influences, as well as the key events in the history of dentistry, that have affected each of these cohorts' attitudes and expectations toward the use of health care and dental care services. CONCLUSIONS: The authors identified cohort differences regarding health behaviors, which included attitudes toward dentistry and dental care service use. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dentists should be aware of cohort differences in regard to dental care service use, in addition to modifiers that are specific to each patient, to offer the most customized and age-appropriate oral health care.


Assuntos
Boca Edêntula , Saúde Bucal , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Estudos de Coortes , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
12.
J Dent Educ ; 84(7): 733-741, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421870

RESUMO

Critical thinking is ubiquitous in patient care. One track for critical thinking develops skillsets emulating the thought process of the master clinician using probing questions and has been offered in treatment planning, literature search, and critique, risk assessment in caries and geriatrics, technology decision-making, EBD, and IPP. This paper offers 2 additional critical thinking skillsets following this emulation model in social work and ethics. Conceptualization, another form of critical thinking, is also ubiquitous in health care, yet almost no literature exists to guide learning and assess performance on conceptualization. This paper introduces for discussion 2 examples of conceptualization-"How and how much does this situation differ from the ideal?" and "How does the student/practitioner conceptualize the outcome prior to the imminent procedure?" -used continually by the practitioner in patient care situations. The result is 4 additional critical thinking skillsets at different stages of development in the armamentarium for the teacher.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Pensamento , Formação de Conceito , Humanos
13.
J Dent Educ ; 84(8): 895-901, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166746

RESUMO

PURPOSES/OBJECTIVES: Few tools assess the dental school clinical learning environment from students' perspectives. Considering previous efforts to validate the Dental Education Clinical Learning Instrument (DECLEI) in the United States, the goal of this study was to look for the fewest number of items that accounted for the most amount of variability in responses and/or had the highest correlation to the total DECLEI score using a larger, multi-center sample. METHODS: The DECLEI was distributed to 286 students in two dental schools (University of Iowa and University of Texas at Houston) during the 2017-2018 academic year. Two alternative methods were applied. In the first approach, all 24-items were regressed on the total composite score using a forward conditional method. In the second approach, the item-total correlation for the full scale was calculated and then items with relatively poor coefficients were eliminated. A cutoff of 0.30 or less was used. RESULTS: The first approach, Total R2 by Regression Model, produced a 9-item scale accounting for 90% of the variance in total score and a Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.79. The second approach, Item-Total Correlation, produced a larger scale (20 items), as well as a higher Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.89. The instrument also presented appropriate sensitivity to measure differences between race groups and school of origin. CONCLUSION: DECLEI may have the potential to be used as an instrument to measure clinical learning environments for U.S. dental students using either a smaller, concise scale (Mini DECLEI-USA) or a larger (DECLEI-USA), more thorough scale.


Assuntos
Faculdades de Odontologia , Estudantes de Odontologia , Educação em Odontologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
14.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 48(3): 240-247, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oral health plays an important role in the general well-being of older adults, yet older adults experience unique barriers to dental care. In the United States, almost two-thirds of older adults are dentally uninsured - a reflection of the exclusion of dental benefits from Medicare. The aim of this study was to investigate potential predictors of having a dentist among older adults receiving services funded through the Iowa Department on Aging (IDA). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis on a convenience sample (n = 2692) of adults age 65+ who completed a required survey to determine eligibility to receive services from the IDA. Data from questionnaires completed between March and December 2017 were used to generate multivariable logistic regression models that identified predictors of having a dentist. The dependent variable, having a dentist, was gathered by self-report in the survey. Explanatory variables eligible for inclusion in the models included demographic and geographic factors, indicators of access to dental care, and factors related to activities of daily living. RESULTS: Fewer than half (46.2%) of the respondents reported having a dentist. In the final regression model, individuals with dental insurance were more than twice as likely to have a dentist than those without insurance. Conversely, individuals with a tooth/mouth problem and who need help with housekeeping and with transportation were significantly less likely to have a dentist than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: These results align with known insurance-related barriers and identify certain activities of daily living that might influence older adults' ability to access care. The finding that individuals with oral health problems were less likely to have a dentist underscores the need to reduce barriers to care for this population.

