Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 444
Filtrar
1.
Kardiol Pol ; 78(5): 386-395, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431133

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) appears in most patients to be an inherited disease characterized by fibrofatty replacement of myocytes extending from the epicardium to the endocardium in the right ventricle. The disease process results in life­threatening ventricular arrhythmias and ventricular dysfunction. In the absence of a gold­standard diagnostic test and despite the progress in imaging techniques, ARVC is often misdiagnosed and earlier detection of the disease is challenging. Preprocedural identification and localization of the substrate can be determined from the analysis of surface electrocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Typically, perivalvular arrhythmogenic substrate, defined by electroanatomic mapping, is present and can be isolated to the epicardium. Ablation targets are further identified with activation, entrainment, and local electrogram abnormalities based on detailed electroanatomic mapping. Extensive combined endo / epicardial ablation performed in experienced centers is frequently required to prevent ventricular tachycardia (VT). Catheter ablation significantly reduces recurrences of VT, appropriate implantable cardioverter­defibrillator shocks, and the use of antiarrhythmic drugs and cardiac transplant as a management strategy for refractory arrhythmias is rarely required. Progression of the disease is poorly understood and may require a distinct triggering mechanism. Biventricular involvement is more common than previously recognized. However, left ventricular involvement leading to significant terminal heart failure is fortunately uncommon and left ventricular tachycardias are also infrequent. Many questions remain regarding prevention and management of coexisting tricuspid valve regurgitation, atrial arrhythmias, and intracardiac thrombosis. Although data on genotype­phenotype correlations is growing, long­term follow­up studies of families with ARVC are still lacking. Ongoing research will contribute to better understanding of this pathological condition.

2.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria have been developed to identify idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) from the left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles (PAPs), but accurate localization remains a challenge. OBJECTIVE: To develop ECG criteria for accurate localization of LV PAP VAs utilizing lead V1 exclusively. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing mapping and ablation of VAs from the LV PAPs guided by intracardiac echocardiography from 2007-2018 were reviewed (study group). The QRS morphology in V1 was compared to patients with VAs with a "RBBB" morphology from other LV locations (reference group). Patients with structural heart disease were excluded. RESULTS: 111 patients with LV PAP VAs (age 54±16, male 59%) including 64 (55%) from the posteromedial PAP and 47 (42%) from the anterolateral PAP. The reference group included patients with VAs from the following LV locations: fascicles (n=21), outflow tract (n=36), ostium (n=37), inferobasal segment (n=12), and apex (5). PAP VAs showed 3 distinct QRS morphologies in V1 93% of the time: Rr (53%), R with a slurred downslope (29%), and RR (11%). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the 3 morphologies combined are 93%, 98%, 98%, and 93%, respectively. The intrinsicoid deflection of the PAP VAs in V1 were shorter than the reference group (63±13 ms versus 79±24 ms; p<0.001). An intrinsicoid deflection time less than 74 ms best differentiated the two groups (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 87%). CONCLUSION: VAs originating from the LV PAPs manifest unique QRS morphologies in lead V1, which can aid in rapid and accurate localization.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462550

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prospective, multicenter SMART SF trial demonstrated the acute safety and effectiveness of the 56-hole porous tip irrigated contact force (CF) catheter for drug-refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) ablation with a low primary adverse event rate (2.5%), leading to FDA approval of the catheter. Here, we are reporting the long-term effectiveness and safety results that have not yet been reported. METHODS: Ablations were performed using the 56-hole porous tip irrigated CF catheter guided by the 3D mapping system stability module. The primary effectiveness endpoint was freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmia (including atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia, and/or atrial flutter), based on electrocardiographic data at 12 months. Atrial tachyarrhythmia recurrence occurring 3 months post procedure, acute procedural failures such as lack of entrance block confirmation of all PVs, and undergoing repeat procedure for atrial fibrillation in the evaluation period (91 to 365 days post the initial ablation procedure) were considered to be effectiveness failures. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients (age 64.8 ± 9.7 years; male 52.6%; Caucasian 96.2%) participated in the 12-month effectiveness evaluation. Mean follow-up time was 373.5 ± 45.4 days. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of freedom from 12-month atrial tachyarrhythmia was 74.9%. Two procedure-related pericardial effusion events were reported at 92 and 180 days post procedure. There were no pulmonary vein stenosis complications or deaths reported through the 12-month follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: The SMART SF 12-month follow-up evaluation corroborates the early safety and effectiveness success previously reported for PAF ablation with STSF.

