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1.
Health Promot Int ; 34(5): e36-e46, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189003

RESUMO

Due to its long border of the European Union Schengen Area, Hungary has long been affected by the rapidly growing inward migration towards the EU, which has become more acute in recent years. Inadequate access to healthcare among migrants has been widely reported and this may be due to a vast array of factors and may result in poorer health outcomes. Between August 2014 and April 2015 a questionnaire survey was conducted among migrants from a range of countries residing in the largest Hungarian refugee reception centre to establish participants' health knowledge and access to healthcare in Hungary (medical assessment, vaccination, etc.). The survey was complemented with an educational program which aimed to increase participants' awareness of healthcare provision and to promote the prevention of the infectious diseases that are common in Europe. The results showed that half the participants (52%) had no information of healthcare provision and the majority (61%) did not participate in any medical assessment since arriving in the reception centre. Since under-immunization may be a potential risk for the re-emergence of vaccine-preventable diseases for recipient countries, it was alarming that a significant proportion of African participants (21%) reported not having received any childhood vaccinations. Data demonstrated deficiencies in participants' health knowledge and also an urgent need to address mental health problems of arriving migrants. This article offers a valuable insight into the role of health educational interventions conducted for asylum seekers in refugee reception centres and discusses a number of practical application aspects for future educational programs.

2.
Qual Health Res ; 28(11): 1692-1707, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984617

RESUMO

The experience of exercise among women survivors of sexual violence is a multifaceted phenomenon. In effort to inform treatment interventions, we used a phenomenological approach to describe the lived experience of exercise among women survivors of sexual violence. Data analysis from a focus group discussion and individual interviews with eight women survivors receiving services at a rape crisis center (RCC) revealed four themes: exercising (and not exercising) fosters safety, exercising is risky, past trauma restricts exercise choices, and exercising is beneficial. Findings indicate that survivors' experience of exercise is related to their connections with self and their social environment. Survivors' choices related to exercise were impacted by their stage of recovery. A variety of social-contextual factors appeared to support or impede motivation to exercise and it was not disinterest in exercise or low confidence in the ability to exercise, but restricted exercise options perceived as safe that influenced exercise motivation.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Exercício/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Segurança
3.
Violence Vict ; 31(5): 787-818, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27523801

RESUMO

This meta-analysis compared risk markers for perpetration of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among military and civilian males. We also examined strength of risk markers among male and female service members. In total, 36 military studies and 334 civilian studies, which reported 883 effect sizes, were included in the analyses. Results revealed more similarities than differences in risk markers for IPV among military and civilian males and among military males and females. Of the risk markers examined, relationship satisfaction and alcohol problems were significantly stronger risk markers for IPV among civilian males compared to military males. Perpetrating emotional abuse was a significantly stronger risk marker for IPV perpetration among military females compared to military males. Recommendations for IPV prevention and intervention are discussed.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Militares/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Maus-Tratos Conjugais/psicologia , Estados Unidos
4.
J Rural Med ; 9(2): 59-73, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25648905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate employees' self-assessments of their occupational risks and health awareness as well as their perception of preventive methods. We also aimed to collect data on employees' perception of some selected alarming signs and symptoms that may encourage them to take further actions (such as separation and calling an ambulance). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Between April and June 2013, an anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted with the participation of 70 employees working with migrants (both health-care and non-health-care staff) in 10 Hungarian settlements: 4 border crossing points along the eastern Schengen borderline, 3 asylum detention centers and 3 reception centers. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated an increased perception of certain biological and mental health hazards at work among those working with migrants: 63.7% of the health-care workers and even 37.3% of the non-health-care staff come into contact with human secretions (feces, urine, saliva) "frequently" or "sometimes". Self-assessed awareness of the signs and symptoms of infectious diseases was poor: only 12.8% of participants evaluated their awareness as "good" or "very good". Threat of verbal violence may be considered a common mental risk at work for participants: 35% "sometimes" or "frequently" and 5% "always" face verbal violence during their work. The most commonly used preventive measures against infectious diseases included the use of gloves, masks and disinfectants; these were generally available to 70 to 80% of the workers and properly applied. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate considerable deficiencies in the participants' preparedness in respect to their occupational health-related issues. Since it is essential for those having daily physical contact with migrants during their work to be properly informed about the occupational health hazards and consequences that may be associated with international migration, their training programs urgently require further development. More comprehensive knowledge may improve the preventive attitudes of employees, and conscious application of preventive measures may contribute to better public and occupation health safety.

