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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically useful predictors for fatal toxoplasmosis are lacking. We investigated the value of serological assays for antibodies to whole Toxoplasma antigens and to peptide antigens of the Toxoplasma cyst protein MAG1, for predicting incident toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: We performed a nested case control study, conducted within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), using serum samples obtained 2 years prior to diagnosis of TE from 28 cases, and 37 HIV disease-matched Toxoplasma seropositive controls at matched time-points. Sera were tested for Toxoplasma antibodies using a commercial assay and for antibodies to MAG1_4.2 and MAG1_5.2 peptides in ELISA. RESULTS: Two years prior to clinical diagnosis, 68% of TE cases were MAG1_4.2 seropositive compared with 16% of controls (OR 25.0, 95% CI 3.14-199.18). Corresponding results for MAG1_5.2 seropositivity were 36% and 14% (OR 3.6, 95% CI 0.95-13.42). Higher levels of antibody to MAG1_4.2 (OR 18.5 per doubling of the OD value, 95% CI 1.41-242) and to Toxoplasma (OR 2.91 for each OD unit increase, 95% CI 1.48-5.72) were also associated with the risk of TE. When seropositivity was defined as the presence of MAG1 antibody or relatively high levels of Toxoplasma antibody, the sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 68% for subsequent TE. CONCLUSIONS: Antibodies to MAG1 showed predictive value on the occurrence of TE in PLWH, and the predictive performance was further improved by adding the levels of Toxoplasma antibody. These measures could be clinically useful for predicting subsequent diseases in multiple at-risk populations.

2.
AIDS ; 35(1): 101-114, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the effect of smoking on the incidence of smoking-related cancers differs by HIV-infection status, if sex modifies the impact of risk factors for smoking-related cancers, and the sex-specific attributable risk of smoking on cancer incidence. DESIGN: Data from two large prospective studies in the United States were analyzed: 6789 men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1984 through 2018 and 4423 women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study from 1994 through 2018. METHODS: Incidence rates, relative risks, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated for smoking-related cancers. RESULTS: During study follow-up, there were 214 incident smoking-related cancers in the men and 192 in the women. The age-adjusted incidence ratess for smoking-related cancers were higher in the women (392/100 000) than for the men (198/100 000; P < 0.01) and higher for people living with HIV (PLWH, 348/100 000) than for those without HIV (162/100 000; P < 0.01). Unadjusted incidence rates in PLWH were higher than in those without HIV when stratifying by cumulative pack-years of smoking (all P values <0.01). In adjusted interaction models, the effects of cumulative pack-years of smoking were significantly stronger in women. The adjusted PAFs for smoking-related cancers were nonsignificantly higher in the women than in the men (39 vs. 28%; P = 0.35). CONCLUSION: HIV looks to be an independent risk factor for smoking-related cancers and women appear to have a greater risk than men. These results highlight the need for interventions to help PLWH, especially women, quit smoking and sustain cessation to reduce their risk of smoking-related cancers.

3.
Ageing Res Rev ; 65: 101205, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137510

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, moved across the globe at an unprecedented speed, and is having a profound and yet still unfolding health and socioeconomic impacts. SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes a disease that has been termed the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Clinical experience thus far indicates that COVID-19 is highly heterogeneous, ranging from being asymptomatic and mild to severe and causing death. Host factors including age, sex, and comorbid conditions are key determinants of disease severity and progression. Aging itself is a prominent risk factor for severe disease and death from COVID-19. We hypothesize that age-related decline and dysregulation of immune function, i.e., immunosenescence and inflammaging play a major role in contributing to heightened vulnerability to severe COVID-19 outcomes in older adults. Much remains to be learned about the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We need to begin partitioning all immunological outcome data by age to better understand disease heterogeneity and aging. Such knowledge is critical not only for understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis but also for COVID-19 vaccine development.


