Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Emerg Med J ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between the publication of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials extension for abstracts (CONSORT-EA) and other variables of interest on the quality of reporting of abstracts of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in emergency medicine (EM) journals. METHODS: We performed a survey of the literature, comparing the quality of reporting before (2005-2007) with after (2014-2015) the publication of the dedicated CONSORT-EA in 2008. The quality of reporting was measured as the sum of items of the CONSORT-EA checklist reported in each abstract, ranging from 0 to 15. The main explanatory variable was the period of publication: pre-CONSORT-EA versus post-CONSORT-EA public. Other explanatory variables were journal's endorsement of the CONSORT statement, number of centres participating in the study, study's sample size, type of intervention, significance of results, source of funding and study setting. We analysed the data using generalised estimation equations, performing a univariate and a multivariable analysis. RESULTS: We retrieved 844 articles, and randomly selected 60 per period for review, after stratifying for journal. The mean (SD) number of items reported was 6.4 (1.9) in the period before and 6.9 (1.8) in the period after the publication of the CONSORT-EA, with an adjusted mean difference (aMD) of 0.47 (95% CI -0.13 to 1.06). Abstracts of trials of pharmacological interventions had a significantly larger mean number of reported items than those of trials of non-pharmacological interventions (aMD 1.59; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.24). CONCLUSIONS: The quality of reporting in abstracts of RCTs published in EM journals is low and was not significantly impacted by the publication of a dedicated CONSORT-EA.

2.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 193, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related frailty is a multidimensional dynamic condition associated with adverse patient outcomes and high costs for health systems. Several interventions have been proposed to tackle frailty. This correspondence article describes the journey through the development of evidence- and consensus-based guidelines on interventions aimed at preventing, delaying or reversing frailty in the context of the FOCUS (Frailty Management Optimisation through EIP-AHA Commitments and Utilisation of Stakeholders Input) project (664367-FOCUS-HP-PJ-2014). The rationale, framework, processes and content of the guidelines are described. MAIN TEXT: The guidelines were framed into four questions - one general and three on specific groups of interventions - all including frailty as the primary outcome of interest. Quantitative and qualitative studies and reviews conducted in the context of the FOCUS project represented the evidence base. We followed the GRADE Evidence-to-Decision frameworks based on assessment of whether the problem is a priority, the magnitude of the desirable and undesirable effects, the certainty of the evidence, stakeholders' values, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the resource use, and other factors like acceptability and feasibility. Experts in the FOCUS consortium acted as panellists in the consensus process. Overall, we eventually recommended interventions intended to affect frailty as well as its course and related outcomes. Specifically, we recommended (1) physical activity programmes or nutritional interventions or a combination of both; (2) interventions based on tailored care and/or geriatric evaluation and management; and (3) interventions based on cognitive training (alone or in combination with exercise and nutritional supplementation). The panel did not support interventions based on hormone treatments or problem-solving therapy. However, all our recommendations were weak (provisional) due to the limited available evidence and based on heterogeneous studies of limited quality. Furthermore, they are conditional to the consideration of participant-, organisational- and contextual/cultural-related facilitators or barriers. There is insufficient evidence in favour of or against other types of interventions. CONCLUSIONS: We provided guidelines based on quantitative and qualitative evidence, adopting methodological standards, and integrating relevant stakeholders' inputs and perspectives. We identified the need for further studies of a higher methodological quality to explore interventions with the potential to affect frailty.

