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1.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408338

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the need to provide high-level care for a large number of patients with COVID-19 has affected resourcing for, and limited the routine care of, all other conditions. The impact of this health emergency is particularly relevant in the rare connective tissue diseases (rCTDs) communities, as discussed in this Perspective article by the multi-stakeholder European Reference Network on Rare and Complex Connective Tissue and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ERN ReCONNET). The clinical, organizational and health economic challenges faced by health-care providers, institutions, patients and their families during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak have demonstrated the importance of ensuring continuity of care in the management of rCTDs, including adequate diagnostics and monitoring protocols, and highlighted the need for a structured emergency strategy. The vulnerability of patients with rCTDs needs to be taken into account when planning future health policies, in preparation for not only the post-COVID era, but also any possible new health emergencies.

2.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(1): 32-40, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080017

RESUMO

Importance: Severe pneumonia with hyperinflammation and elevated interleukin-6 is a common presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To determine whether tocilizumab (TCZ) improves outcomes of patients hospitalized with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Design, Setting, and Particpants: This cohort-embedded, investigator-initiated, multicenter, open-label, bayesian randomized clinical trial investigating patients with COVID-19 and moderate or severe pneumonia requiring at least 3 L/min of oxygen but without ventilation or admission to the intensive care unit was conducted between March 31, 2020, to April 18, 2020, with follow-up through 28 days. Patients were recruited from 9 university hospitals in France. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis with no correction for multiplicity for secondary outcomes. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive TCZ, 8 mg/kg, intravenously plus usual care on day 1 and on day 3 if clinically indicated (TCZ group) or to receive usual care alone (UC group). Usual care included antibiotic agents, antiviral agents, corticosteroids, vasopressor support, and anticoagulants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were scores higher than 5 on the World Health Organization 10-point Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) on day 4 and survival without need of ventilation (including noninvasive ventilation) at day 14. Secondary outcomes were clinical status assessed with the WHO-CPS scores at day 7 and day 14, overall survival, time to discharge, time to oxygen supply independency, biological factors such as C-reactive protein level, and adverse events. Results: Of 131 patients, 64 patients were randomly assigned to the TCZ group and 67 to UC group; 1 patient in the TCZ group withdrew consent and was not included in the analysis. Of the 130 patients, 42 were women (32%), and median (interquartile range) age was 64 (57.1-74.3) years. In the TCZ group, 12 patients had a WHO-CPS score greater than 5 at day 4 vs 19 in the UC group (median posterior absolute risk difference [ARD] -9.0%; 90% credible interval [CrI], -21.0 to 3.1), with a posterior probability of negative ARD of 89.0% not achieving the 95% predefined efficacy threshold. At day 14, 12% (95% CI -28% to 4%) fewer patients needed noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or mechanical ventilation (MV) or died in the TCZ group than in the UC group (24% vs 36%, median posterior hazard ratio [HR] 0.58; 90% CrI, 0.33-1.00), with a posterior probability of HR less than 1 of 95.0%, achieving the predefined efficacy threshold. The HR for MV or death was 0.58 (90% CrI, 0.30 to 1.09). At day 28, 7 patients had died in the TCZ group and 8 in the UC group (adjusted HR, 0.92; 95% CI 0.33-2.53). Serious adverse events occurred in 20 (32%) patients in the TCZ group and 29 (43%) in the UC group (P = .21). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial of patients with COVID-19 and pneumonia requiring oxygen support but not admitted to the intensive care unit, TCZ did not reduce WHO-CPS scores lower than 5 at day 4 but might have reduced the risk of NIV, MV, or death by day 14. No difference on day 28 mortality was found. Further studies are necessary for confirming these preliminary results. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04331808.