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1.
Transplantation ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart transplant (HT) recipients may be at higher risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and developing critical illness. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics and outcomes of HT recipients infected by SARS-COV-2, from a high-volume transplant center. METHODS: We have described data of all adult HT recipients with confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal samples from April 5th,2020 to January 5th, 2021. Outcomes and follow-up were recorded until February 5th, 2021. RESULTS: Forty patients were included. Twenty-four patients (60%) were men; the median age was 53 (40-60) years old; median HT time was 34 months and median follow-up time 162 days. The majority needed hospitalization (83%). Immunosuppressive therapy was reduced/withdrawn in the majority of patients, except from steroids, which were maintained. Seventeen patients (42.5%) were classified as having severe disease according to the ordinal scale developed by the WHO Committee. They tended to have lower absolute lymphocyte count (p<0.001) during follow-up when compared to patients with mild disease. Thirty-day mortality was 12.5%. However, a longer follow-up revealed increased later mortality (27.5%), with median time to death around 35 days. Bacterial nosocomial infections were a leading cause of death. Cardiac allograft rejection (10%) and ventricular dysfunction (12.5%) were also not negligible. CONCLUSIONS: Major findings of this study corroborate other cohorts' results, but it also reports significant rate of later events, suggesting that a strict mid-term surveillance is advisable to HT recipients with COVID-19.

4.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2471-2479, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471512

RESUMO

COVID-19 is still placing a heavy health and financial burden worldwide. Impairment in patient screening and risk management plays a fundamental role on how governments and authorities are directing resources, planning reopening, as well as sanitary countermeasures, especially in regions where poverty is a major component in the equation. An efficient diagnostic method must be highly accurate, while having a cost-effective profile. We combined a machine learning-based algorithm with mass spectrometry to create an expeditious platform that discriminate COVID-19 in plasma samples within minutes, while also providing tools for risk assessment, to assist healthcare professionals in patient management and decision-making. A cross-sectional study enrolled 815 patients (442 COVID-19, 350 controls and 23 COVID-19 suspicious) from three Brazilian epicenters from April to July 2020. We were able to elect and identify 19 molecules related to the disease's pathophysiology and several discriminating features to patient's health-related outcomes. The method applied for COVID-19 diagnosis showed specificity >96% and sensitivity >83%, and specificity >80% and sensitivity >85% during risk assessment, both from blinded data. Our method introduced a new approach for COVID-19 screening, providing the indirect detection of infection through metabolites and contextualizing the findings with the disease's pathophysiology. The pairwise analysis of biomarkers brought robustness to the model developed using machine learning algorithms, transforming this screening approach in a tool with great potential for real-world application.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metabolômica , Adulto , Idoso , Automação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , /isolamento & purificação
8.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 114(6): 1051-1057, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638896

RESUMO

Infection with the coronavirus known as COVID-19 has promoted growing interest on the part of cardiologists, emergency care specialists, intensive care specialists, and researchers, due to the study of myocardial involvement based on different clinical forms resulting from immunoinflammatory and neurohumoral demodulation.Myocardial involvement may be minimal and identifiable only by electrocardiographic changes, mainly increased cardiac troponins, or, on the other side of the spectrum, by forms of fulminant myocarditis and takotsubo syndrome.The description of probable acute myocarditis has been widely supported by the observation of increased troponin in association with dysfunction. Classical definition of myocarditis, supported by endomyocardial biopsy of inflammatory infiltrate, is rare; it has been observed in only one case report to date, and the virus has not been identified inside cardiomyocytes.Thus, the phenomenon that has been documented is acute myocardial injury, making it necessary to rule our obstructive coronary disease based on increased markers of myocardial necrosis, whether or not they are associated with ventricular dysfunction, likely associated with cytokine storms and other factors that may synergistically promote myocardial injury, such as sympathetic hyperactivation, hypoxemia, arterial hypotension, and microvascular thrombotic phenomena.Systemic inflammatory and myocardial phenomena following viral infection have been well documented, and they may progress to cardiac remodeling and myocardial dysfunction. Cardiac monitoring of these patients is, therefore, important in order to monitor the development of the phenotype of dilated myocardiopathy.This review presents the main etiological and physiopathological findings, a description of the taxonomy of these types of cardiac involvement, and their correlation with the main clinical forms of the myocardial component present in patients in the acute phase of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Miocardite , Miocárdio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
9.
Curr Pharm Des ; 26(28): 3351-3384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493185