3.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(8): e13228, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, the family system has changed significantly. Although in the past, older people used to live with their children, nowadays, they cannot always depend on assistance of their relatives. Many older people wish to remain as independent as possible while remaining in their homes, even when living alone. To do so, there are many tasks that they must perform to maintain their independence in everyday life, and above all, their well-being. Information and communications technology (ICT), particularly robotics and domotics, could play a pivotal role in aging, especially in contemporary society, where relatives are not always able to accurately and constantly assist the older person. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the needs, preferences, and views on ICT of some prefrail older people who live alone. In particular, we wanted to explore their attitude toward a hypothetical caregiver robot and the functions they would ask for. METHODS: We designed a qualitative study based on an interpretative phenomenological approach. A total of 50 potential participants were purposively recruited in a big town in Northern Italy and were administered the Fried scale (to assess the participants' frailty) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (to evaluate the older person's capacity to comprehend the interview questions). In total, 25 prefrail older people who lived alone participated in an individual semistructured interview, lasting approximately 45 min each. Overall, 3 researchers independently analyzed the interviews transcripts, identifying meaning units, which were later grouped in clustering of themes, and finally in emergent themes. Constant triangulation among researchers and their reflective attitude assured trustiness. RESULTS: From this study, it emerged that a number of interviewees who were currently using ICT (ie, smartphones) did not own a computer in the past, or did not receive higher education, or were not all young older people (aged 65-74 years). Furthermore, we found that among the older people who described their relationship with ICT as negative, many used it in everyday life. Referring to robotics, the interviewees appeared quite open-minded. In particular, robots were considered suitable for housekeeping, for monitoring older people's health and accidental falls, and for entertainment. CONCLUSIONS: Older people's use and attitudes toward ICT does not always seem to be related to previous experiences with technological devices, higher education, or lower age. Furthermore, many participants in this study were able to use ICT, even if they did not always acknowledge it. Moreover, many interviewees appeared to be open-minded toward technological devices, even toward robots. Therefore, proposing new advanced technology to a group of prefrail people, who are self-sufficient and can live alone at home, seems to be feasible.

4.
Am J Med ; 132(8): e634-e647, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075225

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was intended to determine whether a simulation-based education addressed to physicians was able to increase the proportion of hospitalized elderly with atrial fibrillation prescribed with oral anticoagulants (OACs) compared with the usual practice. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized trial (from April 2015 to September 2018) on 32 Italian internal medicine and geriatric wards randomized 1:1 to intervention or control arms. The physicians of wards randomized to intervention received a computer-based e-learning tool with clinical scenarios (Dr Sim), and those of wards randomized to control received no formal educational intervention. The primary outcome was the OAC prescription rate at hospital discharge in the intervention and control arms. RESULTS: Of 452 patients scrutinized, 247 were included in the analysis. Of them, 186 (75.3%) were prescribed with OACs at hospital discharge. No difference was found between the intervention and control arms in the post-intervention phase (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-2.64). The differences from the pre- to post-intervention phases in the proportions of patients prescribed with OACs (15.1%; 95% CI, 0%-31.5%) and with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) (20%; 95% CI, 0%-39.8%) increased more in the intervention than in the control arm. CONCLUSIONS: This simulation-based course did not succeed in increasing the rate of elderly patients prescribed with OACs at hospital discharge compared with the usual practice. Notwithstanding, over time there was a greater increase in the intervention than in the control arm in the proportion of patients prescribed with OACs and DOACs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03188211.