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação não Invasiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Oxigenoterapia , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(1): 36-48, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic and musculoskeletal immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are observed in about 10% of patients with cancer receiving checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). Given the recent emergence of these events and the lack of guidance for rheumatologists addressing them, a European League Against Rheumatism task force was convened to harmonise expert opinion regarding their identification and management. METHODS: First, the group formulated research questions for a systematic literature review. Then, based on literature and using a consensus procedure, 4 overarching principles and 10 points to consider were developed. RESULTS: The overarching principles defined the role of rheumatologists in the management of irAEs, highlighting the shared decision-making process between patients, oncologists and rheumatologists. The points to consider inform rheumatologists on the wide spectrum of musculoskeletal irAEs, not fulfilling usual classification criteria of rheumatic diseases, and their differential diagnoses. Early referral and facilitated access to rheumatologist are recommended, to document the target organ inflammation. Regarding therapeutic, three treatment escalations were defined: (1) local/systemic glucocorticoids if symptoms are not controlled by symptomatic treatment, then tapered to the lowest efficient dose, (2) conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, in case of inadequate response to glucocorticoids or for steroid sparing and (3) biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, for severe or refractory irAEs. A warning has been made on severe myositis, a life-threatening situation, requiring high dose of glucocorticoids and close monitoring. For patients with pre-existing rheumatic disease, baseline immunosuppressive regimen should be kept at the lowest efficient dose before starting immunotherapies. CONCLUSION: These statements provide guidance on diagnosis and management of rheumatic irAEs and aim to support future international collaborations.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prognosis and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with primary SS. METHODS: We searched for patients with primary SS presenting with SARS-CoV-2 infection (defined following and according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control guidelines) among those included in the Big Data Sjögren Registry, an international, multicentre registry of patients diagnosed according to the 2002/2016 classification criteria. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in the study (46 women, mean age at diagnosis of infection of 60 years). According to the number of patients with primary SS evaluated in the Registry (n = 8211), the estimated frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.62% (95% CI 0.44, 0.80). All but two presented with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, including fever (82%), cough (57%), dyspnoea (39%), fatigue/myalgias (27%) and diarrhoea (24%), and the most frequent abnormalities included raised lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (88%), CRP (81%) and D-dimer (82%) values, and lymphopenia (70%). Infection was managed at home in 26 (51%) cases and 25 (49%) required hospitalization (five required admission to ICU, four died). Compared with patients managed at home, those requiring hospitalization had higher odds of having lymphopenia as laboratory abnormality (adjusted OR 21.22, 95% CI 2.39, 524.09). Patients with comorbidities had an older age (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00, 1.11) and showed a risk for hospital admission six times higher than those without (adjusted OR 6.01, 95% CI 1.72, 23.51) in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Baseline comorbidities were a key risk factor for a more complicated COVID-19 in patients with primary SS, with higher rates of hospitalization and poor outcomes in comparison with patients without comorbidities.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: No immunomodulatory drug has been approved for primary Sjögren's syndrome, a systemic autoimmune disease affecting 0.1% of the population. To demonstrate the efficacy of targeting interleukin 6 receptor in patients with Sjögren's syndrome-related systemic complications. METHODS: Multicentre double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial between 24 July 2013 and 16 July 2018, with a follow-up of 44 weeks, involving 17 referral centres. Inclusion criteria were primary Sjögren's syndrome according to American European Consensus Group criteria and score ≥5 for the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease activity Index (ESSDAI, score of systemic complications). Patients were randomised to receive either 6 monthly infusions of tocilizumab or placebo. The primary endpoint was response to treatment at week 24. Response to treatment was defined by the combination of (1) a decrease of at least 3 points in the ESSDAI, (2) no occurrence of moderate or severe activity in any new domain of the ESSDAI and (3) lack of worsening in physician's global assessment on a Visual Numeric Scale ≥1/10, all as compared with enrolment. RESULTS: 110 patients were randomised, 55 patients to tocilizumab (mean (SD) age: 50.9 (12.4) years; women: 98.2%) and 55 patients to placebo (54.8 (10.7) years; 90.9%). At 24 weeks, the proportion of patients meeting the primary endpoint was 52.7% (29/55) in the tocilizumab group and 63.6% (35/55) in the placebo group, for a difference of -11.4% (95% credible interval -30.6 to 9.0) (Pr[Toc >Pla]=0.14). CONCLUSION: Among patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, the use of tocilizumab did not improve systemic involvement and symptoms over 24 weeks of treatment compared with placebo. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01782235.