5.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrical posterior wall isolation (PWI) is increasingly utilized for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Little data exists on the durability of PWI using current technology. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the frequency and location of posterior wall reconnection at the time of repeat catheter ablation for AF. METHODS: We performed a single center retrospective cohort study of 50 patients undergoing repeat AF ablation after prior PWI. Durability of PWI was assessed at the time of repeat ablation based on posterior wall entrance and exit block. Sites of posterior wall reconnection were characterized based on review of recorded electrical signals and electroanatomic maps. RESULTS: At the time of repeat ablation, mean age was 67±10 years, 31 of 50 had persistent AF, and mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.0±1.8. Of 50 patients, 30 had durable PWI at repeat ablation, 1.4±1.6 years following the index procedure. Patients with posterior wall reconnection required repeat ablation earlier (0.9±0.6 vs1.8±1.9 years from index PWI, p=0.048) and were more likely to have atypical atrial flutter (55 vs 27%, p=0.043). Among patients with posterior wall reconnection, the roof was the most common site of reconnection (14/20) and 12 patients had multiple regions of reconnection noted. CONCLUSIONS: Posterior wall reconnection is noted in 40% of patients undergoing repeat ablation following an index PWI. The roof of the left atrium is the most common site of posterior wall reconnection.

8.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) arising from the inaccessible basal region of the left ventricular summit (LVS) is challenging due to proximity to coronary vessels, epicardial fat and poor RF delivery within the distal coronary venous system. OBJECTIVE: We describe the outcomes of an anatomical approach for inaccessible LVS-VAs using bipolar RF (Bi-RFA) delivered from the anatomically adjacent left pulmonic cusp (LPC) to the opposite LV outflow tract (LVOT). METHODS: From 3 centers we reviewed patients (pts) who underwent Bi-RFA for inaccessible LVS-VAs refractory to conventional RFA using an anatomical approach targeting the adjacent LPC ("reversed U" approach) with catheter tip pointing inferiorly within the LPC and LVOT. RESULTS: A total of 7 pts (59±12 years, 3 females) underwent Bi-RF from the LPC to the LVOT for LVS-VAs after ≥1 failed conventional RFA. Bi-RFA (power 36±7 W, duration 333±107s) resulted in VAs suppression in 5 out of 7 pts. In 2 cases Bi-RFCA was successfully performed using dextrose-5% in water (D5W). No complications occurred. After a mean follow-up of 14±6 months, no recurrent VT was documented in 2/2 pts with baseline VT and a mean 84% reduction in PVC burden (31±13% vs 4±5% PVC/d; p=0,0027) was documented in others. CONCLUSION: In pts with LVS-VAs arising from the inaccessible region and refractory to conventional RFA, an anatomical approach utilizing Bi-RFA from the LPC and opposite LVOT is an effective alternative approach.

10.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(5): 484-490, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to report a multicenter series of left-sided catheter ablations performed by using intravenous direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) as an alternative to heparin. BACKGROUND: Amidst a looming worldwide shortage of heparin, there are insufficient data to guide nonheparin-based peri-procedural anticoagulation in patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS: This study reviewed all catheter ablations at 6 institutions between 2006 and 2019 to assess the safety and efficacy of DTIs for left-sided radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. RESULTS: In total, 53 patients (age 63.0 ± 9.3 years, 68% male, CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, sex category] score 2.8 ± 1.6, left ventricular ejection fraction 46 ± 15%) underwent ablation with DTIs (75% bivalirudin, 25% argatroban) due to heparin contraindication(s) (72% heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 21% heparin allergy, 4% protamine reaction, and 4% religious reasons). The patient's usual oral anticoagulant was continued without interruption in 69%. Procedures were performed for atrial fibrillation (64%) or ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular contractions (36%). Transseptal puncture was undertaken in 81%, and a contact force-sensing catheter was used in 70%. Vascular ultrasound was used in 71%, and femoral arterial access was gained in 36%. A bolus followed by infusion was used in all but 4 cases, and activated clotting time was monitored peri-procedurally in 72%, with 32% receiving additional boluses. Procedure duration was 216 ± 116 min, and ablation time was 51 ± 22 min. No major bleeding or embolic complications were observed. Four patients had minor self-limiting bleeding complications, including a small pericardial effusion (<1 cm), a small groin hematoma, and hematuria. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter series, intravenous DTIs were safely used as an alternative to heparin for left-sided catheter ablation.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298038