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Idoso , Envelhecimento , China , Humanos , Imunidade
4.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301425

RESUMO

Clonal expansion of infected CD4+ T cells is a major mechanism of HIV-1 persistence and a barrier to cure. Potential causes are homeostatic proliferation, effects of HIV-1 integration, and interaction with antigens. Here we show that it is possible to link antigen responsiveness, full proviral sequence, integration site, and T cell receptor ß-chain (TCRß) sequence to examine the role of recurrent antigenic exposure in maintaining the HIV-1 reservoir. We isolated Cytomegalovirus (CMV)- and Gag-responding CD4+ T cells from 10 treated individuals. Proviral populations in CMV-responding cells were dominated by large clones, including clones harboring replication-competent proviruses. TCRß repertoires showed high clonality driven by converging adaptive responses. Although some proviruses were in genes linked to HIV-1 persistence (BACH2, STAT5B, MKL1), proliferation of infected cells under antigenic stimulation occurred regardless of the site of integration. Paired TCRß-integration site analysis showed that infection could occur early or late in the course of a clone's response to antigen and could generate infected cell populations too large to be explained solely by homeostatic proliferation. Together these findings implicate antigen-driven clonal selection as a major factor in HIV-1 persistence, a finding that will be a difficult challenge to eradication efforts.

5.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 21(5): 130-139, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection among People Living With HIV (PLWH) is not well-described. OBJECTIVE: To study COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based swab testing among participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: A telephone survey was collected April-June 30, 2020. Symptom and testing prevalence were explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 3411 participants, including 2078 (61%) PLWH and 1333 HIV-seronegative (SN) participants from across the US. Thirteen percent (n = 441) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection (13.4% of PLWH vs 12.2% of SN). Among those tested, positivity was higher in PLWH than SN (11.2% vs 6.1%, p = 0.08). Reasons for not being tested included testing not being available (30% of participants) and not knowing where to get tested (16% of participants). Most symptoms reported since January 2020 were similar in PLWH and SN, including headache (23% vs. 24%), myalgias (19% vs 18%), shortness of breath (14% vs 13%), chills (12% vs 10%), fever (6% vs 6%) and loss of taste or smell (6% vs 7%). Among PLWH who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 DNA, the most common symptoms were headache (71%), myalgia (68%), cough (68%) and chills (65%). In multivariable analysis among those tested, the odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity were higher among PLWH than SN (aOR = 2.22 95%CI = 01.01-4.85, p = 0.046) and among those living with others versus living alone (aOR = 2.95 95%CI = 1.18-7.40). CONCLUSION: Prevalence and type of COVID-19 symptoms were similar in PLWH and SN. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be elevated among PLWH.

6.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 36(12): 973-981, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847368

RESUMO

With increasing effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy, people with HIV (PWH) are living longer and the prevalence of older PWH continues to increase. Accordingly, PWH are experiencing an increased burden of age-related comorbidities. With this shifting demographics, clinicians and researchers face additional challenges in how to identify, address, and manage the complex intersections of HIV- and aging-related conditions. Established in 2009, the International Workshop on HIV and Aging brings together clinicians and researchers in cross-disciplinary fields along with community advocates and PWH to address the multidisciplinary nature of HIV and aging. This article summarizes plenary talks from the 10th Annual International Workshop on HIV and Aging, which took place in New York City on October 10 and 11, 2019. Presentation topics included the following: the burdens of HIV-associated comorbidities, aging phenotypes, community engagement, and loneliness; these issues are especially important for older PWH, considering the current COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss broad questions and potential directions for future research necessary to better understand the interaction between HIV and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , HIV , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
7.
Nature ; 579(7798): 284-290, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103175