8.
Nephrol Ther ; 16(7): 440-452, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208269

RESUMO

Primary Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the exocrine (salivary and lachrymal) glands resulting in sicca symptoms (dryness). Systemic complications can occur in primary Sjögren syndrome, but renal involvement is rare, affecting<10% patients. The most frequent form of nephropathy in primary Sjögren syndrome is tubulointerstitial nephritis, where infiltration of the kidney by plasma cells is a key feature and shows similarity to the lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the salivary glands. Electrolyte disturbances may occur in primary Sjögren syndrome, such as renal distal tubular acidosis, diabetes insipidus, Gitelman syndrome, or Fanconi syndrome. Glomerular involvement is less frequently detected in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, but can take the form of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to cryoglobulinaemia. The renal prognosis in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome and TIN or glomerular disease is usually good, but the risk of chronic kidney disease remains significant for some patients. Appropriate screening must be performed at least once a year in patients with systemic primary Sjögren syndrome in order to facilitate the early detection of renal complications. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of renal disease in primary Sjögren syndrome.

9.
RMD Open ; 6(3)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report the largest integrated safety analysis of tofacitinib, as of March 2017, using data from phase I, II, III, IIIb/IV and long-term extension studies in adult patients with RA. METHODS: Data were pooled for patients with RA who received ≥1 tofacitinib dose. Incidence rates (IRs; patients with events/100 patient-years [PY]; 95% CIs) of first-time occurrences were obtained for adverse events (AEs) of interest. RESULTS: 7061 patients received tofacitinib (total exposure: 22 875 PY; median [range] exposure: 3.1 [0 to 9.6] years). IRs (95% CI) for serious AEs, serious infections, herpes zoster (all), opportunistic infections (excluding tuberculosis [TB]) and TB were 9.0 (8.6 to 9.4), 2.5 (2.3 to 2.7), 3.6 (3.4 to 3.9), 0.4 (0.3 to 0.5) and 0.2 (0.1 to 0.2), respectively. IRs (95% CI) for malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer [NMSC]), NMSC and lymphomas were 0.8 (0.7 to 0.9), 0.6 (0.5 to 0.7) and 0.1 (0.0 to 0.1), respectively. IRs (95% CI) for gastrointestinal perforations, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism, arterial thromboembolism and major adverse cardiovascular events were 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2), 0.2 (0.1 to 0.2), 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2), 0.3 (0.2 to 0.3), 0.4 (0.3 to 0.5) and 0.4 (0.3 to 0.5), respectively. IR (95% CI) for mortality was 0.3 (0.2 to 0.3). IRs generally remained consistent across 6-month intervals to >78 months. CONCLUSION: This represents the largest clinical dataset for a JAK inhibitor in RA to date. IRs remained consistent with previous reports from the tofacitinib RA clinical development programme, and stable over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT01262118; NCT01484561; NCT00147498; NCT00413660; NCT00550446; NCT00603512; NCT00687193; NCT01164579; NCT00976599; NCT01059864; NCT01359150; NCT02147587; NCT00960440; NCT00847613; NCT00814307; NCT00856544; NCT00853385; NCT01039688; NCT02187055; NCT00413699; NCT00661661.For summary of phase I, phase II, phase III, phase IIIb/IV and LTE studies included in the integrated safety analysis, see online supplemental table 1.