RESUMO

Heart transplantation is the standard of therapy for patients with end-stage heart disease. Since the first human-to-human heart transplantation, performed in 1967, advances in organ donation, surgical techniques, organ preservation, perioperative care, immunologic risk assessment, immunosuppression agents, monitoring of graft function and surveillance of long-term complications have drastically increased recipient survival. However, there are yet many challenges in the modern era of heart transplantation in which immunosuppression may play a key role in further advances in the field. A fine-tuning of immune modulation to prevent graft rejection while avoiding side effects from over immunosuppression has been the vital goal of basic and clinical research. Individualization of drug choices and strategies, taking into account the recipient's clinical characteristics, underlying heart failure diagnosis, immunologic risk and comorbidities seem to be the ideal approaches to improve post-transplant morbidity and survival while preventing both rejection and complications of immunosuppression. The aim of the present review is to provide a practical, comprehensive overview of contemporary immunosuppression in heart transplantation. Clinical evidence for immunosuppressive drugs is reviewed and practical approaches are provided. Cardiac allograft rejection classification and up-to-date management are summarized. Expanding therapies, such as photophoresis, are outlined. Drug-to-drug interactions of immunosuppressive agents focused on cardiovascular medications are summarized. Special situations involving heart transplantation such as sarcoidosis, Chagas diseases and pediatric immunosuppression are also reviewed. The evolution of phamacogenomics to individualize immunosuppressive therapy is described. Finally, future perspectives in the field of immunosuppression in heart transplantation are highlighted.

10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(6): 1051-1057, Jun., 2020. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1131239

RESUMO

Resumo A infecção pelo coronavírus denominada COVID-19 promoveu crescente interesse de cardiologistas, emergencistas, intensivistas e pesquisadores, pelo estudo do acometimento miocárdico partindo de diferentes formas clínicas decorrentes de desmodulação imunoinflamatória e neuro-humoral.O acometimento miocárdico pode ser mínimo e apenas identificado a partir de alterações eletrocardiográficas, principalmente por aumento de troponinas cardíacas, ou no outro lado do espectro pelas formas de miocardite fulminante e síndrome de takotsubo.A descrição de provável miocardite aguda tem sido comumente apoiada pela observação da troponina elevada em associação com disfunção. A clássica definição de miocardite, respaldada pela biópsia endomiocárdica de infiltrado inflamatório é rara, e foi observada em um único relato de caso até o momento, não se identificando o vírus no interior dos cardiomiócitos.Assim, o fenômeno que se tem documentado é de injúria miocárdica aguda, sendo obrigatório afastar doença coronária obstrutiva a partir da elevação de marcadores de necrose miocárdica, associada ou não à disfunção ventricular, provavelmente associada à tempestade de citoquinas e outros fatores que podem sinergicamente promover lesão miocárdica, tais como hiperativação simpática, hipoxemia, hipotensão arterial e fenômenos trombóticos microvasculares.Fenômenos inflamatórios sistêmicos e miocárdicos após infecção viral estão bem documentados, podendo evoluir para remodelamento cardíaco e disfunção miocárdica. Portanto, será importante a cardiovigilância desses indivíduos para monitorar o desenvolvimento do fenótipo de miocardiopatia dilatada.A presente revisão apresenta os principais achados etiofisiopatológicos, descrição da taxonomia desses tipos de acometimento cardíaco e sua correlação com as principais formas clínicas do componente miocárdico presente nos pacientes na fase aguda de COVID-19.