5.
Vaccine ; 30(48): 6824-32, 2012 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23000124

RESUMO

The alarming national data on the mortality and morbidity rates of cervical cancer as well as the results of a Hungarian survey demonstrating adolescents' low level of understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV vaccination encouraged the authors to conduct an educational intervention. The aim of this survey was to explore the impact of a brief, HPV-focused program on adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was completed by 394 male and female adolescents in September, 2010, in Hungary. Half of the students (48.5%) then had a one-off educational intervention on aspects cervical cancer lasting 45 min lesson, while the rest of the participants, the control group, did not have the educational intervention. Three months following the education, both groups were retested using the same questionnaire. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Following the education, significant increase was detected in cervical cancer awareness: causal relationship between HPV and cervical cancer (7.9% → 22.1%, p<0.05), or perception of HPV vaccination (61.3% → 85.9%, p<0.05). Similarly, health-related beliefs have enhanced, such as 'HPV may cause cervical cancer' (64.9% → 81.0%, p<0.05) or 'cervical cancer may be prevented by vaccination' (66.5% → 85.3%, p<0.05). Our data also highlighted that Hungarian adolescents have been practising extremely risky sexual behaviour. Nearly half of the sexually active adolescents had engaged in 'one-night relationship' (41.1%) as well as having sexual intercourse without any contraceptive safety measures (44.3%). In addition to providing adolescents with clear and meaningful information about the implications of a HPV infection and addressing their fears of screening and vaccination, health education should focus on promoting safe sex behaviour by promoting the use of condoms and reducing the number of sexual partners to limit the spread of HPV, and also on encouraging the participation in regular cervical screenings, thus reducing the incidence of cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Vaccine ; 29(47): 8591-8, 2011 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21939711

RESUMO

Hungary takes the fourth place regarding the incidence and the fifth regarding the mortality of cervical cancer among the member countries of the European Union, with 500 deaths due to this preventable illness and nearly 1200 new cases diagnosed every year. Although the vaccines have been available for 3 years, the estimated rate of the female population vaccinated against HPV is approximately 10% in the 12-26-year-age cohort. The aim of this study was to determine factors and motivations affecting the uptake of HPV vaccination among Hungarian adolescents. Examining the effects of some possible sociodemographic predictors (age and gender) and the exposure to health information on HPV vaccine acceptability were also focused on, as well as assessing the most trusted sources of information about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A nationwide anonymous questionnaire survey with a sample of 1769 students attending public primary or secondary schools was organised by the authors in 16 Hungarian cities and towns. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Adolescents' awareness of HPV was relatively low. Only 35% of the participants reported they had heard about HPV prior to the survey. Almost 70% of the potentially affected study population had not heard about the vaccine previously. Every fourth student did not believe that vaccination against HPV can prevent cervical cancer. If the vaccination was available free of charge, almost 80% of respondents would request it, but in case they had to pay for it, this number would significantly decrease. Significantly better knowledge and also more positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination was found in relation to the number of information sources. The majority of respondents (62-83%) were open for further information about STDs. The main trusted mediators were school-health services (61.3%), education on health at school (49.2%), health professionals (42.2%) and electronic media (24.6%). Since Hungarian adolescent students expect guidance about STDs principally from school health education, an urgent need for well-designed, HPV-focused educational programmes emerges. Launching such programmes would be especially important for the adolescent population to increase their awareness of the risks associated with HPV infection thus reducing the high incidence of cervical cancer in Hungary in the future.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Anticancer Res ; 31(9): 3051-5, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21868558

RESUMO

AIM: The effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 allelic polymorphisms was studied on the HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-three women with persistent high-risk HPV infection were involved in the study; 117 of them developed cervical high-grade dysplasia and/or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III during the 7-year follow-up period. Occurrence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes was compared between women with and without dysplasia. RESULTS: Presence of GSTM1 (OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.06-2.97; p=0.028) and GSTT1 (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.10-3.26; p=0.022) null genotypes was statistically significantly more frequent among women with cervical dysplasia than in the group without dysplasia. Participants with dual null genotype had an even more elevated risk of precancerous lesion (OR=2.35, 95% CI=1.17-4.73; p=0.017). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the role of both GSTM1 and T1 null genotypes in the development of high-grade cervical dysplasia in a Caucasian population.


Assuntos
Alelos , Alphapapillomavirus/patogenicidade , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Isoenzimas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Primers do DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Vaccine ; 29(32): 5122-9, 2011 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21624417

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent gynaecological malignancies worldwide. The Hungarian incidence and mortality of this disease take the 4th-5th places within the European Union. A survey including 785 male and female adults was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitudes concerning HPV vaccination. We focused on the difficulties of the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer and examined some potential sociodemographic predictors of HPV vaccine acceptability. Our findings have identified some important issues like: incomplete knowledge, intense distrust and financial concerns. Almost half of the college students (45.6%) are unaware of HPV infections. We confirmed previous findings that older age and female gender correlates with better knowledge on STDs, including HPV. We found that greater exposure to health information comes with better knowledge and more positive attitudes towards vaccination. One quarter of survey respondents do not believe that cervical cancer may be prevented by vaccination. More than half of the adults do not trust national health care system and the preparedness of Hungarian doctors. General attitudes towards vaccination are broadly positive, 80% of survey participants had expressed desire towards HPV vaccination, however if there was a need to pay for the vaccination the willingness would decrease by half. Primary prevention through HPV-focused educational programs, clear communication and financial support would be important for public health to reduce the high incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Hungary in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia
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