10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 126(4): 95-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterise autoimmune congenital heart block (CHB) associated with a maternal diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) confirmed either before, concomitant or after the first pregnancy complicated with CHB. METHODS: The following inclusion criteria were applied: (i) Mothers with positive Ro/La autoantibodies detected previously or at the time of diagnosis of the first case of CHB; (ii) diagnosis of CHB confirmed by fetal echocardiography; (iii) AV block diagnosed in uterus, at birth or within the neonatal period (0-27 days after birth) (8); (iv) absence of anatomical cardiac abnormalities which might be causal of AV block; and (v) maternal fulfillment of the 2002 SS criteria before, during or after having a pregnancy complicated with CHB. RESULTS: We identified 49 cases of autoimmune CHB in children born from 44 mothers who had a mean age at the time of pregnancy of 30.3 years (range 18 to 41). At the time of diagnosis of autoimmune CHB, all mothers had positive anti-Ro antibodies and 28/44 (64%) were positive for anti-La antibodies. Only 10 (22%) mothers with affected pregnancies had a diagnosis of primary SS at the time of diagnosis of the first pregnancy complicated by CHB (a mean of 4 years before, ranging from 1 to 10 years). In 6 (14%) mothers, primary SS was diagnosed during pregnancy or less than 12 months after the delivery/termination. In the remaining 28 (64%) mothers, pSS was confirmed 1-5 years after CHB diagnosis (n=19, 68%), 6-10 years after (n=2, 7%), or more than 10 years after the first case of CHB was diagnosed (n=7, 25%). CHB was diagnosed in uterus in all cases but two. AV block was initially incomplete in 11 fetuses and complete in 36 (no available data in 2 cases). Among the 35 (71%) surviving children with CHB, 5 (14%) developed other features of neonatal lupus. After the index pregnancy, 12 women had 20 subsequent pregnancies: five were complicated by a CHB (recurrence rate of CHB of 25%). The 4 women who had recurrent CHB were double-positive for anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, and all had a confirmed pSS before having the first index case of CHB. CONCLUSIONS: In pSS, autoimmune CHB could be one of the first "indirect" signs of the disease in women of childbearing-age, in whom the diagnosis is confirmed several years later. Some maternal characteristics could be related with recurrent CHB, such as having an already-confirmed diagnosis of pSS and carrying the two Ro/La autoantibodies.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Sjogren , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoanticorpos , Criança , Feminino , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Bloqueio Cardíaco/etiologia , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is characterized by a lymphocytic infiltration of salivary glands and the presence of an interferon (IFN) signature. Salivary gland epithelial cells (SGECs) play an active role in pSS pathophysiology. The aim of this work was to study the interactions between SGECs and T cells in pSS and the role of the IL-7/IFN axis. METHODS: Primary cultured SGECs from pSS and controls were stimulated with poly(I:C), IFNα or IFNγ. T cells were sorted from blood and stimulated with IL-7. CD25 expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Salivary gland explants were cultured for 4 days with anti-IL-7R antagonist antibody (OSE-127) and transcriptomic analysis was performed by using nanostring. RESULTS: IL-7 serum level was increased in pSS patients versus controls and was associated with B-cell biomarkers. IL7R expression was decreased in T cells from pSS patients versus controls. SGECs stimulated with poly(I:C), IFNα, or IFNγ secreted IL-7. IL-7 stimulation increased the activation of T cells, as well as IFNγ secretion. Transcriptomic analysis of salivary gland explants showed a correlation between IL7 and IFN expression. Lastly, explants cultured with anti-IL-7R antibody showed decreased IFN-stimulated gene expression. CONCLUSION: These results suggest an IL-7-IFNγ amplification loop involving SGECs and T cells in pSS. IL-7 was secreted by SGECs stimulated with type 1 or type 2 IFN and, in turn, activate T cells that secrete type 2 IFN. An anti-IL-7R antibody decreased the IFN signature in T cells during pSS and could be of therapeutic interest.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a nurse-led program of self-management and self-assessment of disease activity in axial spondyloarthritis. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, controlled, open, 12-month trial (NCT02374749). Participants were consecutive axial spondyloarthritis patients (according to the rheumatologist) and nurses having participated in a 1-day training meeting. The program included self-management: educational video and specific video of graduated, home-based exercises for patients; and self-assessment: video presenting the rationale of tight monitoring of disease activity with composite scores (Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease activity Score, ASDAS/Bath Ankyslosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BASDAI). The nurse trained patients to collect, calculate and report (monthly) ASDAS/BASDAI. Treatment allocation was by random allocation to this program or a comorbidities assessment (not presented here and considered here as the control group). RESULTS: A total of 502 patients (250 and 252 in the active and control groups, respectively) were enrolled (age: 46.7 (12.2) years, male gender: 62.7%, disease duration: 13.7 (11.0) years). After the one-year follow-up period, the adherence to the self-assessment program was considered good (i.e. 79% reported scores >6 times). Despite a lack of statistical significance in the primary outcome (e.g. coping) there was a statistically significant difference in favor of this program for the following variables: change in BASDAI, number and duration of the home exercises in the active group, and physical activity (international physical activity score, IPAQ). CONCLUSION: This study suggests a short-term benefit of a nurse-led program on self-management and self-assessment for disease activity in a young axial spondyloarthritis population in terms of disease activity, exercises and physical activity.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This phase 2 proof-of-concept study (NCT02610543) assessed efficacy, safety and effects on salivary gland inflammation of seletalisib, a potent and selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, in patients with moderate-to-severe primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS). METHODS: Adults with PSS were randomized 1:1 to seletalisib 45 mg/day or placebo, in addition to current PSS therapy. Primary end points were safety and tolerability and change from baseline in EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) score at week 12. Secondary end points included change from baseline at week 12 in EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI) score and histological features in salivary gland biopsies. RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were randomized (seletalisib n = 13, placebo n = 14); 20 completed the study. Enrolment challenges led to early study termination with loss of statistical power (36% vs 80% planned). Nonetheless, a trend for improvement in ESSDAI and ESSPRI [difference vs placebo: -2.59 (95% CI: -7.30, 2.11; P=0.266) and -1.55 (95% CI: -3.39, 0.28), respectively] was observed at week 12. No significant changes were seen in saliva and tear flow. Serious adverse events (AEs) were reported in 3/13 of patients receiving seletalisib vs 1/14 for placebo and 5/13 vs 1/14 discontinued due to AEs, respectively. Serum IgM and IgG concentrations decreased in the seletalisib group vs placebo. Seletalisib demonstrated efficacy in reducing size and organisation of salivary gland inflammatory foci and in target engagement, thus reducing PI3K-mTOR signalling compared with placebo. CONCLUSION: Despite enrolment challenges, seletalisib demonstrated a trend towards clinical improvement in patients with PSS. Histological analyses demonstrated encouraging effects of seletalisib on salivary gland inflammation and organisation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02610543.