15.
Gerodontology ; 37(1): 87-92, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Ageism is a major barrier for age-appropriate care. The aim of this study was to translate and perform a preliminary validation of an ageism scale for dental students (ASDS) in Brazil (ASDS-Braz). METHODS: The 27-item original ageism scale was translated from English into Brazilian Portuguese. A panel of five Brazilian dental educators revised the scale to establish content validity. The translated version was completed by 156 dental students in the Federal University of Pelotas in Brazil. Principal component analysis, internal consistency reliability and discriminant validity were estimated. RESULTS: All items in the Brazilian Portuguese version received a content validity index score ≥0.80 indicating that they were relevant to the topic. The principal component analysis produced a 12-item scale with three components that accounted for 51% of the overall variance. The first component contained six items associated with a negative view of older adults; the second component contained three items dealing with the complexity of providing care for older adults; and the third component contained three items associated with a positive view of older people. Discriminant validity did not show any differences related to demographic factors, the semester of studies and history of living with older people. CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary validation of the ASDS-Braz produced a 12-item scale with three components with acceptable validity and reliability. Future research in a larger, multi-institutional sample is now warranted.


Assuntos
Ageismo , Estudantes de Odontologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(1): 49-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912539

RESUMO

PURPOSE/AIM: To assess self-perception of oral health among institutionalized older adults in Taubate, Brazil. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Demographics, oral, and systemic health data were collected from a sample of 89 institutionalized older adults. The Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) was applied to assess their self-perception of oral health. A linear regression model using GOHAI scores and considering age, BMI, gender, race, dry mouth, denture status, number of teeth, number of comorbid conditions, and number of medications as independent variables was generated. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent were male, with an average age of 75.9 years (±9.1), 43.8% identified as mixed race, and 42.7% as white. The average BMI was 23.9 (±3.8), the average number of comorbid condition was 1.8 (±1.4), and the average number of daily medications was 6.2 (±3.6). The average number of teeth was 3.9 (±7.4), and 57.3% of the participants reported dry mouth sensation; 8.9% presented oral lesions, with denture stomatitis as the most common oral lesion (5.6%). The average GOHAI score was 31.1 (±3.7). Regression analysis showed a negative correlation between BMI and GOHAI scores (P = .032, R2  = 7.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Self-perception of oral health was good and negatively correlated with BMI.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Xerostomia , Idoso , Brasil , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem
17.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(1): 84-89, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799710

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the prevalence of degenerative bone changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of older adults using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and to verify possible associations between these findings and patient health history. METHODS: CBCT scans comprising both TMJs were acquired for 137 patients aged 65+, regardless of TMD status. Images were assessed by two oral radiologists and evaluated for the presence of flattening, erosion, sclerosis, subchondral cysts, and osteophytes in the TMJ bony components, and self-reported patient systemic health histories were retrieved from records. RESULTS: There were 59 males, and the mean age was 73.35 ± 6.28. A total of 31.4% had bone changes in both TMJs, and 65.7% had bone changes in at least one side. Bone changes were more prevalent in females, with subchondral cysts (63.3%) and osteophytes (60%) the most common findings. There was a higher prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia (38.5%) and connective tissue disorders (39.8%) in patients with TMJ bone changes than in those with normal TMJs. CONCLUSION: Degenerative bone changes of TMJ were prevalent among older adults, and females were more affected. There was a greater prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia and connective tissue disorders in patients with TMJ bone changes than in subjects with normal TMJs.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Osteófito , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Idoso , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Articulação Temporomandibular
18.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(2): 108-117, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The integration of dentistry into comprehensive and long-term care has occurred infrequently and with limited success. The authors aim to describe how the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) has the potential for such incorporation for the growing population of nursing home-appropriate older adults preferring to age in place. METHODS: The authors used a 56-item online survey to explore aspects of oral health care within PACE, including organizational structure, availability and provision of care, preventive protocols, and provider reimbursement. The survey was distributed to all 124 programs nationally. Data analyses included descriptive statistics for each of the variables of interest. RESULTS: Thirty-five programs completed the survey (28%) in 23 states (74%) where PACE is available. Most programs covered comprehensive dental services and predominantly provided care off-site. Most programs reimbursed dentists at Medicaid fee-for-service rates and some at commercial rates. Dentistry was most frequently ranked the second-highest specialty focus behind mental health. CONCLUSIONS: PACE is a comprehensive interdisciplinary model of care and an underused opportunity for furthering medical-dental integration. It uses local dental resources in order to accommodate the oral health care needs of the growing population of older adults preferring to age in place. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: PACE is an opportunity for the dental profession to further medical-dental integration and ensure that newer models of long-term care include comprehensive and coordinated oral health care programs. It is also an opportunity to promote an integrated model of care with policy makers to support integrated oral health care for the nursing home-eligible population.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Idoso , Humanos , Medicaid , Estados Unidos
19.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2,supl): 1-7, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1100187