RESUMO

Cancer recurrence after surgery remains an unresolved clinical problem1-3. Myeloid cells derived from bone marrow contribute to the formation of the premetastatic microenvironment, which is required for disseminating tumour cells to engraft distant sites4-6. There are currently no effective interventions that prevent the formation of the premetastatic microenvironment6,7. Here we show that, after surgical removal of primary lung, breast and oesophageal cancers, low-dose adjuvant epigenetic therapy disrupts the premetastatic microenvironment and inhibits both the formation and growth of lung metastases through its selective effect on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). In mouse models of pulmonary metastases, MDSCs are key factors in the formation of the premetastatic microenvironment after resection of primary tumours. Adjuvant epigenetic therapy that uses low-dose DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors, 5-azacytidine and entinostat, disrupts the premetastatic niche by inhibiting the trafficking of MDSCs through the downregulation of CCR2 and CXCR2, and by promoting MDSC differentiation into a more-interstitial macrophage-like phenotype. A decreased accumulation of MDSCs in the premetastatic lung produces longer periods of disease-free survival and increased overall survival, compared with chemotherapy. Our data demonstrate that, even after removal of the primary tumour, MDSCs contribute to the development of premetastatic niches and settlement of residual tumour cells. A combination of low-dose adjuvant epigenetic modifiers that disrupts this premetastatic microenvironment and inhibits metastases may permit an adjuvant approach to cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Terapia Genética , Células Supressoras Mieloides/fisiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Células Supressoras Mieloides/citologia , Metástase Neoplásica/terapia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptores CCR2/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 25(2): e12705, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The total QT interval comprises both ventricular depolarization and repolarization currents. Understanding how HIV serostatus and other risk factors influence specific QT interval subcomponents could improve our mechanistic understanding of arrhythmias. METHODS: Twelve-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were acquired in 774 HIV-infected (HIV+) and 652 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Individual QT subcomponent intervals were analyzed: R-onset to R-peak, R-peak to R-end, JT segment, T-onset to T-peak, and T-peak to T-end. Using multivariable linear regressions, we investigated associations between HIV serostatus and covariates, including serum concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), and each QT subcomponent. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographics and risk factors, HIV+ versus HIV- men differed only in repolarization phase durations with longer T-onset to T-peak by 2.3 ms (95% CI 0-4.5, p < .05) and T-peak to T-end by 1.6 ms (95% CI 0.3-2.9, p < .05). Adjusting for inflammation attenuated the strength and significance of the relationship between HIV serostatus and repolarization. The highest tertile of IL-6 was associated with a 7.3 ms (95% CI 3.2-11.5, p < .01) longer T-onset to T-peak. Age, race, body mass index, alcohol use, and left ventricular hypertrophy were each associated with up to 2.2-12.5 ms longer T-wave subcomponents. CONCLUSIONS: HIV seropositivity, in combination with additional risk factors including increased systemic inflammation, is associated with longer T-wave subcomponents. These findings could suggest mechanisms by which the ventricular repolarization phase is lengthened and thereby contribute to increased arrhythmic risk in men living with HIV.

9.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 36(3): 176-179, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813226

RESUMO

The Martin-Hopkins equation used to calculate low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is more accurate than the traditional Friedewald equation, especially at higher triglyceride levels, which are more common in people with HIV (PWH). Thus, using LDL-C values calculated by the Martin-Hopkins equation may improve clinical care of PWH.

10.
Cell Immunol ; 348: 104024, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843200

RESUMO

Aging is characterized by significant immune remodeling at both cellular and molecular levels, also known as immunosenescence. Older adults often manifest a chronic low-grade inflammatory phenotype. These age-related immune system changes have increasingly been recognized not only to lead to immune functional decline and increased vulnerability to infections, but also to play an important role in many chronic conditions such as frailty in older adults. In addition to sex as an important biological factor, chronic viral infections including that by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are all known to have major impact on the aging immune system. This article provides an overview of our current understanding of aging immunity, sex, inflammation, frailty, and HIV and CMV infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Fragilidade/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Imunossenescência/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
11.
Cells ; 8(9)2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484431

