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1.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(5): 589-596, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decipher is a genomic classifier designed to predict the development of distant metastases after surgical treatment of prostate cancer (PC). Its long-term prognostic role in a high-risk PC population has not been investigated previously. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic role of the Decipher genomic classifier in two high-risk PC case-control studies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients who developed distant metastases after surgery for high-risk, nonmetastatic PC in a European tertiary referral center from 1991 to 2011 were matched to patients not developing distant metastases (n=54). A validation study (n=298) was performed using a similar US case-control cohort. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from the index PC lesion were used for RNA extraction and gene expression analysis. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The outcome investigated was the development of distant metastasis within 10-yr follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed, with statistical significance considered at p<0.05. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In both the European and US case-control studies, the median Decipher scores were higher in the population that developed metastases. In the multivariable analysis, each 10% increase in Decipher score translated to an increase in the risk of distant metastases within 10-yr follow-up, with an odds ratio of 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.22; p=0.025) and 1.58 (95% CI 1.31-1.92; p<0.001) for the European and US cohorts, respectively. Median follow-up for the European cohort was 12yr (interquartile range 8-12). The study limitation is the small size of the European cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our study validates Decipher as a predictor for metastatic recurrence even in patients with high-risk, nonmetastatic PC within 10-yr follow-up. PATIENT SUMMARY: Decipher is a test based on gene expression profiles in primary tumors in prostate cancer. It has already been proven to predict cancer recurrence after surgery, but this has not yet been shown for patients with high-risk prostate cancer. This is the first study confirming that Decipher predicts a patient's risk of developing cancer recurrence after surgery for high-risk prostate cancer.

2.
Eur Urol ; 74(4): 444-452, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among men with clinically low-risk prostate cancer, we have previously documented heterogeneity in terms of clinical characteristics and genomic risk scores. OBJECTIVE: To further study the underlying tumor biology of this patient population, by interrogating broader patterns of gene expression among men with clinically low-risk tumors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prostate biopsies from 427 patients considered potentially suitable for active surveillance underwent central pathology review and genome-wide expression profiling. These cases were compared with 1290 higher-risk biopsy cases with diverse clinical features from a prospective genomic registry. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Average genomic risk (AGR) was determined from 18 published prognostic signatures, and MSigDB hallmark gene sets were analyzed using bootstrapped clustering methods. These sets were examined in relation to clinical variables and pathological and biochemical outcomes using multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 408 (96%) biopsies passed RNA quality control. Based on AGR quartiles defined by the high-risk multicenter cases, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) low-risk patients were distributed across the quartiles as 219 (54%), 107 (26%), 61 (15%), and 21 (5%). Unsupervised clustering analysis of the hallmark gene set scores revealed three clusters, which were enriched for the previously described PAM50 luminal A, luminal B, and basal subtypes. AGR, but not the clusters, was associated with both pathological (odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.58) and biochemical outcomes (hazard ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.19-1.93). These results may underestimate within-prostate genomic heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate cancers that are homogeneously low risk by traditional characteristics demonstrate substantial diversity at the level of genomic expression. Molecular substratification of low-risk prostate cancer will yield a better understanding of its divergent biology and, in the future may help personalize treatment recommendations. PATIENT SUMMARY: We studied the genomic characteristics of tumors from men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer. We found three main subtypes of prostate cancer with divergent tumor biology, similar to what has previously been found in women with breast cancer. In addition, we found that genomic risk scores were associated with worse pathology findings and prostate-specific antigen recurrence after surgery. These results suggest even greater genomic diversity among low-risk patients than has previously been documented with more limited signatures.

3.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(6): 581-590, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185869

RESUMO

Purpose It is clinically challenging to integrate genomic-classifier results that report a numeric risk of recurrence into treatment recommendations for localized prostate cancer, which are founded in the framework of risk groups. We aimed to develop a novel clinical-genomic risk grouping system that can readily be incorporated into treatment guidelines for localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Two multicenter cohorts (n = 991) were used for training and validation of the clinical-genomic risk groups, and two additional cohorts (n = 5,937) were used for reclassification analyses. Competing risks analysis was used to estimate the risk of distant metastasis. Time-dependent c-indices were constructed to compare clinicopathologic risk models with the clinical-genomic risk groups. Results With a median follow-up of 8 years for patients in the training cohort, 10-year distant metastasis rates for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) low, favorable-intermediate, unfavorable-intermediate, and high-risk were 7.3%, 9.2%, 38.0%, and 39.5%, respectively. In contrast, the three-tier clinical-genomic risk groups had 10-year distant metastasis rates of 3.5%, 29.4%, and 54.6%, for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk, respectively, which were consistent in the validation cohort (0%, 25.9%, and 55.2%, respectively). C-indices for the clinical-genomic risk grouping system (0.84; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93) were improved over NCCN (0.73; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.86) and Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (0.74; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.84), and 30% of patients using NCCN low/intermediate/high would be reclassified by the new three-tier system and 67% of patients would be reclassified from NCCN six-tier (very-low- to very-high-risk) by the new six-tier system. Conclusion A commercially available genomic classifier in combination with standard clinicopathologic variables can generate a simple-to-use clinical-genomic risk grouping that more accurately identifies patients at low, intermediate, and high risk for metastasis and can be easily incorporated into current guidelines to better risk-stratify patients.

4.
Eur Urol ; 72(5): 845-852, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decipher is a validated genomic classifier developed to determine the biological potential for metastasis after radical prostatectomy (RP). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of biopsy Decipher to predict metastasis and Prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in primarily intermediate- to high-risk patients treated with RP or radiation therapy (RT). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and thirty-five patients treated with either RP (n=105) or RT±androgen deprivation therapy (n=130) with available genomic expression profiles generated from diagnostic biopsy specimens from seven tertiary referral centers. The highest-grade core was sampled and Decipher was calculated based on a locked random forest model. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Metastasis and PCSM were the primary and secondary outcomes of the study, respectively. Cox analysis and c-index were used to evaluate the performance of Decipher. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: With a median follow-up of 6 yr among censored patients, 34 patients developed metastases and 11 died of prostate cancer. On multivariable analysis, biopsy Decipher remained a significant predictor of metastasis (hazard ratio: 1.37 per 10% increase in score, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.78, p=0.018) after adjusting for clinical variables. For predicting metastasis 5-yr post-biopsy, Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment score had a c-index of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.50-0.69), while Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment plus biopsy Decipher had a c-index of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.82). National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group had a c-index of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.53-0.77), while National Comprehensive Cancer Network plus biopsy Decipher had a c-index of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.66-0.82). Biopsy Decipher was a significant predictor of PCSM (hazard ratio: 1.57 per 10% increase in score, 95% CI: 1.03-2.48, p=0.037), with a 5-yr PCSM rate of 0%, 0%, and 9.4% for Decipher low, intermediate, and high, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy Decipher predicted metastasis and PCSM from diagnostic biopsy specimens of primarily intermediate- and high-risk men treated with first-line RT or RP. PATIENT SUMMARY: Biopsy Decipher predicted metastasis and prostate cancer-specific mortality risk from diagnostic biopsy specimens.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Quimiorradioterapia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Biópsia por Agulha , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
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