RESUMO

Older adults may face many barriers when accessing oral health care. The most vulnerable groups are people living in long term care institutions and the homebound. These barriers are related but not limited to socio-economic issues, medical and oral health problems. Some socio-economic problems are lack of finances, absence of dental insurance, lack of social support networks, and being institutionalized. Some general health problems are multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy, dementia, and reduced autonomy. Some oral health problems are having heavily restored dentitions, dry mouth, root caries, and inability to maintain adequate oral hygiene independently. In addition to these existing barriers, many new barriers have arisen which are expected to further reduce access to oral health care for older adults due to the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Older adults are at greater risk of fatal outcomes from COVID-19 infection and many dental procedures have an increased risk of creating aerosols, thereby spreading COVID-19 infection. Consequently, older adults due to fear are less likely to seek or receive oral health care until a treatment or vaccine is developed for COVID-19 infections. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic to the practice of geriatric dentistry, and what is expected to be the "new normal" in this field of dentistry (AU)


Os idosos geralmente enfrentam muitas barreiras para acessar os serviços de saúde bucal. Os grupos mais vulneráveis são formados por pessoas que vivem em instituições de longa permanência ou estão restritos às suas casas. Essas barreiras estão relacionadas, entre outras, a questões socioeconômicas e problemas de saúde geral e oral. Alguns problemas socioeconômicos são: problemas financeiros, falta de convênio odontológico, falta de redes de apoio social e institucionalização. Alguns problemas gerais de saúde são: múltiplas comorbidades, polifarmácia, demência e autonomia reduzida. Alguns problemas de saúde bucal são: dentição muito restaurada, boca seca, cárie radicular e incapacidade de manter uma higiene bucal adequada de forma independente. Além das barreiras já existentes, devido ao surgimento da pandemia de COVID-19 surgiram novas barreiras que deverão reduzir ainda mais o acesso aos cuidados de saúde bucal para idosos. Idosos correm maior risco de complicações fatais da COVID-19 e muitos procedimentos odontológicos têm um risco aumentado de gerar aerossóis, espalhando assim a COVID-19. Consequentemente, os idosos têm menor probabilidade de procurar ou receber cuidados de saúde bucal devido ao medo, até que um tratamento ou vacina seja desenvolvido para a COVID-19. Neste artigo, os autores discutem as implicações da pandemia de COVID-19 na prática da odontologia geriátrica e o que se espera ser o "novo normal" nesse campo da Odontologia.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Saúde Bucal , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Odontologia Geriátrica
20.
Dent Clin North Am ; 63(4): 631-651, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470918

RESUMO

Frail older adults and persons with special needs are at higher risk of oral diseases including dental caries. Considering the diverse background of the population, a personalized approach for each patient is mandatory to successfully manage their oral health needs. This article describes a succinct way to assess and categorize the risk of rapid oral health deterioration (ROHD) among this group. The procedures for assessing ROHD risk examine the ROHD risk categories, how risk factors impact treatment strategies, what techniques and materials exist for caries prevention and treatment, and how one effectively communicates caries management plans for this population.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Doenças da Boca , Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Saúde Bucal
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