15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(12): 1532-1543, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963049

RESUMO

Biological therapies have improved the outcomes of several major inflammatory, autoimmune and also neoplastic disorders. Those directed towards cytokines or other soluble mediators, cell-surface molecules or receptors or various components of intracellular signalling pathways may be associated with the occurrence of infections whose diversity depends on the particular immune target. In this context and following a keynote lecture given by one of us at the European League Against Rheumatism meeting on June 2018, a multidisciplinary group of experts deeply involved in the use of targeted and biological therapies in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis decided to summarise their recent vision of the immunological basis and epidemiology of infections occurring during targeted and biological therapies, and provide useful indications for their management and prevention.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções/imunologia , Humanos
16.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 22(1): 223, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) levels can be measured in both serum and whole blood. No cut-off point for non-adherence has been established in serum nor have these methods ever been compared. The aims of this study were to compare these two approaches and determine if serum HCQ cut-off points can be established to identify non-adherent patients. METHODS: HCQ levels were measured in serum and whole blood from 573 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The risk factors for active SLE (SLEDAI score > 4) were identified by multiple logistic regression. Serum HCQ levels were measured in 68 additional patients known to be non-adherent, i.e. with whole-blood HCQ < 200 ng/mL. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) HCQ levels were 469 ± 223 ng/mL in serum and 916 ± 449 ng/mL in whole blood. The mean ratio of serum/whole-blood HCQ levels was 0.53 ± 0.15. In the multivariate analysis, low whole-blood HCQ levels (P = 0.023), but not serum HCQ levels, were independently associated with active SLE. From the mean serum/whole-blood level ratio, a serum HCQ level of 106 ng/mL was extrapolated as the corresponding cut-off to identify non-adherent patients with a sensitivity of 0.87 (95% CI 0.76-0.94) and specificity of 0.89 (95% CI 0.72-0.98). All serum HCQ levels of patients with whole-blood HCQ below the detectable level (< 20 ng/mL) were also undetectable (< 20 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that whole blood is better than serum for assessing the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relation of HCQ. Our results support the use of serum HCQ levels to assess non-adherence when whole blood is unavailable.

