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2.
Am Heart J ; 232: 1-9, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who have undergone mitral valve repair are at risk for thromboembolic strokes. Prior to 2019, only vitamin K antagonists were recommended for patients with AF who had undergone mitral valve repair despite the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in 2010. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the use of anticoagulants in patients with AF who underwent surgical mitral valve repair (sMVR) or transcatheter mitral valve repair (tMVR). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with AF undergoing sMVR or tMVR between 04/2014 and 12/2018 using Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database. We identified anticoagulants prescribed within 90 days of discharge from hospitalization. RESULTS: Overall, 1997 patients with AF underwent valve repair: 1560 underwent sMVR, and 437 underwent tMVR. The mean CHA2DS2-VASc score among all patients was 4.1 (SD 1.9). The overall use of anticoagulation was unchanged between 2014 (72.2%) and 2018 (70.0%) (P = .49). Among patients who underwent sMVR or tMVR between April 2014 and December 2018, the use of VKA therapy decreased from 62.9% to 32.1% (P < .01 for trend) and the use of DOACs increased from 12.4% to 37.3% (P < .01 for trend). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with AF who underwent sMVR or tMVR between 2014 and 2018, roughly 30% of patients were not treated with any anticoagulant within 90 days of discharge, despite an elevated stroke risk in the cohort. The rate of DOAC use increased steadily over the study period but did not significantly increase the rate of overall anticoagulant use in this high-risk cohort.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data on the mechanisms of atrial arrhythmias (AAs) and outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) in lung transplantation (LT) patients are insufficient. We evaluated the electrophysiologic features and outcomes of CA of AAs in LT patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective study of all the LT patients who underwent CA for AAs at our institution between 2004 and 2019. A total of 15 patients (43% males, age: 61 ± 10 years) with a history of LT (60% bilateral and 40% unilateral) were identified. All patients had documented organized AA on surface electrocardiogram and seven patients also had atrial fibrillation (AF; 47% with >1 clinical arrhythmia). At electrophysiological study, 19 organized AAs were documented (48% focal and 52% macro-re-entrant). Focal atrial tachycardias/flutters were targeted along the pulmonary vein (PV) anastomotic site at the left inferior PV (n = 2), ridge and carina of the left superior PV (n = 2), left atrium (LA) posterior wall (n = 3), LA roof (n = 1), and tricuspid annulus (n = 1). Macro-re-entrant AAs included cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter (n = 2), incisional LA flutter (n = 4), LA roof-dependent flutter (n = 1), and mitral annular flutter (n = 3). In patients with LA mapping (n = 13), PV reconnection on the side of the LT was found in six patients (40%, all with clinically documented AF), with a mean of 2.1 ± 0.9 PVs reconnected per patient. Patients with AF underwent successful PV isolation. After a median follow-up of 19 months (range: 6-86 months), 75% of patients remained free from recurrent AAs. No procedural major complications occurred. CONCLUSION: In patients with prior LT, recurrent AAs are typically associated with substrate surrounding the surgical anastomotic lines and/or chronically reconnected PVs. CA of AAs in this population is safe and effective to achieve long-term arrhythmia control.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ablation of septal substrate-associated ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) is challenging. We sought to standardize the characterization of septal substrates on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and to examine the association of that substrate with VT exit and isthmus sites on invasive mapping. METHODS: LGE-CMR was performed before electroanatomic mapping and ablation for VT in 20 NICM patients. LGE extent and distribution were quantified using myocardial signal-intensity Z scores (SI-Z). The SI-Z thresholds correlating to previously validated voltage thresholds, for abnormal tissue and dense scar were defined. RESULTS: Bipolar and unipolar (electrogram) voltage amplitude measurements from the LV and RV were negatively associated with SI-Z from LGE-CMR imaging (p < .05). SI-Z thresholds for appropriate CMR identification of septal substrates were determined to be greater than -.15 for border zone and greater than .03 for a dense scar. Among all patients, 34 critical VT sites were identified with SI-Z distribution in the range of -.97 to .06. Thirty (88.2%) critical sites were located in the dense LGE, 1 (2.9%) in the border zone, and 3 (8.9%) in healthy tissue but within 7 mm of LGE. Of note, critical VT sites were all located at the basal septum close to valves (distance to aortic valve: 17.5 ± 31.2 mm, mitral valve: 21.2 ± 8.7 mm) in nonsarcoidosis cases. CONCLUSIONS: Critical sites of septal VT in NICM patients are predominantly in the CMR defined dense scar when using standardized signal-intensity thresholds.