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) little is known about the clinical impact of catheter ablation (CA) of septal ventricular tachycardia (VT) resulting in the collateral injury of the conduction system (CICS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-five consecutive patients with NICM underwent CA of septal VT. Outcomes in patients with no baseline conduction abnormalities who developed CICS (group 1, n = 28 [29%]) were compared to patients with no CICS (group 2, n = 17 [18%]) and to patients with preexisting conduction abnormalities or biventricular pacing (group 3, n = 50 [53%]). Group-1 patients were younger, had a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and a lower prevalence of New York Heart Association III/IV class compared to group 3 while no significant differences were observed with group 2. After a median follow-up of 15 months, VT recurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 12% in group 2 (P = .94) and 32% in group 3 (P = .08) while death/transplant occurred in 14% of patients in group 1, 18% in group 2 (P = .69) and 28% in group 3 (P = .15). A worsening of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (median LVEF variation, -5%) was observed in group 1 compared to group 2 (median LVEF variation, 0%; P < .01) but not group-3 patients (median LVEF variation, -4%; P = .08) with a consequent higher need for new biventricular pacing in group 1 (43%) compared to group 2 (12%; P = .03) and group 3 (16%; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NICM and septal substrate, sparing the abnormal substrate harboring the conduction system provides acceptable VT control while preventing a worsening of the systolic function.

14.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation has been considered an effective strategy for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the left ventricular summit (LVS). However, the inherent complexity of the anatomy of the LVS may result in failed ablation or recurrence of VA. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this multicenter study was investigate the procedural outcomes of ablation of LVS VA. METHODS: A total of 238 patients (54.6% men; mean age 53.2 ± 15.0 years) undergoing catheter ablation of LVS VA were included. Baseline characteristics, procedural parameters, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Acute procedural success was achieved in 199 patients (83.6%). Initial epicardial ablation via the coronary venous system (93.8% [91/97]) or percutaneous transpericardial approach (6.2% [6/97]) achieved successful ablation in 40 of 97 patients (41.2%), and VA was eliminated by initial approaches from the aortic sinus of Valsalva or subvalvular endocardium in 68 of 139 patients (48.9%; P = .29). Multisite ablations were performed in the process of acute VA elimination in 105 patients (51.8%), and 7 complications occurred. During median follow-up of 26 (1-87) months, 82.2% of patients with acute success were free from VA recurrences, and the overall long-term success rate was 68.1%. Multisite ablation was the only independent predictor of VA recurrences. CONCLUSION: Acute elimination of VA originating from the LVS could be achieved in 83.6% of patients, with 82.2% having no VA recurrences. Despite acute elimination of VA with multisite ablation, the incidence of VA recurrence still was high.

15.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative bradycardia can complicate orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Previous studies suggested donor age and surgical technique as possible risk factors. However, risk factors in the era of bicaval anastomosis have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the association between donor/recipient characteristics with need for chronotropic support and permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation in patients with OHT. METHODS: All patients treated with OHT between January 2003 and January 2018 at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania were retrospectively evaluated until June 2018. Chronotropic support was given upon postoperative inability to increase the heart rate to patient's demands and included disproportionate bradycardia and junctional rhythm. RESULTS: A total of 820 patients (mean age 51.3 ± 12.6 years; 74% men) underwent 826 OHT procedures (95.3% bicaval anastomosis). Patients who were exposed to amiodarone (odds ratio [OR] 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58-3.34; P < .001) and have older donor (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.04; P = .001) were more likely to develop need for chronotropic support. In multivariable analysis, recipient age (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00-1.06; P = .04) and biatrial anastomosis (OR 6.12; 95% CI 2.48-15.09) were significantly associated with PPM implantation within 6 months of OHT. No association was found between pre-OHT amiodarone use and PPM implantation. No risk factors assessed were associated with PPM implantation 6 months after OHT. CONCLUSION: Surgical technique and donor age were the main risk factors for the need for chronotropic support post-OHT, whereas surgical technique and recipient age were risk factors for early PPM implantation.

