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1.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032103

RESUMO

Optimal analgesia is an integral part of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs designed to improve patients' perioperative experience and outcomes. Regional anesthetic techniques in a form of various fascial plane chest wall blocks are an important adjunct to the optimal postoperative analgesia in cardiac surgery. The most common application of fascial plane chest wall blocks has been for minimally invasive cardiac surgical procedures. An abundance of case reports has been described in the anesthesia literature and reports appear promising, yet higher-level safety and efficacy evidence is lacking. Those providing anesthesia for minimally invasive cardiac procedures should become familiar with fascial plane anatomy and block techniques to be able to provide enhanced postsurgical analgesia and facilitate faster functional recovery and earlier discharge. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of contemporary fascial plane chest wall blocks used for analgesia in cardiothoracic surgery. Specifically, we focus on relevant anatomic considerations and technical descriptions including pectoralis I and II, serratus anterior, pectointercostal fascial, transverse thoracic muscle, and erector spine plane blocks. In addition, we provide a summary of reported local anesthetic doses used for these blocks and a current state of the literature investigating their efficacy, duration, and comparisons with standard practices. Finally, we hope to stimulate further research with a focus on delineating mechanisms of action of novel emerging blocks, appropriate dosing regimens, and subsequent analysis of their effect on patient outcomes.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes appears to provide benefit in patients having noncardiac surgery; however, whether it is beneficial in patients having cardiac surgery is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients having elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass through a median sternotomy approach who received mechanical ventilation with a single lumen endotracheal tube from January 2010 to mid-August 2016. Time-weighted average tidal volume (milliliter per kilogram predicted body weight [PBW]) during the duration of surgery excluding cardiopulmonary bypass was analyzed. The association between tidal volumes and postoperative oxygenation (measured by arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio [PaO2/FIO2]), impaired oxygenation (PaO2/FIO2<300), and clinical outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Of 9359 cardiac surgical patients, larger tidal volumes were associated with slightly worse postoperative oxygenation. Postoperative PaO2/FIO2 decreased an estimated 1.05% per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume (97.5% confidence interval [CI], -1.74 to -0.37; PBon = .0005). An increase in intraoperative tidal volumes was also associated with increased odds of impaired oxygenation (odds ratio [OR; 97.5% CI]: 1.08 [1.02-1.14] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PBon = .0029), slightly longer intubation time (5% per 1 mL/kg increase in tidal volume (hazard ratio [98.33% CI], 0.95 [0.93-0.98] per 1 mL/kg PBW; PBon < .0001), and increased mortality (OR [98.33% CI], 1.34 [1.06-1.70] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PHolm = .0144). An increase in intraoperative tidal volumes was also associated with acute postoperative respiratory failure (OR [98.33% CI], 1.16 [1.03-1.32] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PHolm = .0146), but not other pulmonary complications. CONCLUSIONS: Lower time-weighted average intraoperative tidal volumes were associated with a very modest improvement in postoperative oxygenation in patients having cardiac surgery.

5.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(1): 1-9, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688087

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The demand for well-tolerated, effective, and opioid reducing pain management has become imperative in thoracic surgery. With the recent movement away from neuraxial analgesia for thoracic surgical patients, great interest in alternative analgesic techniques of the chest wall has developed. Multiple fascial plane blocks have been developed for pain management of the lateral chest wall and we present an up-to-date review of these popular new interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: The pectoralis and serratus anterior plane blocks may offer effective analgesia of the lateral chest wall for thoracic surgical patients. The erector spinae plane block may offer more extensive analgesic coverage but requires further investigation. SUMMARY: Fascial plane blocks hold the potential for well-tolerated and effective analgesia for thoracic surgical patients as part of a multimodal regimen of pain relief. However, many questions remain regarding block characteristics. As the literature matures, more formal recommendations will be made but quality trials are needed to provide this guidance.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Cirurgia Torácica , Humanos , Dor , Manejo da Dor
6.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): 1468-1473, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain after cardiac surgery is largely treated with opioids, but their poor safety profile makes nonopioid medications attractive as part of multimodal pathways. Anti-inflammatory drugs reduce acute postoperative pain, but the role of steroids in reducing acute poststernotomy pain is unclear. We evaluated the association between the intraoperative administration of methylprednisolone and postoperative analgesia, defined as a composite of pain scores and opioid consumption, during the initial 24 hours after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc retrospective analysis of a large clinical trial in which adults having cardiac surgery were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 intraoperative doses of 250 mg IV methylprednisolone or placebo. Pain scores and opioid consumption were collected during the initial 24 hours after surgery. Methylprednisolone was considered to be associated with better pain control than placebo if proven noninferior (not worse) on both pain scores (defined a priori with delta of 1 point) and opioid consumption (delta of 20%) and superior to placebo in at least 1 of the 2 outcomes. This test was repeated in the opposite direction (testing whether placebo is better than methylprednisolone on postoperative pain management). RESULTS: Of 251 eligible patients, 127 received methylprednisolone and 124 received placebo. Methylprednisolone was noninferior to placebo on pain with difference in mean (CI) pain scores of -0.25 (-0.71 to 0.21); P < .001. However, methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on opioid consumption (ratio of geometric means [CI]: 1.11 [0.64-1.91]; P = .37). Because methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on both outcomes, we did not proceed to superiority testing based on the a priori stopping rules. Similar results were found when testing the opposite direction. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, we could not identify a beneficial analgesic effect after cardiac surgery associated with methylprednisolone administration. There are currently no data to suggest that methylprednisolone has significant analgesic benefit in adults having cardiac surgery.

7.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain after cardiac surgery is largely treated with opioids, but their poor safety profile makes nonopioid medications attractive as part of multimodal pathways. Anti-inflammatory drugs reduce acute postoperative pain, but the role of steroids in reducing acute poststernotomy pain is unclear. We evaluated the association between the intraoperative administration of methylprednisolone and postoperative analgesia, defined as a composite of pain scores and opioid consumption, during the initial 24 hours after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc retrospective analysis of a large clinical trial in which adults having cardiac surgery were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 intraoperative doses of 250 mg IV methylprednisolone or placebo. Pain scores and opioid consumption were collected during the initial 24 hours after surgery. Methylprednisolone was considered to be associated with better pain control than placebo if proven noninferior (not worse) on both pain scores (defined a priori with delta of 1 point) and opioid consumption (delta of 20%) and superior to placebo in at least 1 of the 2 outcomes. This test was repeated in the opposite direction (testing whether placebo is better than methylprednisolone on postoperative pain management). RESULTS: Of 251 eligible patients, 127 received methylprednisolone and 124 received placebo. Methylprednisolone was noninferior to placebo on pain with difference in mean (CI) pain scores of -0.25 (-0.71 to 0.21); P < .001. However, methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on opioid consumption (ratio of geometric means [CI]: 1.11 [0.64-1.91]; P = .37). Because methylprednisolone was not noninferior to placebo on both outcomes, we did not proceed to superiority testing based on the a priori stopping rules. Similar results were found when testing the opposite direction. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, we could not identify a beneficial analgesic effect after cardiac surgery associated with methylprednisolone administration. There are currently no data to suggest that methylprednisolone has significant analgesic benefit in adults having cardiac surgery.

8.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 108(1): e19-e20, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597141

RESUMO

Use of continuous erector spinae plane (ESP) blocks for pectus excavatum repair may be a valuable alternative to thoracic epidural placement. This report describes the successful use of bilateral ESP blocks in 2 patients with complex medical histories in which thoracic epidural placement was either contraindicated or unsuccessful. The benefits of continuous ESP blocks in this subset of patients include pain control with a focus on opioid sparing, early extubation, decreased atelectasis, improved mobilization and physical therapy, and decreased length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Tórax em Funil/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor
11.
Anesth Analg ; 105(6): 1720-1, table of contents, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18042873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe maxillofacial trauma pose a challenge when their airways must be secured. Often, emergent surgical airways are established when largyngoscopy or fiberoptic intubation are unsuccessful. When an airway cannot be surgically established, the anesthesiologist is forced to use novel approaches to airway management, but there are few descriptions of such techniques in the literature. METHODS: After unsuccessful laryngoscopy and a failed cricothyroidotomy and tracheostomy in a patient with deforming maxillofacial trauma, a gum-elastic bougie was inserted retrograde through a tracheal defect in a cephalad manner and exited the patient's mouth. RESULTS: The patient was successfully intubated using a modified retrograde technique through a tracheal defect with a gum-elastic bougie. CONCLUSIONS: When an uncontrolled airway cannot be secured surgically and a tracheal defect is present, retrograde intubation with a gum-elastic bougie may be considered as an emergent management option.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/terapia , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Adulto , Elasticidade , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 87(4): 742-7, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15805201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study evaluates the minimum five-year results of vascularized fibular grafting for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The purposes of the present study were to review the results of fibular grafting in a large series of patients and to determine the indications for this procedure. METHODS: Eighty-six patients (101 hips) were followed clinically for a minimum of five years (or until the time of death). The study group included fourteen Marcus-Enneking stage-2 hips, twenty-three stage-3 hips, and sixty-four stage-4 hips. Three patients (three hips) died from unrelated causes before the five-year evaluation, and two patients (two hips) died after the five-year evaluation. Radiographic assessment was performed with use of the Marcus-Enneking grading system, and clinical assessment was performed with use of the Harris hip-scoring system. The end point was conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Patient satisfaction was also assessed. RESULTS: Sixty-two hips (61%) survived until the time of the five-year follow-up, and forty-two hips (42%) survived until the time of the interview (at a median of eight years postoperatively). The average Harris hip score was 58 +/- 13 at the time of presentation and 80 +/- 15 at five years. Eight (57%) of the Marcus-Enneking stage-2 hips, sixteen (70%) of the stage-3 hips, and thirty-eight (59%) of the stage-4 hips survived for at least five years. Of the eighty-one living patients (including forty-one who had a successful outcome and forty who had had a failure), forty-six patients (including twenty-one who had a successful outcome and twenty-five who had had a failure) stated that they would undergo the procedure again. CONCLUSIONS: Vascularized fibular grafting may provide a chance for normal hip function in the intermediate or long term in carefully selected patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head.


Assuntos
Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fíbula/transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Artroplastia de Quadril , Feminino , Fíbula/irrigação sanguínea , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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