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1.
Hypertension ; 76(6): 1945-1952, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131315

RESUMO

High office blood pressure variability (OBPV) in midlife increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the impact of OBPV in older adults without previous CVD is unknown. We conducted a post hoc analysis of ASPREE trial (Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) participants aged 70-years and older (65 for US minorities) without history of CVD events at baseline, to examine risk of incident CVD associated with long-term, visit-to-visit OBPV. CVD was a prespecified, adjudicated secondary end point in ASPREE. We estimated OBPV using within-individual SD of mean systolic BP from baseline and first 2 annual visits. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CI for associations with CVD events. In 16 475 participants who survived to year 2 without events, those in the highest tertile of OBPV had increased risk of CVD events after adjustment for multiple covariates, when compared with participants in the lowest tertile (HR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.08-1.70]; P=0.01). Similar increased risk was observed for ischemic stroke (HR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.04-2.33]; P=0.03), heart failure hospitalization, or death (HR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.07-2.79]; P=0.02), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.04-1.54]; P=0.02). Findings were consistent when stratifying participants by use of antihypertensive drugs, while sensitivity analyses suggested the increased risk was especially for individuals whose BP was uncontrolled during the OBPV estimation period. Our findings support increased OBPV as a risk factor for CVD events in healthy older adults with, or without hypertension, who have not had such events previously. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01038583; URL: https://www.isrctn.com; Unique identifiers: ISRCTN83772183.

2.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1368-1383, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921195

RESUMO

Telemedicine allows the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals. It is used to increase patients' access to care and provide effective healthcare services at a distance. During the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telemedicine has thrived and emerged worldwide as an indispensable resource to improve the management of isolated patients due to lockdown or shielding, including those with hypertension. The best proposed healthcare model for telemedicine in hypertension management should include remote monitoring and transmission of vital signs (notably blood pressure) and medication adherence plus education on lifestyle and risk factors, with video consultation as an option. The use of mixed automated feedback services with supervision of a multidisciplinary clinical team (physician, nurse, or pharmacist) is the ideal approach. The indications include screening for suspected hypertension, management of older adults, medically underserved people, high-risk hypertensive patients, patients with multiple diseases, and those isolated due to pandemics or national emergencies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Itália , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Hypertension ; 76(4): 1097-1103, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862713

RESUMO

Uncontrolled hypertension is a leading contributor to cardiovascular disease. A cluster-randomized trial in 16 primary care clinics showed that 12 months of home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist management lowered blood pressure more than usual care (UC) for 24 months. We report cardiovascular events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalized heart failure, coronary revascularization, and cardiovascular death) and costs over 5 years of follow-up. In the telemonitoring intervention (TI group, n=228), there were 15 cardiovascular events (5 myocardial infarction, 4 stroke, 5 heart failure, 1 cardiovascular death) among 10 patients. In UC group (n=222), there were 26 events (11 myocardial infarction, 12 stroke, 3 heart failure) among 19 patients. The cardiovascular composite end point incidence was 4.4% in the TI group versus 8.6% in the UC group (odds ratio, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.21-1.13], P=0.09). Including 2 coronary revascularizations in the TI group and 10 in the UC group, the secondary cardiovascular composite end point incidence was 5.3% in the TI group versus 10.4% in the UC group (odds ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.22-1.08], P=0.08). Microsimulation modeling showed the difference in events far exceeded predictions based on observed blood pressure. Intervention costs (in 2017 US dollars) were $1511 per patient. Over 5 years, estimated event costs were $758 000 in the TI group and $1 538 000 in the UC group for a return on investment of 126% and a net cost savings of about $1900 per patient. Telemonitoring with pharmacist management lowered blood pressure and may have reduced costs by avoiding cardiovascular events over 5 years. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00781365.