5.
J Clin Anesth ; 52: 111-118, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243062

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different intraoperative blood pressure targets on the development of POCD and test the feasibility of a larger trial. DESIGN: Randomized controlled pilot trial. SETTING: Perioperative care in a tertiary care teaching hospital with outpatient follow-up. PATIENTS: One hundred one patients aged ≥75 years with ASA physical status <4, undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia and 33 age-matched healthy controls. INTERVENTIONS: Randomization to a personalized intraoperative blood pressure target, mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥ 90% of preoperative values (Target group), or to a more liberal intraoperative blood pressure management (No-Target group). Strategies to reach intraoperative blood pressure target were at discretion of anesthesiologists. MEASUREMENTS: An experienced neuropsychologist performed a validated battery of neurocognitive tests preoperatively and 3 months after surgery. Incidence of POCD at three months and postoperative delirium were assessed. Intraoperative time spent with MAP ≥ 90% of preoperative values, recruitment and drop-out rate at 3 months were feasibility outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: The Target group spent a higher percentage of intraoperative time with MAP ≥90% of preoperative values (65 ±â€¯25% vs. 49 ±â€¯28%, p < 0.01). Incidence of POCD (11% vs. 7%, relative risk 1.52; 95% CI, 0.41 to 6.3; p = 0.56) and delirium (6% vs. 14%, relative risk, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.60; p = 0.21) did not differ between groups. No correlation was found between intraoperative hypotension and postoperative cognitive performance (p = 0.75) or delirium (p = 0.19). Recruitment rate was of 6 patients/month (95% confidential interval (CI), 5 to 7) and drop-out rate at 3 months was 24% (95% CI, 14 to 33%). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative hypotension did not correlate with postoperative cognitive dysfunction or delirium occurrence in elderly patients undergoing general anesthesia for non-cardiac surgery. A multicenter randomized controlled trial is needed in order to confirm the effect of intraoperative blood pressure on the development of POCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02428062www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causalidade , Delírio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391167

RESUMO

Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPDE) frequently require hospitalizations, may necessitate of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and are associated with a remarkable in-hospital mortality. The BAP-65 score is a risk assessment model (RAM) based on simple variables, that has been proposed for the prediction of these adverse outcomes in patients with COPDE. If showed to be accurate, the BAP-65 RAM might be used to guide the patients management, in terms of destination and treatment. We conducted a retrospective, multicentre, chart-review study, on patients attending the ED for a COPDE during 2014. The aim of the study was the validation of the BAP-65 RAM for the prediction of in-hospital death or use of IMV (composite primary outcome). We assessed the discrimination and the prognostic performance of the BAP-65 RAM. We enrolled 2908 patients from 20 centres across Italy. The mean (standard deviation) age was 76 (11) years, and 38% of patients were female. The composite outcome occurred in 5.3% of patients. The AUROC of BAP-65 for the composite outcome was 0.64 (95%CI 0.59-0.68). The sensitivity of BAP-65 score ≥ 4 to predict in-hospital mortality was 44% (95% CI 34%-55%), the specificity was 84% (95% CI 82%-85%), the positive predictive value was 9% (95% CI 6%-12%), and the negative predictive value was 98% (95% CI 97%-98%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients attending Italian EDs with a COPDE, we found that the BAP-65 score did not have sufficient accuracy to stratify patients upon their risk of severe in-hospital outcomes.

7.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activities can prevent disability in elderly. AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility and impact on physical function of an adapted physical activity (APA) programme in community-dwelling people of ≥ 70 years old. METHODS: Non-blinded randomized trial with a waiting list control. Eligible people (n = 186) were randomly allocated to 4 months of weekly APA classes of 45 min or in control group performing usual lifestyle activity. PRIMARY OUTCOME: time to walk 400 m. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: short physical performance battery (SPPB), pain (visual analogic scale, McGill Questionnaire), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), handgrip strength, accesses to Emergency Department and falls. RESULTS: Participants were allocated to the intervention (n = 130) or to the control (n = 56) group (80% females aged 75.6 ± 4.6 years). We found statistically significant difference in the time to walk 400 m only in the subgroup intervention with the lower performance at baseline (p for interaction 0.031). SPPB improved and VAS decreased more in the intervention group. No significant differences for McGill questionnaire, ODI, GDS, accesses to ER and falls were showed. DISCUSSION: Despite the good rate of attendance (71%) and satisfaction (97%), our APA programme was associated with no benefit on the time to walk 400 m and small benefit on SPPB and VAS. The efficacy of the intervention was likely limited by the short duration and low intensity and by the already good performance of our population at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: We designed this initiative as a pilot study intending to implement research of this type in the future.

