Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Scand J Prim Health Care ; : 1-14, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349567

RESUMO

Objective: Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is recommended for the management of frailty. Little is known about professionals' experiences of CGA; therefore we wanted to investigate the experiences of staff in primary care using a new CGA tool: the Primary care Assessment Tool for Elderly (PASTEL).Design: Focus group interviews. Manifest qualitative content analysis.Setting: Nine primary health care centres in Sweden that participated in a CGA intervention. These centres represent urban as well as rural areas.Subjects: Nine nurses, five GPs and one pharmacist were divided into three focus groups.Main outcome measures: Participants' experiences of conducting CGA with PASTEL.Results: The analysis resulted in four main categories. A valuable tool for selected patients: The participants considered the assessment tool to be feasible and valuable. They stated that having enough time for the assessment interview was essential but views about the ideal patient for assessment were divided. Creating conditions for dialogue: The process of adapting the assessment to the individual and create conditions for dialogue was recognised as important. Managing in-depth conversations: In-depth conversations turned out to be an important component of the assessment. Patients were eager to share their stories, but talking about the future or the end of life was demanding. The winding road of actions and teamwork: PASTEL was regarded as a good preparation tool for care planning and a means of support for identifying appropriate actions to manage frailty but there were challenges to implement these actions and to obtain good teamwork.Conclusion: The participants reported that PASTEL, a tool for CGA, gave a holistic picture of the older person and was helpful in care planning.Key pointsTo manage frailty using comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in primary care, there is a need for tools that are efficient, user-friendly and which support patient involvement and teamwork•This study found that the Primary care Assessment tool for Elderly (PASTEL) is regarded as both valuable and feasible by primary care professionals•Use of carefully selected items in the tool and allowing enough time for dialogue may enhance patient-centeredness•The PASTEL tool supports the process of identifying actions to manage frailty in older adults. Teamwork related to the tool and CGA in primary care needs to be further investigated and developed.

2.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 95, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The healthcare for older adults is insufficient in many countries, not designed to meet their needs and is often described as disorganized and reactive. Prediction of older persons at risk of admission to hospital may be one important way for the future healthcare system to act proactively when meeting increasing needs for care. Therefore, we wanted to develop and test a clinically useful model for predicting hospital admissions of older persons based on routine healthcare data. METHODS: We used the healthcare data on 40,728 persons, 75-109 years of age to predict hospital in-ward care in a prospective cohort. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify significant factors predictive of unplanned hospital admission. Model fitting was accomplished using forward selection. The accuracy of the prediction model was expressed as area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, AUC. RESULTS: The prediction model consisting of 38 variables exhibited a good discriminative accuracy for unplanned hospital admissions over the following 12 months (AUC 0.69 [95% confidence interval, CI 0.68-0.70]) and was validated on external datasets. Clinically relevant proportions of predicted cases of 40 or 45% resulted in sensitivities of 62 and 66%, respectively. The corresponding positive predicted values (PPV) was 31 and 29%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A prediction model based on routine administrative healthcare data from older persons can be used to find patients at risk of admission to hospital. Identifying the risk population can enable proactive intervention for older patients with as-yet unknown needs for healthcare.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382824

RESUMO

Normative data for evaluating cognitive function in the oldest old, aged 85 years and above, are currently sparse. The normative values used in clinical practice are often derived from younger old persons, from small sample sizes or from broad age spans (e.g. >75 years) resulting in a risk of misjudgment in assessments of cognitive decline. This longitudinal study presents normative values for the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the Victoria Stroop Test (VST) and the Parallel Serial Mental Operations (PaSMO) from cognitively intact Swedes aged 85 years and above. 207 participants, born in 1922, were tested at 85, 90 (n = 68) and 93 (n = 35) years of age with a cognitive screening test battery. The participants were originally recruited for participation in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment. Normative values are presented as mean values and standard deviations, with and without adjustment for education. There were no clinically important differences between genders, but education had a significant effect on test results for the 85-year-olds. Age effects emerged in analyses of those participants who completed the entire study and were evident for TMT-A, SDMT, VST1 and PaSMO. When comparisons can be made, our results are in accordance with previous data for TMT-A, SDMT and VST, and we present new normative values for PaSMO.