4.
Gut ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of robust data on significant gastrointestinal bleeding in older people using aspirin. We calculated the incidence, risk factors and absolute risk using data from a large randomised, controlled trial. DESIGN: Data were extracted from an aspirin versus placebo primary prevention trial conducted throughout 2010-2017 ('ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE)', n=19 114) in community-dwelling persons aged ≥70 years. Clinical characteristics were collected at baseline and annually. The endpoint was major GI bleeding that resulted in transfusion, hospitalisation, surgery or death, adjudicated independently by two physicians blinded to trial arm. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 4.7 years (88 389 person years), there were 137 upper GI bleeds (89 in aspirin arm and 48 in placebo arm, HR 1.87, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.66, p<0.01) and 127 lower GI bleeds (73 in aspirin and 54 in placebo arm, HR 1.36, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.94, p=0.08) reflecting a 60% increase in bleeding overall. There were two fatal bleeds in the placebo arm. Multivariable analyses indicated age, smoking, hypertension, chronic kidney disease and obesity increased bleeding risk. The absolute 5-year risk of bleeding was 0.25% (95% CI 0.16% to 0.37%) for a 70 year old not on aspirin and up to 5.03% (2.56% to 8.73%) for an 80 year old taking aspirin with additional risk factors. CONCLUSION: Aspirin increases overall GI bleeding risk by 60%; however, the 5-year absolute risk of serious bleeding is modest in younger, well individuals. These data may assist patients and their clinicians to make informed decisions about prophylactic use of aspirin. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ASPREE. NCT01038583.

5.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(8): 1406-1414, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667729

RESUMO

The association of different antihypertensive regimens with blood pressure (BP) control is not well-described among community-dwelling older adults with low comorbidity. We examined antihypertensive use and BP control in 10 062 treated hypertensives from Australia and the United States (US) using baseline data from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) drugs were the most prevalently used antihypertensive in both countries (Australia: 81.7% of all regimens; US: 62.9% of all regimens; P < .001). Diuretics were the next most commonly used antihypertensive in both countries, but were more often included in regimens of US participants (48.9%, vs 33.3% of regimens in Australia; P < .001). Among all antihypertensive classes and possible combinations, monotherapy with a RAS drug was the most common regimen in both countries, but with higher prevalence in Australian than US participants (35.9% vs 20.9%; P < .001). For both monotherapy and combination users, BP control rates across age, ethnicity, and sex were consistently lower in Australian than US participants. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, and BMI, significantly lower BP control rates remained in Australian compared to US participants for the most commonly used classes and regimens (RAS blocker monotherapy: BP control = 45.5% vs 54.2%; P = .002; diuretic monotherapy: BP control = 45.2% vs 64.5%; P = .001; and RAS blocker/diuretic combo: BP control = 50.2% vs 65.6%; P = .001). Our findings highlight variation in antihypertensive use in older adults treated for hypertension, with implications for BP control. Differences in BP control that were observed may be influenced, in part, by reasons other than choice of specific regimens.

6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104976, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are a significant post-stroke complication. We examined predictors of hip fracture risk after stroke using data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). In particular, we examined the association between post-stroke disability levels and hip fracture risk. METHODS: The WHI is a prospective study of 161,808 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years. Trained physicians adjudicated stroke events and hip fractures. Our study included stroke survivors from the observational and clinical trial arms who had a Glasgow Outcome Scale of good recovery, moderately disabled, or severely disabled and survived more than 7 days post-stroke. Hip fracture-free status was compared across disability levels. Secondary analysis examined hip fracture risk while accounting for competing risk of death. RESULTS: Average age at time of stroke was 74.6±7.2 years; 84.3% were white. There were 124 hip fractures among 4,640 stroke survivors over a mean follow-up time of 3.1±1.8 years. Mortality rate was 23.3%. Severe disability at discharge (Hazard Ratio (HR): 2.1 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.4-3.2), but not moderate disability (HR: 1.1 (95%CI: 0.7-1.7), was significantly associated with an increased risk of hip fracture compared to good recovery status. This association was attenuated after accounting for mortality. White race, increasing age and higher Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)-predicted hip fracture risk (without bone density information) were associated with an increased hip fracture risk. After accounting for mortality, higher FRAX risk and white race remained significant. CONCLUSION: Severe disability after stroke and a higher FRAX risk score were associated with risk of subsequent hip fracture. After accounting for mortality, only the FRAX risk score remained significant. The FRAX risk score appears to identify stroke survivors at high risk of fractures. Our results suggest that stroke units can consider the incorporation of osteoporosis screening into care pathways.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/diagnóstico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/mortalidade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/mortalidade , Pós-Menopausa , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Circulation ; 142(4): e42-e63, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567342