8.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(7): 850-862, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960614

RESUMO

Worldwide, more than 230 million adults have major noncardiac surgery each year. Although surgery can improve quality and duration of life, it can also precipitate major complications. Moreover, a substantial proportion of deaths occur after discharge. Current systems for monitoring patients postoperatively, on surgical wards and after transition to home, are inadequate. On the surgical ward, vital signs evaluation usually occurs only every 4-8 hours. Reduced in-hospital ward monitoring, followed by no vital signs monitoring at home, leads to thousands of cases of undetected/delayed detection of hemodynamic compromise. In this article we review work to date on postoperative remote automated monitoring on surgical wards and strategy for advancing this field. Key considerations for overcoming current barriers to implementing remote automated monitoring in Canada are also presented.

9.
Health Psychol Rev ; 12(4): 382-404, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916302

RESUMO

Interventions to minimise, reverse or prevent the progression of frailty in older adults represent a potentially viable route to improving quality of life and care needs in older adults. Intervention methods used across European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing collaborators were analysed, along with findings from literature reviews to determine 'what works for whom in what circumstances'. A realist review of FOCUS study literature reviews, 'real-world' studies and grey literature was conducted according to RAMESES (Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards), and used to populate a framework analysis of theories of why frailty interventions worked, and theories of why frailty interventions did not work. Factors were distilled into mechanisms deriving from theories of causes of frailty, management of frailty and those based on the intervention process. We found that studies based on resolution of a deficiency in an older adult were only successful when there was indeed a deficiency. Client-centred interventions worked well when they had a theoretical grounding in health psychology and offered choice over intervention elements. Healthcare organisational interventions were found to have an impact on success when they were sufficiently different from usual care. Compelling evidence for the reduction of frailty came from physical exercise, or multicomponent (exercise, cognitive, nutrition, social) interventions in group settings. The group context appears to improve participants' commitment and adherence to the programme. Suggested mechanisms included commitment to co-participants, enjoyment and social interaction. In conclusion, initial frailty levels, presence or absence of specific deficits, and full person and organisational contexts should be included as components of intervention design. Strategies to enhance social and psychological aspects should be included even in physically focused interventions.

11.
Eur J Intern Med ; 51: 74-79, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371059

RESUMO

Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs) frequently cause patients with COPD to access the emergency department and have a negative impact on the course of the disease. The objectives of our study were: 1) describing the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and the clinical management, of patients with AECOPD, when they present to the emergency department; and 2) estimating the costs related to the management of these patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Italy, collecting data on 4396 patients, from 34 centres. Patients had a mean (SD) age of 76,6 (10.6) years, and 61.2% of them where males. >70% of the patients had a moderate to very high comorbidity burden, and heart failure was present in 26.4% of the cohort. The 64.6% of patients were admitted to hospital wards, with a mean (SD) length of stay of 10.8 (9.8) days. The estimated cost per patient was 2617 €. CONCLUSIONS: Patients attending the ED for an AECOPD are old and present important comorbidities. The rate of admission is high, and costs are remarkable.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/economia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep ; 16(1): 140-232, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29324562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions for preventing frailty progression in older adults. INTRODUCTION: Frailty is an age-related state of decreased physiological reserves characterized by an increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. Evidence supporting the malleability of frailty, its prevention and treatment, has been presented. INCLUSION CRITERIA: The review considered studies on older adults aged 65 and over, explicitly identified as pre-frail or frail, who had been undergoing interventions focusing on the prevention of frailty progression. Participants selected on the basis of specific illness or with a terminal diagnosis were excluded. The comparator was usual care, alternative therapeutic interventions or no intervention. The primary outcome was frailty. Secondary outcomes included: (i) cognition, quality of life, activities of daily living, caregiver burden, functional capacity, depression and other mental health-related outcomes, self-perceived health and social engagement; (ii) drugs and prescriptions, analytical parameters, adverse outcomes and comorbidities; (iii) costs, and/or costs relative to benefits and/or savings associated with implementing the interventions for frailty. Experimental study designs, cost effectiveness, cost benefit, cost minimization and cost utility studies were considered for inclusion. METHODS: Databases for published and unpublished studies, available in English, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian and Dutch, from January 2001 to November 2015, were searched. Critical appraisal was conducted using standardized instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data was extracted using the standardized tools designed for quantitative and economic studies. Data was presented in a narrative form due to the heterogeneity of included studies. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies, all randomized controlled trials, with a total of 5275 older adults and describing 33 interventions, met the criteria for inclusion. Economic analyses were conducted in two studies. Physical exercise programs were shown to be generally effective for reducing or postponing frailty but only when conducted in groups. Favorable effects on frailty indicators were also observed after the interventions, based on physical exercise with supplementation, supplementation alone, cognitive training and combined treatment. Group meetings and home visits were not found to be universally effective. Lack of efficacy was evidenced for physical exercise performed individually or delivered one-to-one, hormone supplementation and problem solving therapy. Individually tailored management programs for clinical conditions had inconsistent effects on frailty prevalence. Economic studies demonstrated that this type of intervention, as compared to usual care, provided better value for money, particularly for very frail community-dwelling participants, and had favorable effects in some of the frailty-related outcomes in inpatient and outpatient management, without increasing costs. CONCLUSIONS: This review found mixed results regarding the effectiveness of frailty interventions. However, there is clear evidence on the usefulness of such interventions in carefully chosen evidence-based circumstances, both for frailty itself and for secondary outcomes, supporting clinical investment of resources in frailty intervention. Further research is required to reinforce current evidence and examine the impact of the initial level of frailty on the benefits of different interventions. There is also a need for economic evaluation of frailty interventions.

