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1.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; : 1-8, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477898

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Professional football players experience both physical and mental fatigue (MF). The main aims of this randomized crossover study were to investigate the effect of MF on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and the effects of both physical fatigue and MF on psychomotor vigilance. METHODS: Seventeen male professional football players performed 10 maximal 20-m shuttle sprints interspaced by incomplete recovery (RSA test). Running speed, heart rate, brain oxygenation, and rating of perceived exertion were monitored during each sprint. The RSA test was preceded by either a 30-minute Stroop task to induce MF or by watching a documentary for 30 minutes (control [CON]) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Participants performed a psychomotor vigilance test at baseline, after the cognitive task (MF or CON), and after the RSA test. RESULTS: Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion significantly increased, while running speed and brain oxygenation significantly decreased over the repeated sprints (P < .001) with no significant differences between conditions. Response speed during the psychomotor vigilance test significantly declined after the Stroop task but not after CON (P = .001). Response speed during the psychomotor vigilance test declined after the RSA test in both conditions (P < .001) and remained lower in the MF condition compared to CON (P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: MF does not reduce RSA. However, the results of this study suggest that physical fatigue and MF have negative and cumulative effects on psychomotor vigilance. Therefore, strategies to reduce both physical fatigue and MF should be implemented in professional football players.

3.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 122(1): 141-155, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596759

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IP) on metaboreflex activation following dynamic leg extension exercise in a group of healthy participants. METHOD: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. IP and SHAM treatments (3 × 5 min cuff occlusion at 220 mmHg or 20 mmHg, respectively) were administered in a randomized order to the upper part of exercising leg's thigh only. Muscle pain intensity (MP) and pain pressure threshold (PPT) were monitored while administrating IP and SHAM treatments. After 3 min of leg extension exercise at 70% of the maximal workload, a post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) was performed to monitor the discharge group III/IV muscle afferents via metaboreflex activation. Hemodynamics were continuously recorded. MP was monitored during exercise and PEMI. RESULTS: IP significantly reduced mean arterial pressure compared to SHAM during metaboreflex activation (mean ± SD, 109.52 ± 7.25 vs. 102.36 ± 7.89 mmHg) which was probably the consequence of a reduced end diastolic volume (mean ± SD, 113.09 ± 14.25 vs. 102.42 ± 9.38 ml). MP was significantly higher during the IP compared to SHAM treatment, while no significant differences in PPT were found. MP did not change during exercise, but it was significantly lower during the PEMI following IP (5.10 ± 1.29 vs. 4.00 ± 1.54). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that IP reduces hemodynamic response during metaboreflex activation, while no effect on MP and PPT were found. The reduction in hemodynamic response was likely the consequence of a blunted venous return.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Precondicionamento Isquêmico , Articulação do Joelho/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Reflexo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor
4.
Sports Med ; 52(4): 709-724, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519982