4.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 31(11): 1569-1579, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Both morbidity and mortality are elevated for individuals with subsyndromal depression (SSD) compared to non-depression (ND) in those of younger ages, but scientific studies are scarce for very old individuals. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the morbidity and mortality in very old individuals with SSD and ND. DESIGN AND SETTING: An 8-year prospective population-based study was undertaken on 85-year-old individuals in Sweden. MEASUREMENTS: Data were collected from postal questionnaires and clinical assessments at baseline, after 1, 5, and 8 years. Depressive symptoms were measured with Geriatric Depression Scale and the results were classified into ND, SSD, and syndromal depression. Mortality was investigated using multivariable cox regressions, and variables of morbidity were investigated using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Compared to ND, in people with SSD, mortality was elevated in the univariate regression, but this association vanished when controlling for relevant covariates. Morbidity was elevated with regard to basic activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental ADLs, loneliness, self-perceived health, and depressive symptoms for individuals with SSD compared to ND, whereas cognitive speed, executive functions, and global cognitive function were not significantly impaired when adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: SSD among very old individuals is longitudinally associated with elevated morbidity but not mortality, when controlling for relevant covariates. Considering the high prevalence of SSD and the demographic development of increasing numbers of very old people, the findings highlight the need to develop clinical and societal strategies to prevent SSD and associated negative outcomes.

5.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra ; 9(2): 294-301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572425

RESUMO

Background: There are several cognitive assessment tools used in primary care, e.g., the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The Cognitive Assessment Battery (CAB) was introduced as a sensitive tool to detect cognitive decline in primary care. However, primary care validation is lacking. Therefore, we investigated the accuracy of the CAB in a primary care population. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of the CAB in a primary care population. Methods: Data from 46 individuals with cognitive impairment and 33 individuals who visited the primary care with somatic noncognitive symptoms were analyzed. They were investigated with the MMSE, the CAB, and a battery of neuropsychological tests; they also underwent consultation with a geriatric specialist. The accuracy of the CAB was assessed using c-statistics and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to quantify the binary outcomes ("no cognitive impairment" or "cognitive impairment"). Results: The "cognitive impairment" group was significantly different from the unimpaired group for all the subtests of the CAB. When accuracy was based on binary significant reduction or not in one or several domains of the CAB, the AUC varied between 0.685 and 0.772. However, when a summation or logistic regression of several subcategories was performed, using the numerical values for each subcategory, the AUC was >0.9. For comparison, the AUC for the MMSE was 0.849. Conclusions: The accuracy of the CAB in a primary care population is poor to good when using binary cutoffs. Accuracy can be improved to high when using a summation or logistic regression of the numerical data of the subcategories. Considering CAB time, lack of adequate age norms, and a good accuracy for the MMSE, implementation of the CAB in primary care is not recommended at present based on the results of this study.

6.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 47(4-6): 209-218, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dementia and cognitive impairment are common in nursing homes. Few studies have studied the impact of unnoted cognitive impairment on medical care. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnostic failure of cognitive impairment in a sample of Swedish nursing home residents and to analyze whether diagnostic failure was associated with impaired medical care. METHOD: A total of 428 nursing home residents were investigated during 2008-2011. Subjects without dementia diagnosis were grouped by result of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), where subjects with <24 points formed a possible dementia group and the remaining subjects a control group. A third group consisted of subjects with diagnosed dementia. These three groups were compared according to baseline data, laboratory findings, drug use, and mortality. RESULTS: Dementia was previously diagnosed in 181 subjects (42%). Among subjects without a dementia diagnosis, 72% were cognitively impaired with possible dementia (MMSE <24). These subjects were significantly older, did not get anti-dementia treatment, and had higher levels of brain natriuretic peptide compared to the diagnosed dementia group, but the risks of malnutrition and pressure ulcers were similar to the dementia group. CONCLUSIONS: Unnoted cognitive impairment is common in nursing home residents and may conceal other potentially treatable conditions such as heart failure. The results highlight a need to pay increased attention to cognitive impairment among nursing home residents.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Casas de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/mortalidade , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia
7.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e027847, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122995