13.
BMJ Open ; 8(1): e018653, 2018 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elicit European healthcare policy-makers' views, understanding and attitudes about the implementation of frailty screening and management strategies and responses to stakeholders' views. DESIGN: Thematic analysis of semistructured qualitative interviews. SETTING: European healthcare policy departments. PARTICIPANTS: Seven European healthcare policy-makers representing the European Union (n=2), UK (n=2), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1) and Poland (n=1). Participants were sourced through professional networks and the European Commission Authentication Service website and were required to be in an active healthcare policy or decision-making role. RESULTS: Seven themes were identified. Our findings reveal a 'knowledge gap', around frailty and awareness of the malleability of frailty, which has resulted in restricted ownership of frailty by specialists. Policy-makers emphasised the need to recognise frailty as a clinical syndrome but stressed that it should be managed via an integrated and interdisciplinary response to chronicity and ageing. That is, through social co-production. This would require a culture shift in care with redeployment of existing resources to deliver frailty management and intervention services. Policy-makers proposed barriers to a culture shift, indicating a need to be innovative with solutions to empower older adults to optimise their health and well-being, while still fully engaging in the social environment. The cultural acceptance of an integrated care system theme described the complexities of institutional change management, as well as cultural issues relating to working democratically, while in signposting adult care, the need for a personal navigator to help older adults to access appropriate services was proposed. Policy-makers also believed that screening for frailty could be an effective tool for frailty management. CONCLUSIONS: There is potential for frailty to be managed in a more integrated and person-centred manner, overcoming the challenges associated with niche ownership within the healthcare system. There is also a need to raise its profile and develop a common understanding of its malleability among stakeholders, as well as consistency in how and when it is measured.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/terapia , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisões , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Meio Social
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 4: 203, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214153