RESUMO

The diagnosis and management of hypertension, a common cardiovascular risk factor among the general population, have been based primarily on the measurement of blood pressure (BP) in the office. BP may differ considerably when measured in the office and when measured outside of the office setting, and higher out-of-office BP is associated with increased cardiovascular risk independent of office BP. Self-measured BP monitoring, the measurement of BP by an individual outside of the office at home, is a validated approach for out-of-office BP measurement. Several national and international hypertension guidelines endorse self-measured BP monitoring. Indications include the diagnosis of white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension and the identification of white-coat effect and masked uncontrolled hypertension. Other indications include confirming the diagnosis of resistant hypertension and detecting morning hypertension. Validated self-measured BP monitoring devices that use the oscillometric method are preferred, and a standardized BP measurement and monitoring protocol should be followed. Evidence from meta-analyses of randomized trials indicates that self-measured BP monitoring is associated with a reduction in BP and improved BP control, and the benefits of self-measured BP monitoring are greatest when done along with cointerventions. The addition of self-measured BP monitoring to office BP monitoring is cost-effective compared with office BP monitoring alone or usual care among individuals with high office BP. The use of self-measured BP monitoring is commonly reported by both individuals and providers. Therefore, self-measured BP monitoring has high potential for improving the diagnosis and management of hypertension in the United States. Randomized controlled trials examining the impact of self-measured BP monitoring on cardiovascular outcomes are needed. To adequately address barriers to the implementation of self-measured BP monitoring, financial investment is needed in the following areas: improving education and training of individuals and providers, building health information technology capacity, incorporating self-measured BP readings into clinical performance measures, supporting cointerventions, and enhancing reimbursement.

8.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 92: 105939, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled hypertension is the largest single contributor to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S. POPULATION: Nurse- and pharmacist-led team-based care and telehealth care interventions have been shown to result in large and lasting improvements in blood pressure (BP); however, it is unclear how successfully these can be implemented at scale in real-world settings. It is also uncertain how telehealth interventions impact patient experience compared to traditional clinic-based care. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of two evidence-based blood pressure care strategies in the primary care setting: (1) best-practice clinic-based care and (2) telehealth care with home BP telemonitoring and management by a clinical pharmacist. To evaluate implementation using mixed-methods supported by the RE-AIM framework and Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. METHODS: The design is a cluster-randomized comparative effectiveness pragmatic trial in 21 primary care clinics (9 clinic-based care, 12 telehealth care). Adult patients (age 18-85) with hypertension are enrolled via automated electronic health record (EHR) tools during primary care encounters if BP is elevated to ≥150/95 mmHg at two consecutive visits. The primary outcome is change in systolic BP over 12 months as extracted from the EHR. Secondary outcomes are change in key patient-reported outcomes over 6 months as measured by surveys. Qualitative data are collected at various time points to investigate implementation barriers and help explain intervention effects. CONCLUSION: This pragmatic trial aims to inform health systems about the benefits, strengths, and limitations of implementing home BP telemonitoring with pharmacist management for uncontrolled hypertension in real-world primary care settings.

9.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(4): 350-361, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite readily available treatments, control of blood pressure (BP) with population aging remains suboptimal. Further, there are gaps in the understanding of the management of high BP in the aged. We explored antihypertensive treatment and control among elderly hypertensive participants free from overt cardiovascular disease (CVD), and identified factors related to both "untreated" and "treated but uncontrolled" high BP. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from 19,114 individuals aged ≥65 years enrolled from Australia and United States (US) in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly study. Hypertension was defined as an average systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mm Hg and/or the use of any BP lowering medication. "Controlled hypertension" was defined if participants were receiving antihypertensive medication and BP <140 and 90 mm Hg. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize hypertension control rates; logistic regression was used to investigate relationships with treatment and BP control. RESULTS: Overall, 74% (14,213/19,114) of participants were hypertensive; and of these 29% (4,151/14,213) were untreated. Among those treated participants, 53% (5,330/10,062) had BP ≥140/90 mm Hg. Participants who were untreated were more likely to be men, have higher educational status, and be in good physical health, and less likely to have significant comorbidities. The factors related to "treated but uncontrolled" BP included older age, male, Black race (vs. White), using antihypertensive monotherapy (vs. multiple) and residing in Australia (vs. US). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of "untreated" and "treated but uncontrolled" BP occur in healthy elderly people without CVD, suggesting there are opportunities for better BP control in the primary prevention of CVD in this population. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01038583.