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The provision of healthcare services is not dedicated to promoting maintenance of function and does not target frail older persons at high risk of the main causes of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a proactive medical and social intervention in comparison with conventional care on a group of persons aged 75 and older selected by statistical prediction. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In a pragmatic multicentre primary care setting (n=1600), a prediction model to find elderly (75+) persons at high risk of complex medical care or hospitalisation is used, followed by proactive medical and social care, in comparison with usual care. The study started in April 2017 with a run-in period until December 2017, followed by a 2-year continued intervention phase that will continue until the end of December 2019. The intervention includes several tools (multiprofessional team for rehabilitation, social support, medical care home visits and telephone support). Primary outcome measures are healthcare cost, number of hospital care episodes, hospital care days and mortality. Secondary outcome measures are number of outpatient visits, cost of social care and informal care, number of prescribed drugs, health-related quality of life, cost-effectiveness, sense of security, functional status and ability. We also study the care of elderly persons in a broader sense, by covering the perspectives of the patients, the professional staff and the management, and on a political level, by using semistructured interviews, qualitative methods and a questionnaire. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approved by the regional ethical review board in Linköping (Dnr 2016/347-31). The results will be presented in scientific journals and scientific meetings during 2019-2022 and are planned to be used for the development of future care models. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03180606.

8.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(3): 534-538, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Normative Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) reference values in elderly are scarce. Therefore, the aim is to present normative MMSE values for 85-93 year olds. DESIGN: A longitudinal age cohort study. SETTING: A population study of the residents in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Residents (n = 650) born in 1922 during the course of 2007. In total, 374 individuals participated and were tested with MMSE at age 85, 280 of these were willing and able to also participate at age 86, 107 at age 90 and 51 at age 93. MEASUREMENTS: MMSE, from 0-30, with lower scores denoting more impaired cognition. RESULTS: Median MMSE values for the total population over the ages 85, 86, 90 and 93 years was 28 for all ages investigated. The 25th percentile values were 26, 26, 26 and 27, respectively. For a "brain healthy" sub-group median values were 28, 29, 28, and 28. The 25th percentile values were 27, 28, 26 and 27, respectively. Comparisons for age-effects showed no differences when all individuals for each age group were compared. When only the individuals reaching 93 years of age (n = 50) were analyzed, there was a significant lowering of MMSE in that age group. CONCLUSION: The literature is variable and in clinical practice a low (24) MMSE cut off is often used for possible cognitive impairment in old age. The present data indicate that MMSE 26 is a reasonable cut off for possible cognitive decline in older persons up to the age of 93. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:534-538, 2019.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Avaliação Geriátrica , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Suécia/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 26(7): 741-751, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare, over a 5-year period, the prospective direct healthcare costs and service utilization of persons with subsyndromal depression (SSD) and non-depressive persons (ND), in a population of very old persons. A second aim was to develop a model that predicts direct healthcare costs in very old persons with SSD. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective population-based study was undertaken on 85-year-old persons in Sweden. MEASUREMENTS: Depressiveness was screened with the Geriatric Depression Scale at baseline and at 1-year follow-up, and the results were classified into ND, SSD, and syndromal depression. Data on individual healthcare costs and service use from a 5-year period were derived from national database registers. Direct costs were compared between categories using Mann-Whitney U tests, and a prediction model was identified with linear regression. RESULTS: For persons with SSD, the direct healthcare costs per month of survival exceeded those of persons with ND by a ratio 1.45 (€634 versus €436), a difference that was significant even after controlling for somatic multimorbidity. The final regression model consisted of five independent variables predicting direct healthcare costs: male sex, activities of daily living functions, loneliness, presence of SSD, and somatic multimorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: SSD among very old persons is associated with increased direct healthcare costs independently of somatic multimorbidity. The associations between SSD, somatic multimorbidity, and healthcare costs in the very old need to be analyzed further in order to better guide allocation of resources in health policy.


Assuntos
Depressão/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Econômicos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia
10.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(7): 913-924, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601787