Abstract Infection with the coronavirus known as COVID-19 has promoted growing interest on the part of cardiologists, emergency care specialists, intensive care specialists, and researchers, due to the study of myocardial involvement based on different clinical forms resulting from immunoinflammatory and neurohumoral demodulation.Myocardial involvement may be minimal and identifiable only by electrocardiographic changes, mainly increased cardiac troponins, or, on the other side of the spectrum, by forms of fulminant myocarditis and takotsubo syndrome.The description of probable acute myocarditis has been widely supported by the observation of increased troponin in association with dysfunction. Classical definition of myocarditis, supported by endomyocardial biopsy of inflammatory infiltrate, is rare; it has been observed in only one case report to date, and the virus has not been identified inside cardiomyocytes.Thus, the phenomenon that has been documented is acute myocardial injury, making it necessary to rule our obstructive coronary disease based on increased markers of myocardial necrosis, whether or not they are associated with ventricular dysfunction, likely associated with cytokine storms and other factors that may synergistically promote myocardial injury, such as sympathetic hyperactivation, hypoxemia, arterial hypotension, and microvascular thrombotic phenomena.Systemic inflammatory and myocardial phenomena following viral infection have been well documented, and they may progress to cardiac remodeling and myocardial dysfunction. Cardiac monitoring of these patients is, therefore, important in order to monitor the development of the phenotype of dilated myocardiopathy.This review presents the main etiological and physiopathological findings, a description of the taxonomy of these types of cardiac involvement, and their correlation with the main clinical forms of the myocardial component present in patients in the acute phase of COVID-19.

11.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(4): 1744-1752, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383349

RESUMO

AIMS: Exhaled breath acetone (EBA) has been described as a new biomarker of heart failure (HF) diagnosis. EBA concentration increases according to severity of HF and is associated with poor prognosis, especially in acute decompensated HF. However, there are no data on chronic HF patients. The aim is to evaluate the role of EBA for predicting cardiac and overall mortality in chronic HF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In GENIUS-HF cohort, chronic patients were enrolled between August 2012 and December 2014. All patients had left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 50%, and the diagnosis was established according to Framingham criteria. After consent, patients were submitted to clinical evaluation and exhaled breath collection. EBA identification and quantitative determination were done by spectrophotometry. The clinical characteristics associated with acetone were identified. All participants were followed for 18 months to assess cardiac and overall mortality. Around 700 participants were enrolled in the current analysis. Patients were 55.4 ± 12.2 years old, 67.6% male patients, and 81% New York Heart Association I/II with left ventricular ejection fraction of 32 ± 8.6%. EBA median concentration was 0.6 (0.3-1.2) ug/L. Acetone levels increased with the number of symptoms of HF and were associated with right HF signs/symptoms and liver biochemical changes. EBA at highest quartile (EBA > 1.2ug/L) was associated with a significantly worse prognosis (log rank test, P < 0.001). Cox proportional multivariable regression model revealed that EBA > 1.20ug/L was an independent predictor of cardiac (P = 0.011) and overall (P = 0.010) mortality in our population. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that EBA levels reflect clinical HF features, especially right HF signs/symptoms. EBA is an independent predictor of cardiac and overall mortality in chronic HF patients.

12.
Am J Transplant ; 20(5): 1451-1453, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834977

RESUMO

Epipericardial fat necrosis is an uncommon clinical condition of unknown etiology. It typically presents as acute pleuritic chest pain and should be differentiated from acute pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome. This condition is diagnosed by characteristic chest computed tomography findings of an ovoid mediastinal fatty lesion with intrinsic and surrounding soft-tissue stranding. Treatment of epipericardial fat necrosis includes the administration of anti-inflammatory agents, and symptoms usually resolve within a few days after treatment initiation. This disease entity has rarely been reported since it was first described in 1957. Most current knowledge of epipericardial fat necrosis is based on case reports that describe this condition in previously healthy individuals. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman with a history of heart transplant, who presented with chest pain secondary to epipericardial fat necrosis. Serial computed tomography revealed lesion resolution after appropriate treatment.

13.
Transplantation ; 104(4): 873-880, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the prevention of fractures after heart transplant (HTx) are controversial in the literature. Understanding the effects of HTx on bone may guide appropriate treatments in this high-risk population. METHODS: Seventy adult HTx patients were followed for 12 months. Clinical and laboratory parameters, bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and vertebral fractures were assessed at baseline (after intensive care unit discharge) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients received recommendations regarding calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation after HTx. RESULTS: At baseline, 27% of patients had osteoporosis, associated with the length of hospitalization before HTx (P = 0.001). Bone mineral density decreased in the first 6 months, with partial recovery later. Bone microarchitecture deteriorated, mainly in the trabecular bone in the first 6 months and cortical bone in the subsequent 6 months. At baseline, 92.9% of patients had vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL and 20.0% <10 ng/mL. Patients also had calcium at the lower limit of normal, high alkaline phosphatase, and high bone resorption biomarker. These abnormalities were suggestive of impaired bone mineralization and normalized at 6 months with correction of vitamin D deficiency. The majority of vertebral fractures were identified at baseline (23% of patients). After multivariate analyses, only a lower fat mass persisted as a risk factor for vertebral fractures (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.47; P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: High frequencies of densitometric osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency, bone markers abnormalities, and vertebral fractures were observed shortly after HTx. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation should be the first step in correcting bone mineralization impairment before specific osteoporosis treatment.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Remodelação Óssea , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 251, 2019 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide. It is associated with high mortality and poor quality of life due to recurrent and costly hospital admissions. Several studies have been conducted to describe HF risk predictors in different races, countries and health systems. Nonetheless, understanding population-specific determinants of HF outcomes remains a great challenge. We aim to evaluate predictors of 1-year survival of individuals with systolic heart failure from the GENIUS-HF cohort. METHODS: We enrolled 700 consecutive patients with systolic heart failure from the SPA outpatient clinic of the Heart Institute, a tertiary health-center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 80 years old with heart failure diagnosis of different etiologies and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50% in the previous 2 years of enrollment on the cohort. We recorded baseline demographic and clinical characteristics and followed-up patients at 6 months intervals by telephone interview. Study data were collected and data quality assurance by the Research Electronic Data Capture tools. Time to death was studied using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographic, clinical and socioeconomic variables and medication use. RESULTS: We screened 2314 consecutive patients for eligibility and enrolled 700 participants. The overall mortality was 6.8% (47 patients); the composite outcome of death and hospitalization was 17.7% (123 patients) and 1% (7 patients) have been submitted to heart transplantation after one year of enrollment. After multivariate adjustment, baseline values of blood urea nitrogen (HR 1.017; CI 95% 1.008-1.027; p < 0.001), brain natriuretic peptide (HR 1.695; CI 95% 1.347-2.134; p < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (HR 0.982;CI 95% 0.969-0.995; p = 0.008) were independently associated with death within 1 year. Kaplan Meier curves showed that ischemic patients have worse survival free of death and hospitalization compared to other etiologies. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of BUN and BNP and low systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of one-year overall mortality in our sample. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials NTC02043431, retrospectively registered at in January 23, 2014.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
16.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 16(1): 7-11, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Heart transplantation is the gold standard treatment for advanced heart failure. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), despite being a good option for these patients, are not quite available in developing countries. Time spent in heart transplant waiting list has increased lately even in regions where the number of transplants has also risen showing that a new strategy should be sought. RECENT FINDINGS: Transplant process organization combined with multidisciplinary work are linked to better outcomes while improvement in donor's care and in pre-transplant evaluation might be opportunities to change the long waiting list scenario. For the first time in Brazil, a survey with the most expressive heart transplant centers has been made, which allows an overview of treatment of advanced heart failure in a developing country. We also described a model of heart transplant team, which has proved to be a success when compared to the largest heart transplant centers in Latin America.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Listas de Espera , Brasil , Humanos
17.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 111(3): 436-539, 2018 09.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379264
19.
Rohde, Luis Eduardo Paim; Montera, Marcelo Westerlund; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Clausell, Nadine Oliveira; Albuquerque, Denilson Campos de; Rassi, Salvador; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano; Junior, Aguinaldo Figueiredo de Freitas; Ferraz, Almir Sergio; Biolo, Andreia; Barretto, Antonio C Pereira; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz Pinho; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Almeida, Dirceu Rodrigues; Silva, Eneida Rejane Rabelo da; Figueiredo, Estêvão Lanna; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marcondes-Braga, Fabiana G; Cruz, Fátima das Dores da; Ramires, Felix José Alvarez; Atik, Fernando Antibas; Bacal, Fernando; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Junior, Gustavo Luiz Gouvêa de Almeida; Ribeiro, Gustavo Calado de Aguiar; Junior, Humberto Villacorta; Vieira, Jefferson Luís; Neto, João David de Souza; Neto, João Manoel Rossi; Neto, Jose Albuquerque de Figueiredo; Moura, Lidia Ana Zytynsky; Goldraich, Livia Adams; Silva, Luis Beck-da; Danzmann, Luiz Claudio; Canesin, Manoel Fernandes; Bittencourt, Marcelo Imbroinise; Garcia, Marcelo Iorio; Bonatto, Marcely Gimenes; Simões, Marcus Vinícius; Moreira, Maria da Consolação Vieira; Silva, Miguel Morita Fernandes da; Junior, Mucio Tavares de Olivera; Silvestre, Odilson Marcos; Schwartzmann, Pedro Vellosa; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; Rocha, Ricardo Mourilhe; Simões, Ricardo; Pereira, Sabrina Bernardez; Mangini, Sandrigo; Alves, Sílvia Marinho Martins; Ferreira, Silvia Moreira Ayub; Issa, Victor Sarli; Barzilai, Vitor Salvatore; Martins, Wolney de Andrade.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(3): 436-539, Sept. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1151685