17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Mediterranean diet has been reported to be associated with a significant reduction in risk of noncommunicable diseases. We undertook this study to assess the relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), especially in high-risk individuals. METHODS: The E3N-EPIC study (Etude Epidémiologique Auprès des Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) is a French prospective cohort study that has included 98,995 women since 1990. Dietary data were collected via a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1993. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a 9-unit dietary score evaluating consumption of vegetables, legumes, cereal products, fish, meat, dairy products, olive oil, and alcohol. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for incident RA were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age and the main potential confounders, including smoking. RESULTS: Among 62,629 women, we identified 480 incident cases of RA. In the entire study population, the Mediterranean diet adherence score was not associated with RA risk (HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.67-1.09] for high score versus low score; P for trend = 0.09); however, among ever-smokers, a higher score was associated with a decreased risk of RA (HR 0.91 [95% CI 0.84-0.99] for 1-point increase in score; P = 0.03). In ever-smokers, the absolute risks of RA in those with high scores and those with low scores were 38.3 and 51.5 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, compared to 35.8 per 100,000 person-years in never-smokers with high Mediterranean diet scores. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that adherence to the Mediterranean diet could reduce the high risk of RA among ever-smoking women. Our results must be confirmed in future research.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: RF and ACPA are used as diagnostic tools and their presence has been associated with clinical response to some biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) in RA. This study compared the impact of seropositivity on drug discontinuation and effectiveness of bDMARDs in patients with RA, using head-to-head comparisons in a real-world setting. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of 16 observational RA registries. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of RA, initiation of treatment with rituximab (RTX), abatacept (ABA), tocilizumab (TCZ) or TNF inhibitors (TNFis) and available information on RF and/or ACPA status. Drug discontinuation was analysed using Cox regression, including drug, seropositivity, their interaction, adjusting for concomitant and past treatments and patient and disease characteristics and accounting for country and calendar year of bDMARD initiation. Effectiveness was analysed using the Clinical Disease Activity Index evolution over time. RESULTS: Among the 27 583 eligible patients, the association of seropositivity with drug discontinuation differed across bDMARDs (P for interaction <0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios for seropositive compared with seronegative patients were 1.01 (95% CI 0.95, 1.07) for TNFis, 0.89 (0.78, 1.02)] for TCZ, 0.80 (0.72, 0.88) for ABA and 0.70 (0.59, 0.84) for RTX. Adjusted differences in remission and low disease activity rates between seropositive and seronegative patients followed the same pattern, with no difference in TNFis, a small difference in TCZ, a larger difference in ABA and the largest difference in RTX (Lundex remission difference +5.9%, low disease activity difference +11.6%). CONCLUSION: Seropositivity was associated with increased effectiveness of non-TNFi bDMARDs, especially RTX and ABA, but not TNFis.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To refine the prevalence, characteristics and response to treatment of myositis in primary SS (pSS). METHODS: The multicentre prospective Assessment of Systemic Signs and Evolution in Sjögren's Syndrome (ASSESS) cohort of 395 pSS patients with ≥60 months' follow-up was screened by the 2017 EULAR/ACR criteria for myositis. Extra-muscular complications, disease activity and patient-reported scores were analysed. RESULTS: Before enrolment and during the 5-year follow-up, myositis was suspected in 38 pSS patients and confirmed in 4 [1.0% (95% CI: 0.40, 2.6)]. Patients with suspected but not confirmed myositis had higher patient-reported scores and more frequent articular and peripheral nervous involvement than others. By contrast, disease duration in patients with confirmed myositis was 3-fold longer than without myositis. Two of the four myositis patients fulfilled criteria for sporadic IBM. Despite receiving three or more lines of treatment, they showed no muscle improvement, which further supported the sporadic IBM diagnosis. The two other patients did not feature characteristics of a myositis subtype, which suggested 'pure' pSS myositis. Steroids plus MTX was then efficient in achieving remission. CONCLUSIONS: Myositis, frequently suspected, occurs in 1% of pSS patients. Especially when there is resistance to treatment, sporadic IBM should be considered and might be regarded as a late complication of this disease.

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