RESUMO

A conceptual framework has a central role in the scientific process. Its purpose is to synthesize evidence, assist in understanding phenomena, inform future research and act as a reference operational guide in practical settings. We propose an updated conceptual framework intended to facilitate the validation and interpretation of physical training measures. This revised conceptual framework was constructed through a process of qualitative analysis involving a synthesis of the literature, analysis and integration with existing frameworks (Banister and PerPot models). We identified, expanded, and integrated four constructs that are important in the conceptualization of the process and outcomes of physical training. These are: (1) formal introduction of a new measurable component 'training effects', a higher-order construct resulting from the combined effect of four possible responses (acute and chronic, positive and negative); (2) explanation, clarification and examples of training effect measures such as performance, physiological, subjective and other measures (cognitive, biomechanical, etc.); (3) integration of the sport performance outcome continuum (from performance improvements to overtraining); (4) extension and definition of the network of linkages (uni and bidirectional) between individual and contextual factors and other constructs. Additionally, we provided constitutive and operational definitions, and examples of theoretical and practical applications of the framework. These include validation and conceptualization of constructs (e.g., performance readiness), and understanding of higher-order constructs, such as training tolerance, when monitoring training to adapt it to individual responses and effects. This proposed conceptual framework provides an overarching model that may help understand and guide the development, validation, implementation and interpretation of measures used for athlete monitoring.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos
5.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 17(3): 499-503, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sleep deprivation (SD) is very common during ultraendurance competitions. At present, stimulants such as caffeine and naps are the main strategies used to reduce the negative effects of SD on ultraendurance performance. In this case study, the authors describe the application of a novel strategy consisting of the intermittent repetition of SD (SD training [SDT]) during the weeks preceding an ultraendurance competition. METHODS: A male ultraendurance runner underwent a 6-week SDT program (consisting of 1 night SD every Sunday) in addition to his regular physical training program before taking part in a 6-day race. Before and after SDT, the participant performed 5 consecutive days of daily 2-hour constant-pace running with SD on the first and third night. Psychological and physiological responses were measured during this multiday test. RESULTS: SDT was well tolerated by the athlete. A visual analysis of the data suggests that including SDT in the weeks preceding an ultraendurance competition may have beneficial effects on sleepiness and perceived mental effort in the context of 5 consecutive days of prolonged running and 2 nights of SD. This multiday test seems a feasible way for assessing ultraendurance athletes in the laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: The results provided some encouraging initial information about SDT that needs to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial in a group of ultraendurance athletes. If confirmed to be effective and well tolerated, SDT might be used in the future to help ultraendurance athletes and other populations that have to perform in conditions of SD.


Assuntos
Corrida , Privação do Sono , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia
7.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; : 1-6, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335534

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Referees' physical and cognitive performance are important for successful officiating in team sports. There is a lack of research on cognitive performance of referees in general, and none in futsal. PURPOSE: To assess referees' performance on the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) before and after competitive futsal matches during the Football Association (FA) National Futsal League 2015/16. METHODS: Fourteen futsal referees (mean [SD] age 34.3 [10.0] y) from the FA National Futsal group were included. The referees were required to undertake a 10-min PVT 60 min before the match kickoff time (pretest) and immediately after matches (posttest). They also completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) questionnaire before the prematch PVT and after the postmatch PVT. RESULT: Data were analyzed by paired t tests comparing prematch and postmatch results. There was a significant difference in BRUMS parameters vigor (9.5 [2.5] prematch vs 6.3 [2.4] postmatch, P = .001) and fatigue (1.4 [1.3] prematch vs 5.6 [3.1] postmatch, P < .001). However, PVT performance was significantly improved (mean reaction time 248.3 [26.2] ms prematch vs 239.7 [22.4] ms postmatch, P = .023). CONCLUSIONS: The present results show, contrary to the authors' initial hypothesis, that psychomotor performance is improved as opposed to decreased after a single match. The postmatch improvement suggests that exercise can acutely enhance cognitive performance, which could be used to inform warm-up practices (eg, optimal duration and intensity) geared toward optimizing referees' cognitive performance during matches.

10.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(4): 716-721, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827356

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of inhaling 1600 µg of salbutamol (SAL) on 30 m sprint before and after the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test. In a randomised cross over single blind study 13 male non-asthmatic, football players volunteered (mean ± SD; age 18.1 ± 0.9 years; weight 69.5 ± 8.3 kg; height 1.78 ± 0.07 m). Participants completed two visits and were randomly assigned to either (SAL) or (PLA) treatment and performed a set of three sprints of 30 m before and after the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IRT). Best sprint and mean sprint were analysed in addition to the distance covered during the Yo-Yo IRT; rating of perceived exertion and heart rate were collected at the end of each level completed. Repeated measures ANOVA were performed to investigate changes in performance between groups. Following the inhalation of supra-therapeutic salbutamol dose (1600 µg) neither 30 m sprint time (PLA 4.43 ± 0.14 s; SAL 4.44 ± 0.15 s, p = 0.76) nor distance covered in the Yo-Yo IRT test reported significant variation between PLA conditions (1660 ± 217 m) and SAL (1610 ± 229 m, p = 0.16). Moreover, lactate values, heart rate and RPE did not differ significantly between groups. The inhalation of 1600 µg salbutamol does not enhance 30 m sprint performance in non-fatigued and fatigue conditions. Our findings suggest when football players acutely inhale double the permitted dose of salbutamol, as indicated in the World Anti-Doping Agency List of Prohibited Substances and Methods, they will not experience improvements in sprint or endurance performance.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Albuterol/farmacologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Afeto , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Motivação , Percepção/efeitos dos fármacos , Esforço Físico/efeitos dos fármacos , Corrida/psicologia , Método Simples-Cego , Futebol/psicologia
11.
J Psychol ; 153(8): 759-783, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188721