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A organização de uma diretriz clínica é tarefa complexa, que necessariamente deve envolver planejamento prévio, coordenação apropriada, revisão aprofundada da literatura científica, com envolvimento de múltiplos profissionais da área da saúde com notório reconhecimento. A elaboração de uma diretriz clínica de insuficiência cardíaca é ainda mais difícil, por conta da complexidade da síndrome, da amplitude das evidências científicas que permeiam o tópico e do grande impacto que as recomendações propostas têm sobre os pacientes, a comunidade médica e a sociedade como um todo. No presente documento, o Departamento de Insuficiência Cardíaca (DEIC) da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (SBC) apresenta uma revisão e uma atualização detalhadas de sua Diretriz de Insuficiência Cardíaca Crônica. Os trabalhos se iniciaram em setembro de 2017, com a definição da Comissão Coordenadora, que estabeleceu prioridades, dividiu grupos de trabalho e definiu o cronograma das atividades. Os grupos de trabalho, compostos por três a cinco participantes, deram início a intensas discussões virtuais, que culminaram com a redação de tabelas preliminares, sendo posteriormente amplamente divulgadas e revisadas pelos 34 participantes da diretriz. As discussões finais foram realizadas em reunião presencial em março de 2018, com a participação de todos os colaboradores, nas quais as principais recomendações foram votadas individualmente. As decisões quanto à classe das recomendações foram definidas por maioria plena (concordância de mais de 75% dos participantes). As recomendações terapêuticas propostas no presente documento se embasam nas evidências científicas mais atuais, considerando não apenas aspectos de eficácia clínica demonstrados em grandes ensaios clínicos, mas também contextualizando seus achados para o cenário de saúde brasileiro e incorporando aspectos econômicos definidos em estudos de custo-efetividade. Buscamos sumarizar as principais recomendações em fluxogramas e algoritmos de fácil entendimento e grande aplicabilidade clínica, propondo abordagens para o diagnóstico e o tratamento da síndrome em formato moderno, atualizado e didático. Na última seção da diretriz, o que não podemos deixar de fazer e o que não devemos fazer no diagnóstico, prevenção e tratamento da síndrome foram sumarizados em apenas três tabelas. Em especial, destacamos seis intervenções que foram consideradas de alta prioridade, por apresentarem relações de custo-efetividade altamente favoráveis. Sobretudo, esperamos que a publicação deste documento possa auxiliar na redução das elevadas taxas de mortalidade que ainda estão associadas com a insuficiência cardíaca no Brasil, além de minimizar o cruel impacto que a síndrome causa na qualidade de vida de nossos pacientes. Acreditamos que esta diretriz apresenta, de forma hierarquizada, a linha mestra que deve nortear a prática clínica em diferentes níveis de atenção à saúde, permitindo reconhecimento precoce de pacientes em risco, diagnóstico apropriado e implementação de tratamento de forma escalonada, eficaz e coerente com nossa realidade.


Assuntos
Guia de Prática Clínica , Insuficiência Cardíaca
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