RESUMO

Semen exosomes (SE) from HIV-uninfected (HIV-) individuals potently inhibit HIV infection in vitro. However, morphological changes in target cells in response to SE have not been characterized or have the effect of HIV infection or the use of illicit substances, specifically psychostimulants, on the function of SE been elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HIV infection, psychostimulant use, and both together on SE-mediated regulation of monocyte function. SE were isolated from semen of HIV- and HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive participants who reported either using or not using psychostimulants. The SE samples were thus designated as HIV-Drug-, HIV-Drug+, HIV+Drug-, and HIV+Drug+. U937 monocytes were treated with different SEs and analyzed for changes in transcriptome, morphometrics, actin reorganization, adhesion, and chemotaxis. HIV infection and/or use of psychostimulants had minimal effects on the physical characteristics of SE. However, different SEs had diverse effects on the messenger RNA signature of monocytes and rapidly induced monocyte adhesion and spreading. SE from HIV infected or psychostimulants users but not HIV-Drug- SE, stimulated actin reorganization, leading to the formation of filopodia-like structures and membrane ruffles containing F-actin and vinculin that in some cases were colocalized. All SE stimulated monocyte chemotaxis to HIV secretome and activated the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, a phenotype exacerbated by HIV infection and psychostimulant use. SE-directed regulation of cellular morphometrics and chemotaxis depended on the donor clinical status because HIV infection and psychostimulant use altered SE function. Although our inclusion criteria specified the use of cocaine, humans are poly-drug and alcohol users and our study participants used psychostimulants, marijuana, opiates, and alcohol. Thus, it is possible that the effects observed in this study may be due to one of these other substances or due to an interaction between different substances.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular , Quimiotaxia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Monócitos/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Células U937
12.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 35(11-12): 985-998, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373216

RESUMO

In the era of effective antiretroviral therapy, the number of older people with HIV (PWH) is increasing, and those aging with HIV are experiencing an increasing burden of age-associated comorbidities. Life expectancy among older PWH is approaching that of demographically comparable HIV-uninfected (HIV-) adults. With this changing demographic of PWH come new challenges for researchers and clinicians in how to identify, address, and manage the complex interplay of treated HIV infection and aging-associated factors. In response to these challenges, the annual International Workshop on HIV and Aging was initiated in 2009 as a multidisciplinary platform for scientific discourse on the research and clinical complications arising from the aging population of PWH. The multidisciplinary nature of the workshop has resulted in a wide range of topics addressed over the past 9 years, from basic mechanisms in aging and HIV pathogenesis, to epidemiology of aging within large cohorts, interventions, and implementation of clinical programs. Herein, we summarize the key topics discussed at the 9th Annual International Workshop on HIV and Aging 2018, including "inflammaging," mitochondrial dysfunction, exercise interventions, HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, metabolic dysfunction, menopause, and polypharmacy. In addition to recent developments in research and clinical care, we discuss open questions and future research directions required to better understand the interaction of HIV and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Gerenciamento Clínico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Congressos como Assunto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Menopausa , Pesquisa
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(4): e117-e126, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls and fall risk factors are common among people living with HIV (PLWH). We sought to identify fall risk factors among men with and without HIV. METHODS: Men aged 50-75 years with (n = 279) and without HIV (n = 379) from the Bone Strength Substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. Multinomial logistic regression models identified risk factors associated with falling. RESULTS: One hundred fourteen (41%) PLWH and 149 (39%) of uninfected men had ≥1 fall; 54 (20%) PLWH and 66 (17%) of uninfected men experienced ≥2 falls over 2 years. Five and 3% of PLWH and uninfected men, respectively, had a fall-related fracture (P = 0.34). In multivariate models, the odds of ≥2 falls were greater among men reporting illicit drug use, taking diabetes or depression medications, and with peripheral neuropathy; obesity was associated with a lower risk (all P < 0.05). In models restricted to PLWH, detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, current use of efavirenz or diabetes medications, illicit drug use, and peripheral neuropathy were associated with greater odds of having ≥2 falls (P < 0.05). Current efavirenz use was associated with increased odds of an injurious fall; longer duration of antiretroviral therapy was protective (both P < 0.05). Greater physical activity was associated with lower risk of falls with fracture (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Identified risk factors for recurrent falls or fall with fracture included low physical activity, detectable HIV-1 RNA, use of efavirenz, or use of medications to treat diabetes and depression. Fall risk reduction should prioritize interventions targeting modifiable risk factors including increased physical activity, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and transition off efavirenz.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Idoso , Alquinos , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclopropanos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
14.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 208(3-4): 289-294, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900090

RESUMO

Both aging and treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are characterized by low-level chronic inflammation and immune activation which contribute to the development of age-related diseases, frailty, and early mortality. Chronic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is highly prevalent in older adults and HIV-infected populations. A number of studies have shown that CMV induces broad and strong T-cell responses in CMV-seropositive older adults and HIV-infected individuals. CMV infection rarely develops into clinical disease in immunocompetent individuals. However, a large body of literature has shown adverse effects of chronic CMV infection on the health and longevity of these populations. It has been hypothesized that chronic CMV infection may be a driver of chronic inflammation and immune activation, and may further contribute to the development of frailty. Thus, there is a need to better understand the extent of the impact of chronic CMV infection on T-cell immunity and health in aging and HIV infection. In this review, we will address important considerations and challenges in the assessment of chronic CMV infection and CMV-specific T-cell responses. We will then review recent data on relationships between T-cell responses to CMV and levels of inflammatory markers and immune activation, as well as the onset of frailty.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/sangue , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Fragilidade/patologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia
15.
Neurology ; 92(12): e1344-e1353, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of insulin sensitivity and metabolic status with declining cognition in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: We conducted targeted clinical and metabolic measures in longitudinal plasma samples obtained from HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Central Nervous System HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research Study (CHARTER). Findings were validated with plasma samples from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Patients were grouped according to longitudinally and serially assessed cognitive performance as having stably normal or declining cognition. RESULTS: Patients with declining cognition exhibited baseline hyperinsulinemia and elevated plasma c-peptide levels with normal c-peptide/insulin ratios, suggesting that insulin production was increased, but insulin clearance was normal. The association of hyperinsulinemia with worsening cognition was further supported by low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), high low-density lipoprotein/HDL ratio, and elevated cholesterol/HDL ratio compared to patients with stably normal cognition. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that hyperinsulinemia and impaired insulin sensitivity are associated with cognitive decline in antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo C/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/psicologia , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Nature ; 566(7742): 120-125, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700913

RESUMO

A stable latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells is the principal barrier to a cure1-3. Curative strategies that target the reservoir are being tested4,5 and require accurate, scalable reservoir assays. The reservoir was defined with quantitative viral outgrowth assays for cells that release infectious virus after one round of T cell activation1. However, these quantitative outgrowth assays and newer assays for cells that produce viral RNA after activation6 may underestimate the reservoir size because one round of activation does not induce all proviruses7. Many studies rely on simple assays based on polymerase chain reaction to detect proviral DNA regardless of transcriptional status, but the clinical relevance of these assays is unclear, as the vast majority of proviruses are defective7-9. Here we describe a more accurate method of measuring the HIV-1 reservoir that separately quantifies intact and defective proviruses. We show that the dynamics of cells that carry intact and defective proviruses are different in vitro and in vivo. These findings have implications for targeting the intact proviruses that are a barrier to curing HIV infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Portador Sadio/virologia , Vírus Defeituosos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Provírus/isolamento & purificação , Latência Viral , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Portador Sadio/terapia , Linhagem Celular , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Vírus Defeituosos/genética , Vírus Defeituosos/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Provírus/genética , Provírus/fisiologia
17.
Epidemics ; 26: 68-76, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 set point viral load (SPVL) is a highly variable trait that influences disease progression and transmission risk. Men who are exclusively insertive (EI) during anal intercourse require more sexual contacts to become infected than exclusively receptive (ER) men. Thus, we hypothesize that EIs are more likely to acquire their viruses from highly infectious partners (i.e., with high SPVLs) and to have higher SPVLs than infected ERs. METHODS: We used a one-generation Bernoulli model, a dynamic network model, and data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) to examine whether and under what circumstances MSM differ in SPVL by sexual role. RESULTS: Both models predicted higher SPVLs in EIs than role versatile (RV) or ER men, but only in scenarios where longer-term relationships predominated. ER and RV men displayed similar SPVLs. EI men remained far less likely than ER men to become infected, however. When the MACS data were limited by some estimates of lower sex partner counts (a proxy for longer relationships), EI men had higher SPVLs; these differences were clinically relevant (>0.3 log10 copies/mL) and statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Mode of acquisition may be an important aspect of SPVL evolution in MSM, with clinical implications.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/metabolismo , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais
18.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 35(1): 75-80, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280921

RESUMO

HIV-infected men have increased rates of osteoporosis and fracture compared to HIV-uninfected men. Testosterone use among HIV-infected men is common. In HIV-uninfected men, testosterone increases bone mineral density (BMD), but its effects have not been evaluated in HIV-infected men. In a substudy of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), the Bone Strength Substudy (BOSS) enrolled 202 HIV-infected and 201 HIV-uninfected men aged between 50 and 69 years. Study participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) and detailed assessment of osteoporosis risk factors. We used multivariable linear regression to determine associations and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between self-reported testosterone use and T-scores at the LS, TH, and FN after adjustment for demographics, behavioral covariates, comorbidities, and other traditional osteoporosis risk factors. HIV-infected men reported more frequent testosterone use (22% vs. 4%; p < .001) and had lower median BMD T-score at TH than HIV-uninfected men (0.0 vs. 0.3; p = .045) but similar T-scores at LS and FN. In the overall study population, testosterone use was associated with significantly greater BMD T-score at LS (0.68; 95% CI: 0.22-1.13). In HIV-infected men with virologic suppression, testosterone was significantly associated with higher BMD T-score at LS (0.95; 95% CI: 0.36-1.54) and TH (0.45; 95% CI: 0.04-0.86). Current testosterone use is common in HIV-infected men and was associated with higher BMD, compared to those not taking testosterone. Testosterone's role in reducing fracture risk in HIV-infected men should be investigated.


Assuntos
Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
19.
Heart ; 105(7): 559-565, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals may be at increased risk for sudden arrhythmic cardiac death. Some studies have reported an association between HIV infection and prolongation of the electrocardiographic QT interval, a measure of ventricular repolarisation, which could potentiate ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether HIV+ men have longer QT intervals than HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men and to determine factors associated with QT duration. METHODS: We performed resting 12-lead ECGs in 774 HIV+ and 652 HIV- men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). We used multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses to assess associations between HIV serostatus and Framingham corrected QT interval (QTc), after accounting for potential confounders. We also determined associations among QTc interval and HIV-related factors in HIV+ men. In a subgroup of participants, levels of serum markers of inflammation were also assessed. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographics and risk factors, QTc was 4.0 ms longer in HIV+ than HIV- men (p<0.001). Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), specific ART drug class use and other HIV-specific risk factors were not associated with longer QTc. Among the subgroup with inflammatory biomarker measurements, higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and B-cell activating factor levels were independently associated with longer QTc and their inclusion partially attenuated the HIV effect. CONCLUSIONS: HIV+ men had longer QTc, which was associated with higher levels of systemic inflammatory factors. This longer QTc may contribute to the increased risk for sudden arrhythmic cardiac death in some HIV+ individuals.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais , Fator Ativador de Células B/sangue , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Síndrome do QT Longo , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/classificação , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Correlação de Dados , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/epidemiologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
AIDS ; 32(17): 2547-2556, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ongoing HIV replication while receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may reduce survival. Viremia copy-years (VCY) has shown improved mortality risk prediction over single time-point viral load measures. However, the timing of a patient's viral load history most associated with later mortality has not been studied. Here we determined the optimal duration and temporality of viral load history for predicting mortality. DESIGN: Survival analysis among HIV-positive men who initiated cART in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (1995-2015). METHODS: VCY measures were derived from area-under-the-viral load-curve. The overall VCY based upon the complete post-cART viral load history was compared with 20 VCYs derived from viral loads assessed during different shorter time periods (the most recent 1-10 years and initial 1-10 years following cART initiation) for associations with mortality. RESULTS: Each 10-fold increase in VCYs based on the most recent 3-8 years was significantly associated with 23-26% decrease in survival times, a magnitude of effect greater than that of the most recent viral load (16%). These associations were independent of CD4 cell count and single time-point viral loads. In addition, the degree of pre-cART immunodeficiency did not affect the mortality prognostic value of VCY based on viral loads in the most recent 3 years. Conversely, the overall VCY and VCYs based on viral loads immediately following cART initiation were not independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: Among cART-treated men, VCY based upon viral loads in the recent 3 years (six viral loads) has a mortality prognostic value greater than that of the overall VCY and single time-point viral loads, making the former a more feasible measure for use.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Carga Viral , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/mortalidade , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Viremia/virologia
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