RESUMO

Background: The role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, and neuroimaging in the diagnostic process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not clear, in particular in the older patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical diagnosis of AD with CSF biomarkers and with cerebrovascular damage at neuroimaging in a cohort of geriatric patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of ≥65-year-old patients with cognitive impairment referred to an Italian geriatric outpatient clinic, for whom the CSF concentration of amyloid-ß (Aß), total Tau (Tau), and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) was available. Clinical diagnosis (no dementia, possible and probable AD) was based on the following two sets of criteria: (1) the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) plus the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) and (2) the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA). The Fazekas visual scale was applied when a magnetic resonance imaging scan was available. Results: We included 94 patients, mean age 77.7 years, mean Mini Mental State Examination score 23.9. The concordance (kappa coefficient) between the two sets of clinical criteria was 70%. The mean CSF concentration (pg/ml) (±SD) of biomarkers was as follows: Aß 687 (±318), Tau 492 (±515), and p-Tau 63 (±56). There was a trend for lower Aß and higher Tau levels from the no dementia to the probable AD group. The percentage of abnormal liquor according to the local cutoffs was still 15 and 21% in patients without AD based on the DSM-IV plus NINCDS-ADRDA or the NIA-AA criteria, respectively. The exclusion of patient in whom normotensive hydrocephalus was suspected did not change these findings. A total of 80% of patients had the neuroimaging report describing chronic cerebrovascular damage, while the Fazekas scale was positive in 45% of patients overall, in 1/2 of no dementia or possible AD patients, and in about 1/3 of probable AD patients, with no difference across ages. Conclusion: We confirmed the expected discrepancy between different approaches to the diagnosis of AD in a geriatric cohort of patients with cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to understand how to interpret this discrepancy and provide clinicians with practical guidelines.

15.
Drugs Aging ; 34(12): 941-952, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra-micronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) represents an attractive option for chronic pain control in complex older patients at higher risk of adverse effects with traditional analgesics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of um-PEA versus placebo on chronic pain intensity and function in individual geriatric patients. DESIGN: We performed randomized, blinded N-of-1 trials with two 3-week um-PEA versus placebo comparisons, separated by 2-week washout periods. PARTICIPANTS: The study included outpatients aged ≥ 65 years with chronic, non-cancer, non-ischemic pain in the back, joints, or limbs. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to Um-PEA 600 mg or placebo twice daily. MEASUREMENTS: Pain intensity was measured using an 11-point visual numeric scale. Functional impairment was measured using a Back Pain Functional Scale. Impact of each N-of-1 trial was measured on the clinician's intention to treat and confidence. RESULTS: Ten of 11 eligible patients consented over 7 months [all female, mean age 83.2 years (SD 4.6)]. Three patients interrupted the trial: one had diarrhea (under placebo), one for low adherence, and one for intercurrent pneumonia. A small statistically significant effect in favor of um-PEA was seen at the mixed method analyses in two patients (effect size equal to 8% of the baseline pain). A statistically significant impact on function was found in one patient. After the trial, um-PEA was prescribed to four patients; in two patients the clinician changed their pre-trial intention to treat; the clinician confidence in the treatment plan either increased (5) or remained the same (2). CONCLUSIONS: Our experience confirmed that N-of-1 trials may help make personalized evidence-based decisions in complex older patients, with special feasibility considerations. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02699281.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Etanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Palmíticos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
16.
Europace ; 19(12): 1922-1929, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106537