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its prevalence is unclear because earlier studies did not require biomarker evidence of amyloid ß (Aß) pathology. METHODS: We included 3451 Aß+ subjects (853 AD-type dementia, 1810 mild cognitive impairment, and 788 cognitively normal). Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess APOE ε4 prevalence in relation to age, sex, education, and geographical location. RESULTS: The APOE ε4 prevalence was 66% in AD-type dementia, 64% in mild cognitive impairment, and 51% in cognitively normal, and it decreased with advancing age in Aß+ cognitively normal and Aß+ mild cognitive impairment (P < .05) but not in Aß+ AD dementia (P = .66). The prevalence was highest in Northern Europe but did not vary by sex or education. DISCUSSION: The APOE ε4 prevalence in AD was higher than that in previous studies, which did not require presence of Aß pathology. Furthermore, our results highlight disease heterogeneity related to age and geographical location.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Idoso , Alelos , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prevalência
11.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 56(3): 471-478, 2018 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reference intervals are widely used as decision tools, providing the physician with information about whether the analyte values indicate ongoing disease process. Reference intervals are generally based on individuals without diagnosed diseases or use of medication, which often excludes elderly. The aim of the study was to assess levels of albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) in frail, moderately healthy and healthy elderly indivuduals. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from individuals >80 years old, nursing home residents, in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment and Nordic Reference Interval Project, a total of 569 individuals. They were divided into three cohorts: frail, moderately healthy and healthy, depending on cognitive and physical function. Albumin, ALT, AST, creatinine and γ-GT were analyzed using routine methods. RESULTS: Linear regression predicted factors for 34% of the variance in albumin were activities of daily living (ADL), gender, stroke and cancer. ADLs, gender and weight explained 15% of changes in ALT. For AST levels, ADLs, cancer and analgesics explained 5% of changes. Kidney disease, gender, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease explained 25% of the variation in creatinine levels and MMSE explained three per cent of γ-GT variation. CONCLUSIONS: Because a group of people are at the same age, they should not be assessed the same way. To interpret results of laboratory tests in elderly is a complex task, where reference intervals are one part, but far from the only one, to take into consideration.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Albuminas/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160742, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551749

RESUMO

Ability to predict and prevent incipient functional decline in older adults may help prolong independence. Cognition is related to everyday function and easily administered, sensitive cognitive tests may help identify at-risk individuals. Factors like depressive symptoms and self-rated health are also associated with functional ability and may be as important as cognition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between concurrent longitudinal changes in cognition, depression, self-rated health and everyday function in a well-defined cohort of healthy 85 year olds that were followed-up at the age of 90 in the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 study. Regression analyses were used to determine if cognitive decline as assessed by global (the Mini-Mental State Examination) and domain specific (the Cognitive Assessment Battery, CAB) cognitive tests predicted functional decline in the context of changes in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results showed deterioration in most variables and as many as 83% of these community-dwelling elders experienced functional difficulties at the age of 90. Slowing-down of processing speed as assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (included in the CAB) accounted for 14% of the variance in functional decline. Worsening self-rated health accounted for an additional 6%, but no other variables reached significance. These results are discussed with an eye to possible preventive interventions that may prolong independence for the steadily growing number of normally aging old-old citizens.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
13.
Scand J Occup Ther ; 23(3): 230-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26853384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, structured assessment of function and activity has high priority when evaluating suspected cognitive impairment or dementia. AIM/OBJECTIVES: The aim was to develop and psychometrically test an instrument to measure the ability to perform activities of daily living tasks in patients with suspected cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Cognitive Impairment in Daily Life (CID) instrument (for self-reported and informant-based assessments) has been developed in several phases. Content validity was achieved through five expert panels using a Content Validity Index (CVI). The content was tested further in a pilot study of 49 patients and 49 relatives from primary care or a specialist memory clinic. RESULTS: Content validity was good with a CVI index of 0.83. All patients considered that the included activities were relevant to them and reflected the difficulties they were experiencing. Most relatives considered the activities included in the instrument as adequate and captured the patients' difficulties in daily life. Some adjustments of the tasks and scale were suggested and these were implicated after each phase. In general, relatives reported that patients had more difficulties performing the activities than the patients reported themselves. CONCLUSION: The CID instrument seems promising in terms of content validity. Further testing of reliability and construct validity is ongoing.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
14.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 31(6): 619-28, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26489528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with subsyndromal depression (SSD) in very old persons, and to develop a model for prediction of SSD among very old persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was undertaken on 85-year-old persons in Sweden. Data were collected from a postal questionnaire, assessments in the participants' homes and at reception visits. Depressiveness was screened with GDS-15 (Geriatric Depression Scale), and the results were classified into three outcome categories: non-depression (ND), SSD and syndromal depression. Data were analysed with binary logistic, ordinal logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: With univariate logistic regression 20 factors associated with SSD were identified in very old persons, and the four hypothesized domains--sociodemographic factors, declining physical functioning, neuropsychiatric factors and existential factors--significantly related to SSD. The multivariate logistic model included seven independent factors that increase the likelihood of SSD instead of ND (lower self-perceived health, life not meaningful, problems with self-care, use of tranquilizing medication, no contact with neighbours, history of affective disorder and history of stroke). The ordinal logistic and the linear regression models resulted in seven partly different factors for predicting SSD and depressiveness, in the very old. CONCLUSIONS: The identified markers may help clinicians with the detection, prevention and treatment of SSD in very old persons. The findings indicate the importance of a comprehensive functional approach to diagnosing and treating depressiveness in this population, and the findings might be interpreted as offering support for the coexistence of a dimensional and a categorical view on depressive disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Autoimagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suécia
15.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 27(6): 949-58, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25644289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore experiences of cognitive impairment, its consequences in everyday life and need for support in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia and their relatives. METHODS: A qualitative approach with an explorative design with interviews was chosen. The participants included five people with MCI and eight people with mild dementia and their relatives. All participants were recruited at a geriatric memory clinic in Sweden. The Grounded Theory method was used. RESULTS: The following categories emerged: noticing cognitive changes; changed activity patterns; coping strategies; uncertainty about own ability and environmental reactions; support in everyday life; support from the healthcare system; consequences in everyday life for relatives; and support for relatives. The main findings were that people with MCI and dementia experienced cognitive changes that could be burdensome and changed activity patterns. Most of them, however, considered themselves capable of coping on their own. The relatives noticed cognitive changes and activity disruptions to a greater extent and tried to be supportive in everyday life. Degree of awareness varied and lack of awareness could lead to many problems in everyday life. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived cognitive impairment and its consequences in everyday life were individual and differed among people with MCI or dementia and their relatives. Thus, healthcare professionals must listen to both people with cognitive impairment and their relatives for optimal individual care planning. Support such as education groups and day care could be more tailored towards the early stages of dementia.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Conscientização , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Gerontologist ; 55(5): 760-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24398652

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to make a qualitative comparison of experiences of being in very old people with subsyndromal depression (SSD), in relation to the experiences of very old people with syndromal depression or nondepression. Through investigation and deeper understanding of the interface between depressive disease and normal aging, clinicians might give more accurate prevention or treatment to those very old persons who need such help. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted for 27 individuals of 87-88 years of age, who were categorized in the 3 strata of nondepressive, SSD, and syndromal depression. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis within each stratum and later with a comparison between the strata. RESULTS: The content analysis resulted in 4 themes in people with SSD, as defined by a self-report depression screening instrument, giving a comprehensive picture of SSD in very old people, and also showed qualitative differences between the SSD, syndromal depression, and nondepressive groups. A main finding was that SSD differs qualitatively from syndromal depression but not clearly from nondepression. IMPLICATIONS: The results might indicate that SSD in very old people is not related to pathology but to normal aging, even though the condition correlates with negative health parameters. Overlooking certain psychosocial aspects of living in the very old may pose a risk of both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis in the spectrum of depressive disorders.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99870, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24941067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion is common in many sports. Today, neuropsychological evaluation is recommended in the monitoring of a concussion and in return-to-play considerations. To investigate the sensitivity of neuropsychological assessment, we tested amateur boxers post bout and compared with controls. Further the relationship between neuropsychological test results and brain injury biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated. METHOD: Thirty amateur boxers on high elite level with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included. Memory tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure, Listening Span, Digit Span, Controlled Word Association Test, and computerized testing of episodic memory), tests of processing speed and executive functions (Trail Making, Reaction Time, and Finger Tapping) were performed and related to previously published CSF biomarker results for the axonal injury marker neurofilament light (NFL). RESULTS: The neurological assessment showed no significant differences between boxers and controls, although elevated CSF NFL, as a sign of axonal injury, was detected in about 80% of the boxers 1-6 days post bout. The investigation of the relationship between neuropsychological evaluation and CSF NFL concentrations revealed that boxers with persisting NFL concentration elevation after at least 14 days resting time post bout, had a significantly poorer performance on Trail Making A (p = 0.041) and Simple Reaction Time (p = 0.042) compared to other boxers. CONCLUSION: This is the first study showing traumatic axonal brain injury can be present without measureable cognitive impairment. The repetitive, subconcussive head trauma in amateur boxing causes axonal injury that can be detected with analysis of CSF NFL, but is not sufficient to produce impairment in memory tests, tests of processing speed, or executive functions. The association of prolonged CSF NFL increase in boxers with impairment of processing speed is an interesting observation, which needs to be verified in larger studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Boxe , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Humanos , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Alzheimers Dement ; 10(6): 713-723.e2, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24721526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the most useful definition of the "cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer profile," based on amyloid-ß1-42 (Aß42), total tau, and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), for diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We constructed eight Alzheimer profiles with previously published combinations, including regression formulas and simple ratios. We compared their diagnostic accuracy and ability to predict dementia due to AD in 1385 patients from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. Results were validated in an independent cohort (n = 1442). RESULTS: Combinations outperformed individual biomarkers. Based on the sensitivity of the best performing regression formulas, cutoffs were chosen at 0.52 for the tau/Aß42 ratio and 0.08 for the p-tau/Aß42 ratio. Ratios performed similar to formulas (sensitivity, 91%-93%; specificity, 81%-84%). The same combinations best predicted cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment patients. Validation confirmed these results, especially regarding the tau/Aß42 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: A tau/Aß42 ratio of >0.52 constitutes a robust cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer profile. We recommend using this ratio to combine biomarkers.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Análise de Variância , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fosforilação , Curva ROC , Análise de Regressão
19.
Int J Family Med ; 2014: 649253, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24778877