5.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(11): 1381-1392, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to address whether technological innovations such as contact force sensing (CFS) can improve acute and long-term ablation outcomes of left ventricular papillary muscle (LV PAP) ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation of LV PAP VAs has been less efficacious than another focal VAs. It remains unclear whether technological innovations such as CFS can improve acute and long-term ablation outcomes of LV PAP VA. METHODS: From January 2015 to December 2019, a total of 137 patients underwent LV PAP VA ablation. VA site of origin (SOO) was identified using activation and pace-mapping guided by intracardiac echocardiography. Radiofrequency energy (20 to 50 W for 60 to 90 s) was delivered by irrigated catheter with or without CFS. We defined acute success as complete suppression of targeted VA ≥30 min post ablation and clinical success as ≥80% VA burden reduction at outpatient follow-up. RESULTS: VA manifested as premature ventricular complexes in 98 (71%), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 18 (13%), sustained ventricular tachycardia in 12 (9%) and premature ventricular complexes induced ventricular fibrillation in 9 (7%). VA SOO was anterolateral PAP in 51 (37%), posteromedial PAP in 73 (53%), and both PAPs in 13 (10%). VAs were targeted using CFS in 97 (71%) and non-CFS in 40 (29%). After a single procedure, acute success was achieved in 130 (95%) and clinical success was achieved in 112 (82%); neither was impacted by VA SOO and/or CFS. Complications occurred in 5 patients (3.6%). CONCLUSION: Independent of CFS technology, intracardiac echocardiography-guided catheter ablation is highly efficacious and may be considered as first-line therapy in the management of LV PAP VA.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927679

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterised by ventricular arrhythmia and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Numerous genetic determinants and phenotypic manifestations have been discovered in ACM, posing a significant clinical challenge. Further to this, wider evaluation of family members has revealed incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in ACM, suggesting a complex genotype-phenotype relationship. This review details the genetic basis of ACM with specific genotype-phenotype associations, providing the reader with a nuanced perspective of this condition; whilst also proposing a future roadmap to delivering precision medicine-based management in ACM.

8.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(9): 1089-1102, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the incidence, clinical characteristics, and electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of LVA VA in the absence of CAD and to describe the experience with catheter ablation (CA) in this group. BACKGROUND: The left ventricular apex (LVA) is a well-described source of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and history of apical infarction but is a rare source of VA in the absence of CAD. METHODS: Patients referred for CA of VA at our institution were retrospectively reviewed, and those with LVA VA in the absence of CAD were identified. RESULTS: Of 3,710 consecutive patients undergoing VA ablation, CA of LVA VA was performed in 24 patients (20 with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, 4 with premature ventricular contractions or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; 18 men; mean age: 54 ± 15 years). These cases comprised 10 of 35 (29%) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 9 of 789 (1.2%) nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and 5 of 1,432 (0.4%) idiopathic VA ablation procedures. VA QRS morphology was predominantly right bundle with slurred upstroke and right superior frontal plane axis with precordial transition ≤V3. Epicardial ablation was performed in 14 of 24 (58%). After a median of 1 procedure (range 1 to 4) at this institution and median follow-up of 47 months (range 0-176), VA recurred in 1 patient (4%). CONCLUSIONS: LVA VA in the absence of CAD is unusual and may occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or nonischemic cardiomyopathy or, rarely, in the absence of structural heart disease. It can be recognized by characteristic ECG features. CA of LVA VA is challenging; multiple procedures, including epicardial approaches, may be required to achieve VA control over long-term follow-up.

9.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right bundle branch block (RBBB) ventricular tachycardia (VT) morphology is a criterion for left ventricular (LV) involvement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and chamber of origin of RBBB VT in patients with ARVC and VT. METHODS: We studied 110 consecutive patients with VT who met the diagnostic International Task Force criteria for ARVC and underwent VT mapping/ablation. Patients with ≥1 RBBB VT were identified. Right ventricular (RV) origin of the RBBB VT was determined based on standard mapping criteria and elimination with ablation. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (17%) had 26 RBBB VTs. Eleven of these 19 patients (58%) had 16 RBBB VTs from the RV, and 9 patients (47%) had 10 RBBB VTs originating from the LV, with 1 patient demonstrating both. RBBB VT from RV most commonly (13/16 RBBB VTs) had an early precordial QRS transition (V2 or V3), with superiorly and typically leftward directed frontal plane axis, consistent with exit from dilated RV adjacent to inferior LV septum, whereas all 10 VTs from LV had RBBB morphology with positive R waves to V5 or V6 and rightward axis in 6 VTs characteristic of basal lateral origin. CONCLUSION: In patients with ARVC and VT presenting for VT ablation, RBBB VT occurs in 17% of cases, with most RBBB VTs (62%) originating from the RV and not indicative of LV origin. Precordial R-wave transition and frontal plane axis can be used to identify the anticipated chamber of origin of RBBB VT.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997112

RESUMO

Importance: In patients with mechanical valves in the aortic and mitral positions, percutaneous access to the left ventricle (LV) via a transfemoral approach for catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) has been considered infeasible. Objective: To describe the outcomes of a novel percutaneous trans-right atrial (RA) access to the LV via a femoral venous approach for catheter ablation of VT in patients with mechanical aortic and mitral valves. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational study included consecutive patients with mechanical valves in the aortic and mitral positions and recurrent monomorphic drug-refractory VT associated with an LV substrate. Percutaneous LV access was performed from a transfemoral venous route with the aid of a deflectable sheath and a radiofrequency wire by creating an iatrogenic Gerbode defect with direct puncture of the inferior and medial aspect of the RA, adjacent to the inferior-septal process of the LV (ISP-LV), under intracardiac echography guidance. Once the wire crossed to the LV, balloon dilatation of the ventriculotomy site (with a noncompliant balloon; diameter, 8 to 10 mm) was performed to facilitate passage of the sheath within the LV. Exposures: Percutaneous trans-RA access to the LV via puncture of the ISP-LV to perform catheter ablation of VT in patients with mechanical aortic and mitral valves. Main Outcomes and Measures: Feasibility and safety of a trans-RA access to the LV for catheter ablation of VT. Results: A total of 4 patients (mean [SD] age, 60 [7] years; mean [SD] LV ejection fraction, 31% [9%]) with recurrent VT associated with an LV substrate (ischemic cardiomyopathy, 3 patients; nonischemic cardiomyopathy, 1 patient) and mechanical valves in the aortic and mitral position underwent trans-RA access through the ISP-LV for catheter ablation of VT. The time to obtain LV access ranged from 60 minutes (first case) to 22 minutes (last case) (mean [SD], 36 [15] minutes). No complications associated with the access occurred. In particular, in the 3 patients with preserved atrioventricular conduction at baseline, no new conduction abnormalities were observed after the access. Complete VT noninducibility at programmed ventricular stimulation was achieved in 3 cases, and no patient had VT recurrence at a median follow-up of 14 months (range, 6-21 months). Conclusions and Relevance: A percutaneous trans-RA access to the LV via a femoral venous approach for catheter ablation of VT in patients with mechanical aortic and mitral valves is feasible and appears safe. This novel technique may allow for catheter ablation of VT in a population of patients in whom conventional LV access via retrograde aortic or atrial transseptal routes is not possible.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757450

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) remains a challenging clinical problem with poor outcomes and few effective treatments. Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with functional TR. We sought to determine whether restoring sinus rhythm through catheter ablation of AF can decrease the degree of TR. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing AF ablation between 2011 and 2017 at a single center was conducted. We included patients with at least moderate TR on echocardiogram within the year preceding ablation, who underwent repeat echocardiogram within the year following ablation. Formal quantitative analysis was performed by an experienced research echocardiographer, blinded to arrhythmia outcomes. Arrhythmia-free survival was correlated to the extent of improvement in TR. Thirty-six patients met the inclusion criteria. A baseline echocardiogram was performed 37 ± 68 days before ablation and follow-up echocardiogram 139 ± 112 days following ablation. Patients were 63.7 ± 11.1 years old with a mean CHA2 DS2 -VASc score of 2.7 ± 1.7. The degree of TR improved by at least one grade in 23 patients (64%). TR area decreased from 11.6 ± 3.4 to 7.0 ± 3.5 cm2 (p < .001) following ablation. Freedom from AF postablation was associated with a greater likelihood of improvement in TR by at least one grade (100% vs. 41%, p = .02). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF and at least moderate TR, catheter ablation is associated with substantial improvement in TR severity.

12.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 12(3): 321-328, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771186

RESUMO

In patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, epicardial ablation is critical in targeting epicardial paravalvular substrate. Epicardial access and ablation can be performed safely with attention to epicardial structures, such as the coronary arteries, phrenic nerve, and epicardial fat. This review explores the indications, techniques, complications, and outcomes of epicardial ablation in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Although epicardial ablation adds to the complexity and risk of the ablation procedure, it is a vital tool that, combined with endocardial mapping and ablation, improves outcomes in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy suffering from ventricular arrhythmias.

13.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(8): 958-969, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PsAF) using a porous tip contact force-sensing catheter. BACKGROUND: Although the safety and effectiveness of catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation are established, there are limited data on outcomes in patients with PsAF. As such, no ablation catheter is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for PsAF ablation. METHODS: The prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized PRECEPT (Prospective Review of the Safety and Effectiveness of the THERMOCOOL SMARTTOUCH SF Catheter Evaluated for Treating Symptomatic PersistenT AF) study was conducted at 27 sites in the United States and Canada. Enrollment criteria included documented symptomatic PsAF and nonresponse or intolerance to ≥1 antiarrhythmic drug (Class I or III). An individualized treatment approach was used including pulmonary vein isolation with ablation of additional targets permitted at the investigators' discretion. To optimize treatment outcomes, a 3-month post-ablation medication adjustment period followed by a 3-month therapy consolidation period were included. Arrhythmia recurrences were stringently monitored by monthly and symptomatic transtelephonic monitoring, electrocardiography, and Holter monitoring for up to 15 months after ablation. RESULTS: Of 381 enrolled participants, 348 had the investigational catheter inserted and underwent ablation. The primary adverse event rate was 4.1% (15 events in 14 participants). Kaplan-Meier analyses estimated a primary effectiveness success rate of 61.7% and a clinical success rate of 80.4% at 15 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the clinical safety and effectiveness of PsAF ablation using contact force-sensing technologies. The primary adverse event was within the expected range and similar to those reported in historical studies of paroxysmal AF ablation. (Prospective Review of the Safety and Effectiveness of the THERMOCOOL SMARTTOUCH SF Catheter Evaluated for Treating Symptomatic PersistenT AF; NCT02817776).

15.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(11): 1878-1886, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials evaluating cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have excluded patients with a pre-existing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). The association of CRT upgrade with clinical outcomes in patients with a pre-existing ICD is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine a CRT-eligible population to evaluate clinical outcomes associated with CRT upgrade compared to patients who did not undergo CRT. METHODS: Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) ICD Registry between April 2010 and December 2014, we created a hierarchical logistic regression model to identify predictors of CRT upgrade in a CRT-eligible ICD population. In the subpopulation of patients with Medicare-linked claims data, differential outcomes were determined with censoring at 3 years. The primary endpoint of this study was all-cause mortality, with secondary endpoints of rates of hospitalization and procedural complications. RESULTS: CRT upgrade was performed in 75.5% of CRT-eligible patients with pre-existing ICD (n = 15,803). Presence of left bundle branch block conduction was the strongest predictor of CRT upgrade (odds ratio [OR] 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.08-5.11; P <.0001). In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, CRT upgrade was associated with a reduction in mortality at 3 years (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.80; 95% CI 0.70-0.92; P = .001; adjusted HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.98; P = .02, respectively). Compared to patients with ICD generator replacement only, patients who underwent CRT upgrade experienced no different 3-year rates of hospitalization (adjusted HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.91-1.12; P = .81) or 1-year periprocedural complication rates (adjusted HR 1.07; 95% CI 0.79-1.45; P = .66). CONCLUSION: In a national registry of CRT-eligible patients with pre-existing ICD, upgrade to CRT was associated with lower rates of mortality than continued medical management.

16.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(8): 2032-2040, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542894

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with epicardial and surface ventricular tachycardia (VT) electrogram features, in nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), is unknown. We sought to define the association of LGE and viable wall thickness with epicardial electrogram features and exit site paced QRS duration in patients with NICM. METHODS: A total of 19 patients (age 53.5 ± 11.5 years) with NICM (ejection fraction 40.2 ± 13.2%) underwent CMR before VT ablation. LGE transmurality was quantified on CMR and coregistered with 2294 endocardial and 2724 epicardial map points. RESULTS: Both bipolar and unipolar voltage were associated with transmural signal intensity on CMR. Longer electrogram duration and fractionated potentials were associated with increased LGE transmurality, but late potentials or local abnormal ventricular activity were more prevalent in nontransmural versus transmural LGE regions (p < .05). Of all critical VT sites, 19% were located adjacent to regions with LGE but normal bipolar and unipolar voltage. Exit site QRS duration was affected by LGE transmurality and intramural scar location, but not by wall thickness, at the impulse origin. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NICM and VT, LGE is associated with epicardial electrogram features and may predict critical VT sites. Additionally, exit site QRS duration is affected by LGE transmurality and intramural location at the impulse origin or exit.

17.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(6): 684-692, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the impact of the type of catheter irrigant used during delivery of radiofrequency ablation. BACKGROUND: The use of half-normal saline (HNS) as an irrigant has been suggested as a method for increasing ablation lesion size but has not been rigorously studied in the beating heart or the use of a low-flow irrigation catheter. METHODS: Sixteen swine underwent left ventricular mapping and ablation using either normal saline (NS) (group 1: n = 9) or half-normal saline (HNS) (group 2: n = 7). All lesions were delivered using identical parameters (40 W with 10-second ramp, 30-second duration, 15 ml/min flow, and 8- to14-g target contact force). An occurrence of steam pop, catheter char, or thrombus was assessed using intracardiac echocardiography and catheter inspection following each application. Lesion depth, width, and area were measured using electronic calibers. RESULTS: A total of 109 lesions were delivered in group 1 and 77 in group 2. There were significantly more steam pops in group 2 (32 of 77 [42%] vs. 24 of 109 [22%], respectively). The frequencies of catheter tip char were similar (group 1: 9 of 109 [8%] vs. group 2: 10 of 77 [13%]; p = 0.29). Lesion depths, widths, and areas also were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an HNS irrigant using a low-flow open irrigated ablation catheter platform results in more tissue heating due to higher radiofrequency current delivery directed to tissue, but this can lead to higher rate of steam pops. In this in vivo porcine beating-heart model, the use of HNS does not appear to significantly increase lesion size in normal myocardium despite evidence of increased radiofrequency heating.

18.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(6): 722-735, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and prognostic significance of concealed myocardial abnormalities identified by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with apparently idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). BACKGROUND: The role of CMR imaging in patients with frequent PVCs and otherwise negative diagnostic workup is uncertain. METHODS: This was a multicenter, international study that included 518 patients (age 44 ± 15 years; 57% men) with frequent (>1,000/24 h) PVCs and negative routine diagnostic workup. Patients underwent a comprehensive CMR protocol including late gadolinium enhancement imaging for detection of necrosis and/or fibrosis. The study endpoint was a composite of sudden cardiac death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and nonfatal episodes of ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia that required appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy. RESULTS: Myocardial abnormalities were found in 85 (16%) patients. Male gender (odds ratio [OR]: 4.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06 to 8.93; p = 0.01), family history of sudden cardiac death and/or cardiomyopathy (OR: 3.61; 95% CI: 1.33 to 9.82; p = 0.01), multifocal PVCs (OR: 11.12; 95% CI: 4.35 to 28.46; p < 0.01), and non-left bundle branch block inferior axis morphology (OR: 14.11; 95% CI: 7.35 to 27.07; p < 0.01) were all significantly related to the presence of myocardial abnormalities. After a median follow-up of 67 months, the composite endpoint occurred in 26 (5%) patients. Subjects with myocardial abnormalities on CMR had a higher incidence of the composite outcome (n = 25; 29%) compared with those without abnormalities (n = 1; 0.2%; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: CMR can identify concealed myocardial abnormalities in 16% of patients with apparently idiopathic frequent PVCs. Presence of myocardial abnormalities on CMR predict worse clinical outcomes.

19.
Int J Cardiol ; 319: 106-114, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561223

RESUMO

The original designation of "Arrhythmogenic right ventricular (dysplasia/) cardiomyopathy"(ARVC) was used by the scientists who first discovered the disease, in the pre-genetic and pre-cardiac magnetic resonance era, to describe a new heart muscle disease predominantly affecting the right ventricle, whose cardinal clinical manifestation was the occurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Subsequently, autopsy investigations, genotype-phenotype correlations studies and the increasing use of contrast-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance showed that the fibro-fatty replacement of the myocardium represents the distinctive phenotypic feature of the disease that affects the myocardium of both ventricles, with left ventricular involvement which may parallel or exceed the severity of right ventricular involvement. This has led to the new designation of "Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy" (ACM), that represents the evolution of the original term of ARVC. The present International Expert Consensus document proposes an upgrade of the criteria for diagnosis of the entire spectrum of the phenotypic variants of ACM. The proposed "Padua criteria" derive from the diagnostic approach to ACM, which has been developed over 30 years by the multidisciplinary team of basic researchers and clinical cardiologists of the Medical School of the University of Padua. The Padua criteria are a working framework to improve the diagnosis of ACM by introducing new diagnostic criteria regarding tissue characterization findings by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance, depolarization/repolarization ECG abnormalities and ventricular arrhythmia features for diagnosis of the left ventricular phenotype. The proposed diagnostic criteria need to be further validated by future clinical studies in large cohorts of patients.

20.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(10): 1740-1744, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical posterior wall isolation (PWI) is increasingly being used for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Few data exist on the durability of PWI using current technology. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the frequency and location of posterior wall reconnection at the time of repeat catheter ablation for AF. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of 50 patients undergoing repeat AF ablation after previous PWI. Durability of PWI was assessed at the time of repeat ablation based on posterior wall entrance and exit block. Sites of posterior wall reconnection were characterized based on review of recorded electrical signals and electroanatomic maps. RESULTS: At the time of repeat ablation, mean age was 67 ± 10 years, 31 of 50 patients had persistent AF, and mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.0 ± 1.8. Of the 50 patients, 30 had durable PWI at repeat ablation, 1.4 ± 1.6 years after the index procedure. Patients with posterior wall reconnection required repeat ablation earlier (0.9 ± 0.6 years vs1.8 ± 1.9 years from index PWI; P = .048) and were more likely to have atypical atrial flutter (55% vs 27%; P = .043). Among patients with posterior wall reconnection, the roof was the most common site of reconnection (14/20), and 12 patients had multiple regions of reconnection noted. CONCLUSION: Posterior wall reconnection is noted in 40% of patients undergoing repeat ablation after an index PWI. The roof of the left atrium is the most common site of posterior wall reconnection.

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