18.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(3): 272-281, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study describes the technique and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation via a superior approach in patients with interrupted or absent inferior vena cavas (IVCs). BACKGROUND: In patients with interrupted or absent IVCs, transseptal access cannot be obtained via standard femoral venous access. In these patients, alternative strategies are necessary to permit catheter ablation in the left atrium (LA). This study reports on the outcomes of AF ablation from a superior venous access with a radiofrequency (RF)-assisted transseptal puncture (TSP) technique. METHODS: This study identified patients with interrupted or absent IVCs who underwent AF ablation via a superior approach at 2 ablation centers from 2010 to 2019. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (mean age: 50.8 ± 11.2 years; 10 men; 10 with paroxysmal AF) with interrupted or absent IVCs underwent AF ablation with transseptal access via a superior approach. Successful TSP was performed either with a manually bent RF transseptal needle (early cases: n = 4) or using a RF wire (late cases: n = 11); this approach permitted LA mapping and ablation in all patients. Mean time required to perform single (n = 8) or double (n = 7) TSP was 16.1 ± 4.8 min, and mean total procedure time was 227.9 ± 120.7 min (fluoroscopy time: 57.0 ± 28.5 min). LA mapping and ablation were successfully performed in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation and who had a standard transseptal approach via femoral venous approach is impossible due to anatomic constraints, RF-assisted transseptal access via a superior approach can be an effective alternative strategy to permit LA mapping and ablation.

19.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(2): 221-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine clinical characteristics of procedural and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing catheter ablation (CA) of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OT-VAs) over 16 years. BACKGROUND: CA is an effective treatment strategy for OT-VAs. METHODS: Patients undergoing CA for OT-VAs from 1999 to 2015 were divided into 3 periods: 1999 to 2004 (early), 2005 to 2010 (middle), and 2011 to 2015 (recent). Successful ablation site (right ventricular OT, aortic cusps/left ventricular OT, or coronary venous system/epicardium), VA morphology (right bundle branch block or left bundle branch block), and acute and clinical success rates were assessed. RESULTS: Six hundred eighty-two patients (336 female) were included (early: n = 97; middle: n = 204; recent: n = 381). Over time there was increase in use of irrigated ablation catheters and electroanatomic mapping, and more VAs were ablated from the aortic cusp/left ventricular OT or coronary venous system/epicardium (14% vs. 45% vs. 56%; p < 0.0001). Acute procedural success was achieved in 585 patients (86%) and was similar between groups (82% vs. 84% vs. 88%; p = 0.27). Clinical success was also similar between groups (86% vs. 87% vs. 88%; p = 0.94), but more patients in earlier periods required repeat ablation (18% vs. 17% vs. 9%; p = 0.02). Overall complication rate was 2% (similar between groups). CONCLUSIONS: Over a 16-year period there was an increase in patients undergoing CA for OT-VTs, with more ablations performed at non-right ventricular outflow tract locations using electroanatomic mapping and irrigated-tip catheters. Over time, single procedure success has improved and complications have remained limited.

20.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(2): 231-240, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the prevalence, mapping features, and ablation outcomes of non-scar-related ventricular tachycardia (NonScar-VT) and Purkinje-related VT (Purkinje-VT) in patients with structural heart disease. BACKGROUND: VT in structural heart disease is typically associated with scar-related myocardial re-entry. NonScar-VTs arising from areas of normal myocardium or Purkinje-VTs originating from the conduction system are less common. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 690 patients with structural heart disease who underwent VT ablation between 2013 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 37 (5.4%) patients (16 [43%] with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 16 [43%] with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 [14%] others) demonstrated NonScar/Purkinje-VTs, which represented the clinical VT in 76% of cases. Among the 37 VTs, 31 (84%) were Purkinje-VTs (28 bundle branch re-entrant VT). The remaining 6 (16%) VTs were NonScar-VTs and included 4 idiopathic outflow tract VTs. A total of 16 patients had prior history of VT ablations: empirical scar substrate modification was performed in 6 (38%) patients and residual inducibility of VT had not been assessed in 7 (44%). In all 37 patients, the NonScar/Purkinje-VT was successfully ablated. After a median follow-up of 18 months, the targeted NonScar/Purkinje-VT did not recur in any patients, and 28 (76%) of patients were free from any recurrent VT episodes. CONCLUSIONS: NonScar/Purkinje-VTs can be identified in 5.4% of patients undergoing VT ablation in the setting of structural heart disease. Careful effort to induce, characterize, and map these VTs is important because substrate-based ablation strategies would fail to eliminate these types of VT.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA