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Andes Pediatr ; 93(2): 270-275, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735308


Herpes Zoster (HZ) is rare in childhood and is defined as the reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus in patients who have previously been infected with varicella. When the virus affects the ophthal mic nerve it is called herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) and it can produce, among other symptoms, acute headache, so it must be considered as a differential diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To describe a clinical case of HZO in a pediatric patient and to recognize its clinical manifestations and their importance in the differential diagnosis of acute headache in children. CLINICAL CASE: Immunocompetent 11-year- old girl, vaccinated according to the recommended immunization schedule, excluding chickenpox vaccine due to past infection, presented to the emergency department (ED) with a 5-day long uni lateral headache. After 36 hours of hospitalization, she presented vesicular cutaneous lesions in her forehead, left upper eyelid, and nose. Positive fluorescein stain dendritic corneal lesions were iden tified in the ophthalmic exam. Antiviral systemic and topic therapy were set, obtaining an initial good response, but later she presented complications such as postherpetic neuralgia one month after hospital discharge and several postherpetic neuralgia episodes despite treatment with gabapentin in addition to two herpes zoster ophthalmicus relapses with acute keratouveitis one year after the initial episode. CONCLUSION: It is essential to include HZO in the differential diagnosis of acute headache, especially when presented unilaterally and/or with ocular symptoms, regardless of the presence of cutaneous lesions, and even more so in patients with history of chickenpox infection. Those patients who were vaccinated against this disease in their childhood will benefit from at least partial protection against HZO.

Varicela , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética , Varicela/complicações , Criança , Feminino , Cefaleia/complicações , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico/complicações , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico/diagnóstico , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesvirus Humano 3/fisiologia , Humanos , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/complicações
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 24(94)abr. - jun. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-212125


Los casos de intoxicación por ingesta de cianuro en niños son raros. La almendra amarga contiene amigdalina y se descompone tras su ingesta, produciendo ácido cianhídrico que bloquea el uso celular del oxígeno, lo que ocasiona afectación de órganos diana. Presentamos un caso de sospecha de intoxicación por cianuro en un niño de 3 años tras ingesta de almendras amargas. El diagnóstico de sospecha se estableció con base en la clínica gastrointestinal y neurológica y en el hallazgo gasométrico de acidosis metabólica con hiperlactacidemia y anión GAP aumentado, lo cual es muy específico de esta entidad. No se pudieron determinar los niveles de cianuro en ningún laboratorio habitual de España, tampoco en el Instituto Toxicológico Nacional y Ciencias Forenses sin disponer de orden judicial. Ante la clínica inespecífica y las dificultades para determinar la concentración de cianuro en sangre, debe ofrecerse tratamiento precoz y antídoto específico ante la sospecha de intoxicación por cianuro (AU)

Cyanide poisoning in children is rare. Bitter almonds contain amygdalin, and hydrolysis of this compound following ingestion yields hydrocyanic acid, which inhibits cellular oxygen use and therefore causes target organ damage. We present a case of suspected cyanide poisoning in a child aged 3 years after the ingestion of bitter almonds. The diagnosis was based on the gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms and the detection of metabolic acidosis with hyperlacticaemia and a high anion gap, which are highly specific for this type of poisoning. Blood cyanide levels could not be measured in any clinical laboratory in Spain, and it was also not possible to do it in the National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences without a court order. Given the non-specific symptoms and the difficulty of measuring the concentration of cyanide in blood, treatment should be initiated early with administration of specific antidote if cyanide poisoning is suspected. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Prunus dulcis/efeitos adversos , Prunus dulcis/química , Cianetos/toxicidade