RESUMO

Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with a wide range of clinical presentations. Whether and how AF symptoms can affect prognosis is still unclear. Aims of the present analysis were to investigate potential predictors of symptomatic AF and to determine if symptoms are associated with higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events at 1-year follow-up. Methods and results: The Euro Heart Survey on Atrial Fibrillation included 3607 consecutive patients with documented AF and available follow-up regarding symptoms status. Patients found symptomatic at baseline were classified into still symptomatic (SS group; n = 896) and asymptomatic (SA; n = 1556) at 1 year. Similarly, asymptomatic patients at baseline were classified into still asymptomatic (AA group; n = 903) and symptomatic (AS group; n = 252) at 1 year. Demographics, as well as clinical variables and medical treatments, were tested as potential predictors of symptoms persistence/development at 1-year. We also compared CV events between SS and SA groups, and AS and AA groups at 1-year follow-up. Both persistence and development of AF symptoms were associated with an increased risk of CV hospitalization, stroke, heart failure worsening, and thrombo-embolism. AF type, hypothyroidism, chronic heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), were independently associated with an increased risk of symptomatic status at 1-year follow-up between SS and SA groups. Conclusion: Persistence or development of symptoms after medical treatment are associated with an increased risk of CV events during a 1-year follow-up. Type of AF, along with hypothyroidism, COPD and chronic heart failure are significantly associated with symptoms persistence despite medical treatment.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Psychogeriatrics ; 17(6): 397-405, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent scientific reports have shown that older persons treated with antipsychotics for dementia-related behavioural symptoms have increased mortality. However, the impact of these drugs prescribed during hospitalization has rarely been assessed. We aimed to investigate whether antipsychotics are associated with an increased risk of mortality during hospitalization and at 3-month follow-up in elderly inpatients. METHODS: We analyzed data gathered during two waves (2010 and 2012) by the REPOSI (Registro Politerapie Società Italiana Medicina Interna). All new prescriptions of antipsychotic drugs during hospitalization, whether maintained or discontinued at discharge, were collected, and logistic regression models were used to analyze their association with in-hospital and 3-month mortality. Covariates were age, sex, the Short Blessed Test (SBT) score, and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. RESULTS: Among 2703 patients included in the study, 135 (5%) received new prescriptions for antipsychotic drugs. The most frequently prescribed antipsychotic during hospitalization and eventually maintained at discharge was haloperidol (38% and 36% of cases, respectively). Patients newly prescribed with antipsychotics were older and had a higher Cumulative Illness Rating Scale comorbidity index both at admission and at discharge compared to those who did not receive a prescription. Of those prescribed antipsychotics, 71% had an SBT score ≥10 (indicative of dementia), 12% had an SBT score of 5-9 (indicative of questionable dementia); and 17% had an SBT score <5 (indicative of normal cognition). In-hospital mortality was slightly higher in patients prescribed antipsychotic drugs (14.3% vs 9.4%; P = 0.109), but in multivariate analysis only male sex, older age, and higher SBT scores were significantly related to mortality during hospitalization. At 3-month follow-up, only male sex, older age, and higher SBT scores were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: We found that the prescription of antipsychotic drugs during hospitalization was not associated with in-hospital or follow-up mortality. Short-term antipsychotic prescriptions (for acutely ill patients) may have a different effect than long-term, repeated prescriptions.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Demência/mortalidade , Demência/psicologia , Hospitalização , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Cognição , Demência/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Alta do Paciente
18.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 72(3): 395-402, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28364542

RESUMO

Background: Because frailty is a complex phenomenon associated with poor outcomes, the identification of patient profiles with different care needs might be of greater practical help than to look for a unifying definition. This study aimed at identifying aging phenotypes and their related outcomes in order to recognize frailty in hospitalized older patients. Methods: Patients aged 65 or older enrolled in internal medicine and geriatric wards participating in the REPOSI registry. Relationships among variables associated to sociodemographic, physical, cognitive, functional, and medical status were explored using a multiple correspondence analysis. The hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed to identify possible patient profiles. Multivariable logistic regression was used to verify the association between clusters and outcomes (in-hospital mortality and 3-month postdischarge mortality and rehospitalization). Results: 2,841 patients were included in the statistical analyses. Four clusters were identified: the healthiest (I); those with multimorbidity (II); the functionally independent women with osteoporosis and arthritis (III); and the functionally dependent oldest old patients with cognitive impairment (IV). There was a significantly higher in-hospital mortality in Cluster II (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-4.46) and Cluster IV (OR = 5.15, 95% CI = 2.58-10.26) and a higher 3-month mortality in Cluster II (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.13-2.44) and Cluster IV (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-3.00) than in Cluster I. Conclusions: Using alternative analytical techniques among hospitalized older patients, we could distinguish different frailty phenotypes, differently associated with adverse events. The identification of different patient profiles can help defining the best care strategy according to specific patient needs.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Avaliação Geriátrica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep ; 15(4): 1154-1208, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A scoping search identified systematic reviews on diagnostic accuracy and predictive ability of frailty measures in older adults. In most cases, research was confined to specific assessment measures related to a specific clinical model. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the best available evidence from systematic reviews in relation to reliability, validity, diagnostic accuracy and predictive ability of frailty measures in older adults. INCLUSION CRITERIA POPULATION: Older adults aged 60 years or older recruited from community, primary care, long-term residential care and hospitals. INDEX TEST: Available frailty measures in older adults. REFERENCE TEST: Cardiovascular Health Study phenotype model, the Canadian Study of Health and Aging cumulative deficit model, Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment or other reference tests. DIAGNOSIS OF INTEREST: Frailty defined as an age-related state of decreased physiological reserves characterized by an increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. TYPES OF STUDIES: Quantitative systematic reviews. SEARCH STRATEGY: A three-step search strategy was utilized to find systematic reviews, available in English, published between January 2001 and October 2015. METHODOLOGICAL QUALITY: Assessed by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for systematic reviews and research synthesis. DATA EXTRACTION: Two independent reviewers extracted data using the standardized data extraction tool designed for umbrella reviews. DATA SYNTHESIS: Data were only presented in a narrative form due to the heterogeneity of included reviews. RESULTS: Five reviews with a total of 227,381 participants were included in this umbrella review. Two reviews focused on reliability, validity and diagnostic accuracy; two examined predictive ability for adverse health outcomes; and one investigated validity, diagnostic accuracy and predictive ability. In total, 26 questionnaires and brief assessments and eight frailty indicators were analyzed, most of which were applied to community-dwelling older people. The Frailty Index was examined in almost all these dimensions, with the exception of reliability, and its diagnostic and predictive characteristics were shown to be satisfactory. Gait speed showed high sensitivity, but only moderate specificity, and excellent predictive ability for future disability in activities of daily living. The Tilburg Frailty Indicator was shown to be a reliable and valid measure for frailty screening, but its diagnostic accuracy was not evaluated. Screening Letter, Timed-up-and-go test and PRISMA 7 (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) demonstrated high sensitivity and moderate specificity for identifying frailty. In general, low physical activity, variously measured, was one of the most powerful predictors of future decline in activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: Only a few frailty measures seem to be demonstrably valid, reliable and diagnostically accurate, and have good predictive ability. Among them, the Frailty Index and gait speed emerged as the most useful in routine care and community settings. However, none of the included systematic reviews provided responses that met all of our research questions on their own and there is a need for studies that could fill this gap, covering all these issues within the same study. Nevertheless, it was clear that no suitable tool for assessing frailty appropriately in emergency departments was identified.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Exercício , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Vida Independente , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMJ Open ; 7(4): e014981, 2017 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The quality of reporting of abstracts of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in major general medical journals and in some category-specific journals was shown to be poor before the publication of the ConsolidatedStandards of ReportingTrials (CONSORT) extension for abstracts in 2008, and an improvement in the quality of reporting of abstracts was observed after its publication. The effect of the publication of the CONSORT extension for abstracts on the quality of reporting of RCTs in emergency medicine journals has not been studied. In this paper, we present the protocol of a systematic survey of the literature, aimed at assessing the quality of reporting in abstracts of RCTs published in emergency medicine journals and at evaluating the effect of the publication of the CONSORT extension for abstracts on the quality of reporting. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Medline database will be searched for RCTs published in the years 2005-2007 and 2014-2015 in the top 10 emergency medicine journals, according to their impact factor. Candidate studies will be screened for inclusion in the review. Exclusion criteria will be the following: the abstract is not available, they are published only as abstracts, still recruiting, or duplicate publications. The study outcomes will be the overall quality of reporting (number of items reported) according to the CONSORT extension and the compliance with its individual items. Two independent reviewers will screen each article for inclusion and will extract data on the CONSORT items and on other variables, which can possibly affect the quality of reporting. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This is a library-based study and therefore exempt from research ethics board review. The review results will be disseminated through abstract submission to conferences and publication in a peer-reviewed biomedical journal.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência , Publicações/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA