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1.
J Sex Med ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory-Female (SIDI-F) is a clinician-administered scale that allows for a comprehensive assessment of symptoms related to Hypoactive Sexual Desire Dysfunction (HSDD). As self-report questionnaires may facilitate less socially desirable responding and as time and resources are scarce in many clinical and research settings, a self-report version was developed (Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory- Female Self-Report; SIDI-F-SR). AIM: To assess the psychometric properties of the SIDI-F-SR and to investigate the agreement between the SIDI-F and SIDI-F-SR. METHODS: A total of 170 women (Mage = 37, SD = 11, range = 20-69) with HSDD answered the SIDI-F, administered by a clinical psychologist via telephone, first, followed by the SIDI-F-SR, delivered as an Internet-based questionnaire. A subset of 19 women answered the SIDI-F-SR twice over a period of 14 weeks. OUTCOMES: Convergent validity of the SIDI-F-SR was assessed via correlations with the desire subscale of the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale Revised. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability as well as intraclass correlation and predictors of absolute agreement between SIDI-F and SIDI-F-SR were examined. RESULTS: Test-retest-reliability was good (r = 0.74). Convergent validity was low but comparable between SIDI-F and SIDI-F-SR. Internal consistency of the SIDI-F-SR was acceptable (α = 0.76) and comparable to the SIDI-F (α = 0.74). When corrections for the restriction of range were applied, internal consistency of the SIDI-F-SR increased to 0.91. There was high agreement between SIDI-F and SIDI-F-SR (ICC = 0.86). On average, women scored about one point higher (indicated more desire) in the self-report vs the clinician-administered scale. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The SIDI-F-SR can be used in settings where time and resources are limited. Whether the clinical cutoff point for the SIDI-F is adequate for the SIDI-F-SR has yet to be determined. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Large sample of diverse women with HSDD. Lack of control groups (ie, healthy controls, women with other sexual dysfunctions). CONCLUSION: The SIDI-F-SR showed promising psychometric properties in a sample of women with HSDD. Velten J, Hirschfeld G, Meyers M, et al. Psychometric Properties of a Self-Report Version of the Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory-Female (SIDI-F-SR). J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX-XXX.

2.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844117

RESUMO

Theoretical models emphasize the role of both automatic appraisals (i.e., associations) and conscious appraisals (i.e., interpretations) for sexual desire. Studies on sexuality-related appraisals have not combined self-report measures and experimental paradigms in order to compare the relevance of associations or interpretations. The aim of this study was to assess the relative contribution of both associations and interpretations to the explanation of low sexual desire in women. Toward this goal, indirect measures assessing associations (via a Single Target Implicit Association Test [STIAT]) and interpretations (via a Scrambled Sentences Test [SST] and a scenario task) were administered in a sample of 263 women (Mage = 27.90, SD 8.27) with varying levels of sexual desire and different sexual orientations (exclusively heterosexual women: 54.6%). Negative sexuality-related interpretations as assessed with two variants of the SST as well as the scenario task added to the explanation of lower sexual desire in women. Negative associations as measured with the STIAT were predictive of lower sexual desire only in women who did not indicate an exclusively heterosexual orientation. In this study, sexuality-related interpretations were more relevant to women's sexual desire than automatic associations. Future studies should assess the causal mechanism underlying sexuality-related interpretations (e.g., by evaluating whether these can be changed via cognitive bias modification techniques or psychological treatments).

3.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249392, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784361

RESUMO

In the absence of vaccines or causal therapies, behavioral measures such as wearing face masks and maintaining social distance are central to fighting Covid-19. Yet, their benefits are often questioned by the population and the level of adherence to the measures is variable. We examined in representative samples across eight countries (N = 7,568) whether adherence reported around June 1, 2020 predicted the increase in Covid-19 mortality by August 31, 2020. Mortality increased 81.3% in low adherence countries (United States, Sweden, Poland, Russia), 8.4% in high adherence countries (Germany, France, Spain, United Kingdom). Across countries adherence and subsequent mortality increases correlated with r = -0.91. No African or South American countries were included in the present study, which limits the generalizability of the findings. While reported Covid-19 mortality is likely to be influenced by other factors, the almost tenfold difference in additional mortality is significant, and may inform decisions when choosing whether to prioritize individual liberty rights or health-protective measures.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychother Psychosom ; : 1-17, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621970

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dysfunctional appraisals about traumatic events and their sequelae are a key mechanism in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Experimental studies have shown that a computerized cognitive training, cognitive bias modification for appraisals (CBM-APP), can modify dysfunctional appraisals and reduce analogue trauma symptoms amongst healthy and subclinical volunteers. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test whether CBM-APP could reduce dysfunctional appraisals related to trauma reactions in PTSD patients, and whether this would lead to improvements in PTSD symptoms. METHODS: We compared CBM-APP to sham training in a parallel-arm proof-of-principle double-blind randomized controlled trial amongst 80 PTSD patients admitted to an inpatient clinic. Both arms comprised a training schedule of 8 sessions over a 2-week period and were completed as an adjunct to the standard treatment programme. RESULTS: In intention-to-treat analyses, participants receiving CBM-APP showed a greater reduction in dysfunctional appraisals on a scenario task from pre- to posttraining (primary outcome) assessments, compared to those receiving sham training (d = 1.30, 95% CI 0.82-1.80), with between-group differences also found on the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI; d = 0.85, 95% CI 0.39-1.32) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5; d = 0.68, 95% CI 0.23-1.14), but not for long-term cortisol concentrations (d = 0.25, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.78). Reductions in dysfunctional appraisals assessed via the scenario task correlated with reductions on the PTCI, PCL-5, and hair cortisol concentrations from pre- to posttraining time points. CONCLUSIONS: Results support dysfunctional appraisals as a modifiable cognitive mechanism, and that their proximal modification transfers to downstream PTSD symptoms. These findings could open new avenues for improving present therapeutic approaches.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284865

RESUMO

Behavioral measures, such as the wearing of facemasks and maintaining of distance to other people, have been central in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic and will continue to be important in curbing its spread. We therefore investigated their perceived usefulness, adherence and their predictors in representative online samples in eight countries (France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, U.K., U.S.). Of the 7,658 participants, 77.4% rated governmental measures (highest: Germany, lowest: France) as useful and 91.7% reported adherence to them. Adherence was lowest in Russia and Poland, where people felt particularly left alone and not well supported, and in the U.S. and Sweden, where governments showed ambivalent attitudes towards the measures. The highest adherence was reported in countries with very high mortality (U.K., Spain, France) or very positively perceived government communication (Germany). Female gender, higher age, belonging to a risk group, being affected physically and mentally, perception of governmental communication as guided by the interests of people, feeling of being well informed and the level of positive mental health positively predicted both outcomes, while being affected economically negatively predicted both outcomes. Country-specific results are considered in the light of the protection motivation theory and the theory of planned behavior together with potential ways to improve active participation of the population. Overall, we recommend the governments and authorities to stress that each individual can contribute to the control of the COVID-19 situation by adherence to the measures in the public communication. Moreover, they should emphasize the risk of unconscious infection of older individuals by younger people, as well as the importance of physical activity for the protection of mental and physical health especially during the pandemic.

6.
Psychiatry Res ; : 113596, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261924

RESUMO

The outbreak of Covid-19 required the re-organization of everyday life. While some people accepted this challenge, other experienced the current situation as a heavy burden that impedes the adaptation to the new life conditions. The present study investigated factors that can impact the level of burden caused by Covid-19. Burden, depression symptoms and frequency of physical activity (e.g., jogging, cycling) were assessed via online surveys in overall 1,931 people from four countries (Germany: N = 625; Italy: N = 936; Russia: N = 230; Spain: N = 140). Similar result patterns were found in all country-specific samples. Burden by Covid-19 was significantly positively associated with depression symptoms, while it was significantly negatively linked to physical activity. Moreover, physical activity buffered the association between depression symptoms and burden. The present cross-national findings emphasize the protective effect of physical activity specifically in times of Covid-19. This issue should be addressed in governmental programs to longitudinally protect mental and physical health and to enhance the willingness to adhere to the anti-Covid-19 measures among the population.

7.
J Sex Med ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visual attention to sexual stimuli is an important means to facilitate sexual arousal and is thereby relevant for healthy sexual functioning. Experimental studies suggest that sexual dysfunction is associated with less attention toward sexual stimuli. AIM: The goal of this study was to use an eye-tracking-based free-viewing paradigm to investigate whether women in the clinical range of sexual function attend to a genital area in visual sexual stimuli differently than women with subclinical sexual function or those with normal sexual functioning. METHODS: Toward this goal, 69 women (Mage = 27.77, SD = 8.00, range = 19-54) with clinical (n = 30), subclinical (n = 23), and normal (n = 16) levels of sexual functioning watched a series of 10 pictures depicting heterosexual couples during vaginal intercourse while their eye movements were recorded. Each picture was presented twice-once with a distracting object (eg, a to-do list or household appliance) present in the picture and once without-for 8 seconds, each. OUTCOMES: 5 eye-tracking measures indicative of different aspects of initial and sustained attention were analyzed. RESULTS: As hypothesized, 3 out of 5 eye-tracking measures (ie, first fixation duration, number of first fixations, and total fixation duration) indicated that women in the clinical group attended less to the genital area in the pictures than women with normal sexual functioning. For 2 indices (ie, first fixation duration and total fixation duration), women with subclinical (vs normal) sexual functioning also attended less to the genital area. In contrast to our hypothesis, the presence of a distracting object did not influence attention to the genital area in either of the sexual function groups. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study provides further evidence of the role of attentional biases in sexual dysfunction in women. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Eye-tracking methodology allows for a continuous measurement of visual attention; this is one of the first studies using this methodology to assess differences in visual attention in women with and without sexual dysfunction. However, the cross-sectional nature of this study prevents causal interpretation of findings. CONCLUSION: Future studies should use experimental paradigms to determine the causal role of visual attention for the development or maintenance of sexual dysfunction. Velten J, Milani S, Margraf J, et al. Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Women With Clinical, Subclinical, and Normal Sexual Functioning: An Eye-Tracking Study. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.

8.
Psychiatr Prax ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271620

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: Investigation of the perspective of medical assistants (MA) regarding their participation in behaviour-therapy oriented interventions in family practice. METHOD: 15 MA (w, 39.5 years old), case managers in a general practitioner supported exercise programme for patients with panic disorder (ICD-10: F41.0), were interviewed using semi-structured interview guidelines on the recruitment and interaction of/with patients, communication of the exercises and implementation in everyday practice. The interviews (n = 14) were documented, transcribed and qualitatively analysed according to Mayring. RESULTS: MA perceived their contribution to the intervention regarding recruitment and monitoring of patients through telephone contacts as positive. CONCLUSION: Strengthening the role of MAs' can help to provide targeted support for patients with mental health problems in GP care as part of a low-threshold intervention and relieve the workload on the GP.

9.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 20(3): 183-191, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of COVID-19 and the lack of vaccine made extraordinary actions such as social distancing necessary. While some individuals experience the restrictions on daily life as a heavy burden, others adapt to the situation and try to make the best of it. The present longitudinal study investigated the extent and predictors of the burden induced by the outbreak of COVID-19 in Germany. METHOD: Data were assessed in October 2019 using the DASS-21 and the PMH-Scale, and in March 2020 adding a six-item measure of burden and a 2-item rating of sense of control. RESULTS: In a sample of 436 participants, about 28% stayed in self-quarantine, 22 persons had relevant symptoms and one person was positively tested for COVID-19. Most participants experienced medium to high levels of burden but tried to make the best of it. Stress symptoms in 2019 predicted a higher level of burden and PMH predicted a lower level of burden in March 2020. Remarkably, depression and anxiety symptoms did not significantly predict burden. The protective effect of PMH and the negative impact of stress symptoms were mediated by perceived sense of control. CONCLUSIONS: The results emphasize the protective effect of PMH in extraordinary situations such as the current outbreak of COVID-19


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El brote COVID-19 y la falta de vacuna hicieron necesarias acciones extraordinarias como la distancia social. Algunas personas experimentan las restricciones en la vida diaria como sobrecarga emocional y otras se adaptan a la situación, tratando de sacar lo mejor de ella. Se investigó el alcance y predictores de sobrecarga emocional inducida por el COVID-19 en Alemania. MÉTODO: Se evaluaron niveles de estrés y salud mental positiva en octubre de 2019 con DASS-21 y Escala-PMH, y en marzo de 2020, agregando medidas de sobrecarga emocional y percepción de control. RESULTADOS: En una muestra de 436 participantes, el 28% permaneció en cuarentena, 22 personas tuvieron síntomas relevantes y una dio positivo en COVID-19. La mayoría experimentaron niveles de sobrecarga emocional medio-alto, aunque trataron de sobrellevar la situación lo mejor posible. Los síntomas de estrés en octubre 2019 predijeron un nivel de sobrecarga más elevado en marzo 2020 y, contrariamente, los niveles de salud mental positiva en octubre 2019 predijeron un menor nivel de sobrecarga emocional en marzo 2020. Sorprendentemente, los síntomas de depresión y ansiedad no predijeron la sensación de sobrecarga posterior. El efecto protector de la salud mental positiva y el impacto negativo de los síntomas de estrés fueron mediados por la percepción de control. CONCLUSIONES: Se resalta el efecto protector de la salud mental positiva en situaciones extraordinarias como el brote COVID-19


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Alemanha Ocidental/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137131

RESUMO

Vulnerable narcissism and grandiose narcissism share the core of the narcissistic self but are considered as separate forms of this personality trait. While previous research mainly focused on the mechanisms that connect grandiose narcissism and addictive use of the social platform Facebook, it remained unclear why individuals with enhanced levels of vulnerable narcissism are at risk to develop Facebook Addiction (FA). The present study investigated the links between vulnerable and grandiose narcissism, anxiety symptoms, and FA. In a sample of 327 Facebook users (age: M(SD) = 23.67(3.96), range: 18-56), both forms of narcissism were positively related to anxiety symptoms and FA. Moreover, the association between both forms of narcissism and FA was partly mediated by anxiety symptoms. Results enter new territory by revealing hidden similarities between vulnerable and grandiose narcissists, emphasizing that similar mechanisms might explain their enhanced risk to develop addictive tendencies of Facebook use. These findings should be considered when assessing individuals at risk for FA and when developing (therapeutic) intervention programs to deal with problematic use of social platforms.

11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170081

RESUMO

Bullying experiences in outpatients of a child and adolescent psychotherapy centre - A particularly vulnerable group? Abstract. Objective: Bullying has both short- and long-term effects on physical and mental health. Thus, more victimized children might tend to be found in clinical samples. This is the first study to examine the prevalence of bullying roles and modes in children/adolescents in a psychotherapeutic outpatient setting in Germany. Method: 298 outpatients being treated in a child/adolescent psychotherapy centre (6-20 years, 50.7 % female) completed a questionnaire concerning their bullying experiences over the last 6 months. Results: 24.5 % of the patients reported from a victim's perspective, independent of being perpetrators of bullying. 19.1 % reported solely as victims, 5.4 % as victims who also bullied (bully-victims), and 2.0 % as bullies. More than one-third of those with victim or bully-victim experiences had been polyvictimized, 86.2 % were victims solely of traditional bullying, and 1.4 % solely of cyberbullying. The exploratory comparison to general-population school samples seems to show significantly more patients with victim experiences and significantly less patients who bullied others. There seem to be no significant effects for bully-victims. Compared to an inpatient sample, significantly fewer adolescent patients seem to state being victims or bully-victims. Conclusions: Bullying is a topic of particular importance in the context of psychotherapy. These findings have implications for the psychotherapeutic practice as well as training settings.

12.
Behav Res Ther ; 135: 103735, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038799

RESUMO

Recent research suggests that exposure-based large-group one-session treatments (LG-OSTs) may represent useful and efficient treatment options for different types of phobic fear. Although there are effective single session- and small group-interventions for the treatment of clinically relevant Fear of Flying (FoF), no LG-OST for this type of phobic fear has been realized so far. The present study aimed to investigate feasibility and efficacy of an LG-OST for the treatment of clinically relevant FoF. Two months after an initial diagnostics to assess FoF severity and confirm the underlying diagnoses (89% specific flight phobia; 10% agoraphobia), 138 patients attended the LG-OST consisting of psychoeducation, imparting of a breathing technique and a joint 2 ½ hour exposure flight in a chartered airplane (Airbus A320). FoF again was assessed at pre- and post-treatment as well as at 6-months follow-up with the latter again containing clinical diagnostics. Only a small decrease in FoF emerged in the pre-treatment interval. From pre-to post-treatment however, substantial reductions in FoF were observed with a large mean 'intention-to-treat' effect size of Cohen's d = 1.42 that remained stable over time (mean d = 1.44). At follow-up, 71% of the patients were rated as fully (55%) or partially remitted (16%). Also concerning the treatment of clinically relevant FoF, a LG-OST proved feasible and effective. Therefore, LG-OST can be regarded as a highly efficient and promising treatment tool which in terms of efficiency combines the advantages of one-session individual and group treatments.

13.
Front Psychol ; 11: 570644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041939

RESUMO

In emerging adulthood, coherent identity plays a protective role against the development of the disturbed psychosocial functioning and is seen as one of the defining characteristics of positive youth development. The factors that shape the identity are still understudied and little quantitative research has addressed, how trauma exposure is linked to emerging adults' identity. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate how exposure to traumatic experiences over the lifetime is associated with current identity status among emerging adults in an academic environment and to explore links between different types of traumatic experiences as well as the severity of exposure to trauma and identity statuses. The study sample consisted of 1,614 first-year undergraduate students from Lithuania with the age range of 18-29 years (M = 19.09, SD = 1.05, 68.28% female). The three distinct identity profiles were identified using the Latent Class Analysis, representing diffused, undifferentiated, and coherent identity statuses. The results provided no clear evidence of links between traumatic experiences and identity status for overall exposure and most types of traumatic events. However, our study concerns the potential importance of severe traumatic experiences, such as sexual trauma, on identity.

14.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(9): e20326, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological therapies are effective treatments for hypoactive sexual desire dysfunction (HSDD; formerly hypoactive sexual desire disorder), a common sexual dysfunction among women. Access to evidence-based treatments, however, remains difficult. Internet-based interventions are effective for a variety of psychological disorders and may be a promising means to close the treatment gap for HSDD. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the treatment protocol and study design of a randomized controlled trial, aiming to study the efficacy of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness-based interventions delivered via the internet for women with HSDD to a waitlist control group. Outcomes are sexual desire (primary) and sexual distress (secondary). Additional variables (eg, depression, mindfulness, rumination) will be assessed as potential moderators or mediators of treatment success. METHODS: A cognitive behavioral and a mindfulness-based self-help intervention for HSDD will be provided online. Overall, 266 women with HSDD will be recruited and assigned either to one of the intervention groups, or to a waitlist control group (2:2:1). Outcome data will be assessed at baseline, at 12 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months after randomization. Intention-to-treat and completer analyses will be conducted. RESULTS: We expect improvements in sexual desire and sexuality-related distress in both intervention groups compared to the waitlist control. Recruitment has begun in January 2019 and is expected to be completed in August 2021. Results will be published in 2022. CONCLUSIONS: This study aims to contribute to the improvement and dissemination of psychological treatments for women with HSDD and to clarify whether cognitive behavioral and/or mindfulness-based treatments for HSDD are feasible and effective when delivered via the internet. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03780751; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03780751. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/20326.

15.
Memory ; 28(9): 1157-1172, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985372

RESUMO

Positive involuntary mental imagery occurs frequently in daily life but evidence as to its functions and importance is largely indirect. The current study investigated a method to induce positive involuntary imagery in daily life, which would allow direct testing of its impact. An unselected student sample (N = 80) completed a single session of a positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigm, which involved listening to and imagining brief positive imagery scripts. Participants then recorded any involuntary memories of the imagined training scenarios in a three-day diary before returning to the lab for a follow-up assessment. Participants were randomised to imagine the scenarios in either an emotionally involved or emotionally detached manner, providing a test of the role of emotion in the subsequent experience of involuntary memories. Participants reported experiencing involuntary memories of the training scenarios in their daily life, but the number recorded did not differ between the experimental conditions. Exploratory analyses suggested that more vivid imagery and recall testing were associated with a greater number of involuntary memories. The study highlights the potential of the imagery CBM paradigm to further our understanding of the functions and potential importance of positive involuntary mental imagery in daily life.

16.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-13, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The desire to have children has been declining globally, especially in industrialized nations. This study examines the physical health correlates, and positive and negative mental health correlates of the wish to have a child across time and in two countries. METHOD: Questionnaire data were obtained from large-scale university samples of 12,574 participants in Germany and China. RESULTS: The wish to have a child (child wish) is related to positive and negative mental health in China and, to a lesser degree, in Germany. Child wish is positively related to some aspects of mental and somatic health for Chinese women and men, negatively to depression for Chinese and German men and Chinese women, and positively to stress for German men, with generally small effects. Effects hold when controlling for age, partnership status, and family affluence. Most relationships were almost equal between women and men (in both China and Germany), and between countries with the exception of two different paths in each gender group. That is, having a partner is associated with a higher child wish in both Chinese and German female students. In China, older female students are more likely to want to have a child, while older female students in Germany are less likely to want to have a child. Neither partnership nor age predict child wish for the next year. CONCLUSION: In sum, Chinese students reported feeling more positively about having children when they were happy and healthy, with the exception that highly satisfied Chinese males report lower child wish in the next year. More depressed Chinese and German men and Chinese women reported lowered child wish, and stressed German men reported more child wish. Older students reported more (Chinese) or less (German) child wish depending on country.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948972

RESUMO

Contrary to the well-documented link between parental and offspring clinical anxiety, little is known about the relationship between parental everyday-life anxieties (e.g., concerning family, finances, health) and offspring anxieties. To close this gap, we assessed the frequency of parental symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders and everyday-life anxieties, as well as the frequency of offspring anxiety symptoms in a representative sample by self-report. Parents reported that 48.4% of the children were free of specific symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders within the last 12 months, 39.2% showed low symptom load (1-3 symptoms) and 12.4% were moderately or severely strained (4-10 symptoms). Replicating previous studies, parental DSM-IV symptoms increased offspring risk for the same symptoms. In addition, parental everyday-life anxieties showed a positive relationship with offspring symptom severity. Demographic variables (female sex, low socioeconomic status and younger age) and parental anxiety markers explained 18% of variance in offspring symptom severity. The data are discussed in light of current models of familial transmission.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813562

RESUMO

This study investigated the link between depression symptoms, physical activity (e.g., jogging, cycling, and swimming), and addictive social media use (SMU). In a sample of 638 users of social media [mean (M)age standard deviation (SD)age = 21.57 (4.89)], depression symptoms, physical activity, and addictive SMU were assessed by an online survey. Physical activity significantly moderated the positive relationship between depression symptoms and addictive SMU. The higher the physical activity, the weaker the link between depression symptoms and addictive tendencies. Depressed individuals often tend to intensive use of social media to escape negative mood and to find relief. This enhances their risk to develop addictive tendencies. Physical activity may reduce this risk and foster well-being. Therefore, persons with increased depression symptoms should be screened for problematic SMU and be motivated to engage in physical activity.

19.
Int J Clin Health Psychol ; 20(3): 183-191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32837518

RESUMO

Background/Objective: The outbreak of COVID-19 and the lack of vaccine made extraordinary actions such as social distancing necessary. While some individuals experience the restrictions on daily life as a heavy burden, others adapt to the situation and try to make the best of it. The present longitudinal study investigated the extent and predictors of the burden induced by the outbreak of COVID-19 in Germany. Method: Data were assessed in October 2019 using the DASS-21 and the PMH-Scale, and in March 2020 adding a six-item measure of burden and a 2-item rating of sense of control. Results: In a sample of 436 participants, about 28% stayed in self-quarantine, 22 persons had relevant symptoms and one person was positively tested for COVID-19. Most participants experienced medium to high levels of burden but tried to make the best of it. Stress symptoms in 2019 predicted a higher level of burden and PMH predicted a lower level of burden in March 2020. Remarkably, depression and anxiety symptoms did not significantly predict burden. The protective effect of PMH and the negative impact of stress symptoms were mediated by perceived sense of control. Conclusions: The results emphasize the protective effect of PMH in extraordinary situations such as the current outbreak of COVID-19.

20.
Psychiatry Res ; 290: 113110, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650177

RESUMO

Research from the U.S. described a decrease of subjective well-being and an increase of online media use in young adults today. The present study investigated whether similar trends occur in Germany. Data of overall 1985 university freshmen (four cohorts: 2016: N=658, 2017: N=333, 2018: N=562, 2019: N=432) were collected by online surveys in the years 2016 to 2019. The comparison of the four cohorts revealed a significant increase of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms, as well as of the use of social platforms from 2016 to 2019. In contrast, positive mental health (PMH) significantly decreased over the years. No significant changes of the gaming behavior were found. A slight significant positive relationship occurred between the negative variables of well-being and online media use. The association between PMH and online media use was significantly negative. Thus, cohort trends found in the U.S. can at least rudimentarily be replicated in Germany. Young adults in 2019 seem to have lower levels of well-being and to engage in more use of social platforms than older cohorts.

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