10.
11.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633746

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and elevated depressive symptoms are at increased risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality, worse quality of life, and higher health care costs. These observational findings prompted multiple scientific panels to advise universal depression screening in survivors of ACS prior to evidence from randomized screening trials. Objective: To determine whether systematically screening for depression in survivors of ACS improves quality of life and depression compared with usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 3-group multisite randomized trial enrolled 1500 patients with ACS from 4 health care systems between November 1, 2013, and March 31, 2017, with follow-up ending July 31, 2018. Patients were eligible if they had been hospitalized for ACS in the previous 2 to 12 months and had no prior history of depression. All analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Interventions: Patients with ACS were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive (1) systematic depression screening using the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire, with notification of primary care clinicians and provision of centralized, patient-preference, stepped depression care for those with positive screening results (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10; screen, notify, and treat, n = 499); (2) systematic depression screening, with notification of primary care clinicians for those with positive screening results (screen and notify, n = 501); and (3) usual care (no screening, n = 500). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in quality-adjusted life-years. The secondary outcome was depression-free days. Adverse effects and mortality were assessed by patient interview and hospital records. Results: A total of 1500 patients (424 women and 1076 men; mean [SD] age, 65.9 [11.5] years) were randomized in the 18-month trial. Only 71 of 1000 eligible survivors of ACS (7.1%) had elevated 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire scores indicating depressive symptoms at screening. There were no differences in mean (SD) change in quality-adjusted life-years (screen, notify and treat, -0.06 [0.20]; screen and notify, -0.06 [0.20]; no screen, -0.06 [0.18]; P = .98) or cumulative mean (SD) depression-free days (screen, notify and treat, 343.1 [179.0] days; screen and notify, 351.3 [175.0] days; no screen, 339.0 [176.6] days; P = .63). Harms including death, bleeding, or sleep difficulties did not differ among groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with ACS without a history of depression, systematic depression screening with or without providing depression treatment did not alter quality-adjusted life-years, depression-free days, or harms. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01993017.

12.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 84: 105826, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated depressive symptoms among survivors of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) confer recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality, worse quality of life, and higher healthcare costs. While multiple scientific groups advise routine depression screening for ACS survivors, no randomized trials exist to inform this screening recommendation. We aimed to assess the effect of screening for depression on change in quality of life over 18 months among ACS patients. METHODS: The Comparison of Depression Identification after Acute Coronary Syndrome on Quality of Life and Cost Outcomes (CODIACS-QoL) trial is a pragmatic, 3-arm trial that randomized ACS patients to 1) systematic depression screening using the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) and if positive screen (PHQ-8 ≥ 10), notification of primary care providers (PCPs) and invitation to participate in centralized, patient-preference, stepped depression care (Screen, Notify, and Treat, N = 499); 2) systematic depression screening and PCP notification only (Screen and Notify, N = 501); and 3) usual care (No Screen, N = 500). Adults hospitalized for ACS in the previous 2-12 months without prior history of depression were eligible for participation. Key outcomes will be quality-adjusted life years (primary), cost of health care utilization, and depression-free days across 18 months. RESULTS: A total of 1500 patients were randomized in the CODIACS-QOL trial (28.3% women; 16.3% Hispanic; mean age 65.9 (11.5) years). Only 7% of ACS survivors had elevated depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Using a novel randomization schema and pragmatic design principles, the CODIACS-QoL trial achieved its enrollment target. Eventual results of this trial will inform future depression screening recommendations in cardiac patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01993017).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Algoritmos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Aconselhamento/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Qualidade de Vida , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores Sexuais , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 7(1): 9, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972358

RESUMO

Introduction: Priorities Wizard is an electronic health record-linked, web-based clinical decision support (CDS) system designed and implemented at multiple Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN) sites to support high quality outpatient chronic disease and preventive care. The CDS system (a) identifies patients who could substantially benefit from evidence-based actions; (b) presents prioritized evidence-based treatment options to both patient and clinician at the point of care; and (c) facilitates efficient ordering of recommended medications, referrals or procedures. Methods: The CDS system extracts relevant data from electronic health records (EHRs), processes the data using Web-based clinical decision support algorithms, and displays the CDS output seamlessly on the EHR screen for use by the clinician and patient. Through a series of National Institutes of Health-funded projects led by HealthPartners Institute and the HealthPartners Center for Chronic Care Innovation and HCSRN partners, Priorities Wizard has been evaluated in cluster-randomized trials and expanded to include over 20 clinical domains. Results: Cluster-randomized trials show that this CDS system significantly improved glucose and blood pressure control in diabetes patients, reduced 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk in high-CV risk adults without diabetes, improved management of smoking in dental patients, and improved high blood pressure identification and management in adolescents. CDS output was used at 71-77 percent of targeted visits, 85-98 percent of clinicians were satisfied with the CDS system, and 94 percent reported they would recommend it to colleagues. Conclusions: Recently developed EHR-linked, Web-based CDS systems have significantly improved chronic disease care outcomes and have high use rates and primary care clinician satisfaction.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e011246, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020929

RESUMO

Background PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitors effectively lower LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and have been shown to reduce cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients. We used real-world electronic health record data to characterize use of PCSK9 inhibitors, in addition to standard therapies, according to cardiovascular risk status. Methods and Results Data were obtained from 18 health systems with data marts within the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) using a common data model. Participating sites identified >17.5 million adults, of whom 3.6 million met study criteria. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: (1) dyslipidemia, (2) untreated LDL ≥130 mg/dL, and (3) coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease. Demographics, comorbidities, estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, and lipid-lowering pharmacotherapies were summarized for each group. Participants' average age was 62 years, 50% were female, and 11% were black. LDL cholesterol ranged from 85 to 151 mg/dL. Among patients in groups 1 and 3, 54% received standard lipid-lowering therapies and a PCSK9 inhibitor was prescribed in <1%. PCSK9 inhibitor prescribing was greatest for patients with coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease and, although prescribing increased during the study period, overall PCSK9 inhibitor prescribing was low. Conclusions We successfully used electronic health record data from 18 PCORnet data marts to identify >3.6 million patients meeting criteria for 3 patient groups. Approximately half of patients had been prescribed lipid-lowering medication, but <1% were prescribed PCSK9 inhibitors. PCSK9 inhibitor prescribing increased over time for patients with coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease but not for those with dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/sangue , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(4): 726-733, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A lower risk of falls is commonly cited as a reason to treat hypertension conservatively in older individuals. We examined the effect of hypertension treatment and control status and measured blood pressure (BP) level on the risk of falls in older women. DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5971 women (mean age 79 years; 50.4% white, 33.1% black, 16.5% Hispanic/Latina) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative and Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health study. MEASUREMENTS: BP was measured by trained nurses, and hypertension treatment was assessed by medication inventory. Participants mailed in monthly calendars to self-report falls for 1 year. RESULTS: Overall, 70% of women had hypertension at baseline (53% treated and controlled, 12% treated and uncontrolled, 5% untreated). There were 2582 women (43%) who reported falls in the 1 year of surveillance. Compared with nonhypertensive women, when adjusted for fall risk factors and lower limb physical function, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for falls was 0.82 (confidence interval [CI] = 0.74-0.92) in women with treated controlled hypertension (p = .0008) and 0.73 (CI = 0.62-0.87) in women with treated uncontrolled hypertension (p = .0004). Neither measured systolic nor diastolic BP was associated with falls in the overall cohort. In women treated with antihypertensive medication, higher diastolic BP was associated with a lower risk of falls in a model adjusted for fall risk factors (IRR = 0.993 per mm Hg; 95% CI = 0.987-1.000; p = .04). The only class of antihypertensive medication associated with an increased risk of falls compared with all other types of antihypertensive drugs was ß-blockers. CONCLUSION: Women in this long-term research study with treated hypertension had a lower risk of falls compared with nonhypertensive women. Diastolic BP (but not systolic BP) is weakly associated with fall risk in women on antihypertensive treatment (<1% decrease in risk per mm Hg increase). J Am Geriatr Soc, 2019. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:726-733, 2019.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(3): 317-335, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678763

RESUMO

The accurate measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Restricted use of mercury devices, increased use of oscillometric devices, discrepancies between clinic and out-of-clinic BP, and concerns about measurement error with manual BP measurement techniques have resulted in uncertainty for clinicians and researchers. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the U.S. National Institutes of Health convened a working group of clinicians and researchers in October 2017 to review data on BP assessment among adults in clinical practice and clinic-based research. In this report, the authors review the topics discussed during a 2-day meeting including the current state of knowledge on BP assessment in clinical practice and clinic-based research, knowledge gaps pertaining to current BP assessment methods, research and clinical needs to improve BP assessment, and the strengths and limitations of using BP obtained in clinical practice for research and quality improvement activities.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
18.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 79: 1-13, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends out-of-office blood pressure (BPs) before making a new diagnosis of hypertension, using 24-h ambulatory (ABPM) or home BP monitoring (HBPM), however this is not common in routine clinical practice. Blood Pressure Checks and Diagnosing Hypertension (BP-CHECK) is a randomized controlled diagnostic study assessing the comparability and acceptability of clinic, home, and kiosk-based BP monitoring to ABPM for diagnosing hypertension. Stakeholders including patients, providers, policy makers, and researchers informed the study design and protocols. METHODS: Adults aged 18-85 without diagnosed hypertension and on no hypertension medication with elevated BPs in clinic and at the baseline research visit are randomized to one of 3 regimens for diagnosing hypertension: (1) clinic BPs, (2) home BPs, or (3) kiosk BPs; all participants subsequently complete ABPM. The primary outcomes are the comparability (with daytime ABPM mean systolic and diastolic BP as the reference standard) and acceptability (e.g., adherence to, patient-reported outcomes) of each method compared to ABPM. Longer-term outcomes are assessed at 6-months including: patient-reported outcomes, primary care providers' diagnosis of hypertension; and BP control. We report challenges experienced and our response to these. RESULTS: Enrollment began in May of 2017 with a target of randomizing 510 participants. BP thresholds for diagnosing hypertension in the US changed after the trial started. We discuss the stakeholder process used to assess and respond to these changes. CONCLUSION AND PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACT: BP-CHECK will inform which hypertension diagnostic methods are most accurate, acceptable, and feasible to implement in primary care.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Método Simples-Cego , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Menopause ; 26(1): 16-23, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29994975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Weight gain frequently occurs after smoking cessation. The objective of this study was to examine whether weight gain after smoking cessation was attenuated by physical activity (PA) in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A total of 4,717 baseline smokers from the Women's Health Initiative were followed for 3 years. One thousand two hundred eighty-two women quit smoking, and 3,435 continued smoking. Weight was measured at baseline and at the year 3 visit. PA was assessed at both times by self-report, summarized as metabolic equivalent task-hours per week. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between PA and postcessation weight gain, adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Compared with continuing smokers, quitters gained an average of 3.5 kg (SD = 5.6) between the baseline and year 3 visit. Quitters with decreased PA had the highest amount of weight gain (3.88 kg, 95% CI: 3.22-4.54); quitters with increased PA (≥15 metabolic equivalent task-hours /week) had the lowest weight gain (2.55 kg, 95% CI: 1.59-3.52). Increased PA had a stronger beneficial association for postcessation weight gain for women with obesity compared to normal weight women. Quitters who had low PA at baseline and high PA at year 3 and were also enrolled in a dietary modification intervention had nonsignificant weight gain (1.88 kg, 95% CI: -0.21-3.96) compared with continuing smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that even a modest increase in PA (equivalent to current recommendations) can attenuate weight gain after quitting smoking among postmenopausal women, especially in combination with improved diet.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Ganho de Peso , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Fumar
20.
Prev Med ; 118: 184-190, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359645

RESUMO

The relationship between smoking cessation, concurrent weight gain, and stroke events is not yet understood. Thus, we examined the association between smoking cessation and subsequent stroke risk and whether the association was modified by concurrent weight gain. In 2017, we analyzed data from 109,498 postmenopausal US women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative from 1993 to 1998. Women with a history of cancer or cardiovascular disease events were excluded. The median length of follow-up time was 14.01 years. Variables of primary focus were smoking cessation, weight change, and clinically confirmed incident cases of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Hazard ratios were estimated for stroke incidences (all, ischemic, and hemorrhagic) associated with smoking cessation using Cox regression. The exposure-outcome relationship of smoking cessation and risk of stroke was evaluated for effect modification by weight change. Recent quitters between baseline and year 3 had a significantly lower risk for all stroke and ischemic stroke, but not hemorrhagic stroke, when compared to the reference group of continuing smokers. In the multivariable-adjusted model for ischemic stroke, the hazard ratio for recent quitters was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.95). In the model for hemorrhagic stroke, the hazard ratio for recent quitters was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.61). The association between recent quitting and stroke risk was not significantly modified by weight change. Smoking cessation was associated with a significant reduction in stroke risk. The benefit of smoking cessation on the risk of stroke was not attenuated by concurrent weight gain.


Assuntos
Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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