RESUMO

This investigation assessed the impact of three cognitively demanding tasks on cognitive performance, subjective, and physiological indicators of mental fatigue. Following familiarization, participants completed four testing sessions, separated by 48 h. During each session, participants watched a 45-min emotionally neutral documentary (control) or completed one of the following computer tasks: Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT); AX-Continuous Performance Test (AX-CPT); or Stroop Task. Mental fatigue was assessed before and at regular periods for 60 min following the 45-min treatments. Cognitive performance was assessed using 3-min PVT, and task performance. Subjective assessments were conducted using the Brunel Mood Scale, and visual analog scales (VAS). Physiological indicators of mental fatigue included electroencephalography (EEG), and heart rate variability (HRV). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue increased from pre to 0-min post in all-treatments, but not the documentary (p < 0.05). Subjective fatigue (VAS) remained higher (p < 0.05) than pretreatment values for 20-, 50-, and 60-min following the PVT, Stroop, and AX-CPT respectively. The cognitively demanding tasks had unclear effects on 3-min PVT, EEG, and HRV assessments. Tasks requiring response inhibition appear to induce fatigue for longer durations than a simple vigilance task. Simple VAS appear to be the most practical method for assessing mental fatigue.


Assuntos
Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Physiol Behav ; 202: 36-44, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658064

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that subjective thermal strain can reduce endurance performance independently from the general physiological strain normally associated with impaired endurance performance in the heat. METHODS: In 20 °C and 44% relative humidity, 12 endurance-trained athletes (1♀ 11♂; mean ±â€¯SD; age: 27 ±â€¯6 y; VO2max: 61 ±â€¯6 ml/kg/min) performed a time to exhaustion (TTE) test in two different experimental conditions: with an electric heat pad applied to the subjects' upper back (HP) and control (CON: without heat pad). In both conditions, subjects cycled to volitional exhaustion at 70% of their VO2max. Cardiorespiratory, metabolic, thermoregulatory and perceptual responses were measured throughout the TTE test and compared at 0%, 50% and 100% isotime and at exhaustion. RESULTS: TTE was reduced by 9% in HP (2092 ±â€¯305 s) compared to CON (2292 ±â€¯344 s; p = .023). The main effect of condition on thermal discomfort at isotime (p = .002), the effect of condition on thermal sensation at 0% isotime (p = .004) and the condition by isotime interaction on rating of perceived exertion (p = .036) indicated higher subjective thermal strain in HP compared to CON. None of the measured cardiorespiratory, metabolic and thermoregulatory variables differed significantly between conditions. CONCLUSION: Our novel experimental manipulation (HP) was able to induce significant subjective thermal strain and reduce endurance performance in a temperate environment without inducing the general physiological strain normally associated with impaired endurance performance in the heat. These results suggest that subjective thermal strain is an important and independent mediator of the heat-induced impairment in endurance performance.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 14(2): 270-273, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614348

RESUMO

Exercise is a stressor that induces various psychophysiological responses, which mediate cellular adaptations in many organ systems. To maximize this adaptive response, coaches and scientists need to control the stress applied to the athlete at the individual level. To achieve this, precise control and manipulation of the training load are required. In 2003, the authors introduced a theoretical framework to define and conceptualize the measurable constructs of the training process. They described training load as having 2 measurable components: internal and external load. The aim of this commentary is to extend, clarify, and refine both the theoretical framework and the definitions of internal and external training load to avoid misinterpretation of this concept.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Desempenho Atlético , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Humanos , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico
14.
Prog Brain Res ; 240: 175-200, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390830

RESUMO

The capacity to sustain high-intensity aerobic exercise is essential for endurance performance. Therefore, it is important to understand what is the factor limiting time to exhaustion (TTE) in healthy and fit adults. In Study 1, maximal voluntary cycling power (MVCP) was measured in 11 volunteers before and immediately after a high-intensity TTE test on cycle ergometer. Cadence was 60 rpm in both the MVCP and TTE tests. Despite a 35% loss in MVCP, power produced during the final MVCP test (mean ± SD 469 ± 111 W) was significantly higher than the power required by the TTE test (269 ± 55 W) (P < 0.001). In Study 2, 12 participants performed a cold pressor test (CPT) to the limit of tolerance followed by a high-intensity TTE test on cycle ergometer. Ratings of pain unpleasantness (RPU) during the TTE test were anchored to the unpleasantness of pain experienced during the CPT. On average, the RPU was 9.7 ± 0.4 at completion of the CPT and 5.0 ± 0.9 at exhaustion during the TTE test. The difference between these two ratings of pain unpleasantness was statistically significant (P < 0.001). In both Studies 1 and 2, the slope of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the TTE test correlated significantly with TTE (r = -0.75 and -0.83, P < 0.01). Results of this two-part investigation suggest that perception of effort, rather than severe locomotor muscle fatigue or intolerably unpleasant muscle pain, is the cardinal exercise stopper during high-intensity aerobic exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Mialgia/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia
16.
Exp Aging Res ; 44(5): 397-410, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dependence in self-care activities among older women has been previously evaluated through performance-based tests. However, these tests have presented inability to accurately distinguish between dependent and independent older adults in performing activities of daily living. AIM: To examine the validity, reliability, and diagnostic accuracy of rating of perceived exertion (RPE) to identify dependence in performing self-care activities in older women. METHODS: Thirty-five older women performed two different constant-load tasks (walking on treadmill at 4 km/h for five minutes and arm curls with two kg for one minute), reporting RPE at the end, in four sessions. Performance-based tests (30-second chair stand and 6-minute walk) were also evaluated. Katz Index and Lawton and Brody questionnaires were applied to evaluate the dependence level in performing basic and instrumental activities of daily living. RESULTS: RPE was greater on the first session (RPE 14 ± 2) than second session (RPE 13 ± 2), while it was similar through other sessions, with high values of intraclass coefficient correlation (0.96-0.99). Basic activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living presented high correlations with RPE measures (0.75-0.82), whereas performance-based tests presented moderate correlations (0.47-0.59). RPE responses explained the most variance in identifying dependence in self-care activities and presented high diagnostic accuracy to differentiate dependent from independent older women. So the hypotheses had been confirmed that RPE responses in constant-load exercise are better predictors of dependence in self-care activities than performance-based tests. CONCLUSIONS: RPE of constant-load physical tasks was valid, reliable, and accurate in identifying dependence in performing self-care activities in older women; therefore, it is possible to use the perceived exertion to identify dependence in performing activities of daily living in older women.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Autocuidado , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
J Sci Med Sport ; 21(11): 1116-1124, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886134

RESUMO

Modern warfare operations often occur in volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) environments accompanied by physical exertion, cognitive overload, sleep restriction and caloric deprivation. The increasingly fast-paced nature of these operations requires military personnel to demonstrate readiness and resiliency in the face of stressful environments to maintain optimal cognitive and physical performance necessary for success. Resiliency, the capacity to overcome the negative effects of setbacks and associated stress on performance, is a complex process involving not only an individual's physiology and psychology, but the influence of factors such as sex, environment, and training. The purpose of this moderated roundtable was to address five key domains of resiliency in a point/counterpoint format: physiological versus psychological resiliency, sex differences, contributions of aerobic and strength training, thermal tolerance, and the role of nature versus nurture. Each speaker was given three minutes to present and the moderator facilitated questions and discussion following the panel's presentation. The interconnectedness of the five domains highlights the need for an interdisciplinary approach to understand and build resilience to enhance military performance.


Assuntos
Militares , Aptidão Física , Resiliência Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Treinamento de Força , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico
18.
Sports Med ; 48(7): 1525-1532, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623604

RESUMO

Fatigue is a complex state with multiple physiological and psychological origins. However, fatigue in soccer has traditionally been investigated from a physiological perspective, with little emphasis on the cognitive demands of competition. These cognitive demands may induce mental fatigue, which could contribute to the fatigue-related performance decrements observed during and after soccer matches. Recent research investigating the relationship between mental fatigue and soccer-specific performance supports this suggestion. This leading article provides an overview of the research in this emerging field, outlining the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific physical, technical, decision-making, and tactical performances. The second half of this review provides directions for future research in response to the limitations of the existing research. Emphasis is placed on translating the current body of knowledge into practical applications and developing a greater understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the negative impact of mental fatigue on soccer performance. A conceptual model is presented to help direct this future research.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Fadiga Mental , Futebol/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Fadiga , Humanos
19.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1822, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618831

RESUMO

Background: Stimulation of the right and left anterior insular cortex, increases and decreases the cardiovascular response respectively, thus indicating the brain's lateralization of the neural control of circulation. Previous experiments have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the autonomic cardiovascular control when applied over the temporal cortex. Given the importance of neural control for a normal hemodynamic response, and the potential for the use of tDCS in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, this study investigated whether tDCS was capable of modulating autonomic regulation. Methods: Cardiovascular response was monitored during a post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) test, which is well-documented to increase sympathetic drive. A group of 12 healthy participants performed a PEMI test in a control (Control), sham (Sham) and two different experimental sessions where the anodal electrode was applied over the left temporal cortex and right temporal cortex with the cathodal electrode placed over the contralateral supraorbital area. Stimulation lasted 20 min at 2 mA. The hemodynamic profile was measured during a PEMI test. The cardiovascular parameters were continuously measured with a transthoracic bio-impedance device both during the PEMI test and during tDCS. Results: None of the subjects presented any side effects during or after tDCS stimulation. A consistent cardiovascular response during PEMI test was observed in all conditions. Statistical analysis did not find any significant interaction and any significant main effect of condition on cardiovascular parameters (all ps > 0.316) after tDCS. No statistical differences regarding the hemodynamic responses were found between conditions and time during tDCS stimulation (p > 0.05). Discussion: This is the first study comparing the cardiovascular response after tDCS stimulation of left and right TC both during exercise and at rest. The results of the current study suggest that anodal tDCS of the left and right TC does not affect functional cardiovascular response during exercise PEMI test and during tDCS. In light of the present and previous findings, the effect of tDCS on the cardiovascular response remains inconclusive.

20.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 235(4): 947-958, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity that has negative implications on many aspects in daily life. Caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion have been shown to be able to reduce these negative effects of mental fatigue. Intake of these substances might however be less desirable in some situations (e.g., restricted caloric intake, Ramadan). Rinsing caffeine or glucose within the mouth has already been shown to improve exercise performance. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effect of frequent caffeine-maltodextrin (CAF-MALT) mouth rinsing on mental fatigue induced by a prolonged cognitive task. METHODS: Ten males (age 23 ± 2 years, physical activity 7.3 ± 4.3 h/week, low CAF users) performed two trials. Participants first completed a Flanker task (3 min), then performed a 90-min mentally fatiguing task (Stroop task), followed by another Flanker task. Before the start and after each 12.5% of the Stroop task (eight blocks), subjects received a CAF-MALT mouth rinse (MR: 0.3 g/25 ml CAF: 1.6g/25 ml MALT) or placebo (PLAC: 25 ml artificial saliva). RESULTS: Self-reported mental fatigue was lower in MR (p = 0.017) compared to PLAC. Normalized accuracy (accuracy first block = 100%) was higher in the last block of the Stroop in MR (p = 0.032) compared to PLAC. P2 amplitude in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreased over time only in PLAC (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Frequent mouth rinsing during a prolonged and demanding cognitive task reduces mental fatigue compared to mouth rinsing with artificial saliva.


Assuntos
Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Fadiga Mental/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Stroop , Adulto , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/diagnóstico , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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