RESUMO

Background. Diagnostic evaluations of dementia are often performed in primary health care (PHC). Cognitive evaluation requires validated instruments. Objective. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Cognistat in a primary care population. Methods. Participants were recruited from 4 PHC centres; 52 had cognitive symptoms and 29 were presumed cognitively healthy. Participants were tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and Cognistat. Clinical diagnoses, based on independent neuropsychological examination and a medical consensus discussion in secondary care, were used as criteria for diagnostic accuracy analyses. Results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.85, 0.79, 0.85, and 0.79, respectively, for Cognistat; 0.59, 0.91, 0.90, and 0.61 for MMSE; 0.26, 0.88, 0.75, and 0.46 for CDT; 0.70, 0.79, 0.82, and 0.65 for MMSE and CDT combined. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.82 for Cognistat, 0.75 for MMSE, 0.57 for CDT, and 0.74 for MMSE and CDT combined. Conclusions. The diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Cognistat was better than the other tests alone or combined. Cognistat is well adapted for cognitive evaluations in PHC and can help the general practitioner to decide which patients should be referred to secondary care.

20.
Neurobiol Dis ; 65: 82-92, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24412310

RESUMO

The spreading of pathology through neuronal pathways is likely to be the cause of the progressive cognitive loss observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. We have recently shown the propagation of AD pathology via cell-to-cell transfer of oligomeric amyloid beta (Aß) residues 1-42 (oAß1-42) using our donor-acceptor 3-D co-culture model. We now show that different Aß-isoforms (fluorescently labeled 1-42, 3(pE)-40, 1-40 and 11-42 oligomers) can transfer from one cell to another. Thus, transfer is not restricted to a specific Aß-isoform. Although different Aß isoforms can transfer, differences in the capacity to clear and/or degrade these aggregated isoforms result in vast differences in the net amounts ending up in the receiving cells and the net remaining Aß can cause seeding and pathology in the receiving cells. This insufficient clearance and/or degradation by cells creates sizable intracellular accumulations of the aggregation-prone Aß1-42 isoform, which further promotes cell-to-cell transfer; thus, oAß1-42 is a potentially toxic isoform. Furthermore, cell-to-cell transfer is shown to be an early event that is seemingly independent of later appearances of cellular toxicity. This phenomenon could explain how seeds for the AD pathology could pass on to new brain areas and gradually induce AD pathology, even before the first cell starts to deteriorate, and how cell-to-cell transfer can act together with the factors that influence cellular clearance and/or degradation in the development of AD.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Neuritos/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/ultraestrutura , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Técnicas de Cocultura , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Neuregulina-1/farmacologia , Neuritos/ultraestrutura , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/ultraestrutura , Isoformas de Proteínas , Fatores de Tempo , Tretinoína/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA