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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1621: 461085, 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376018

RESUMO

Two analytical methodologies based on the combined use of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and two different amino acid-based chiral ionic liquids (tetrabutylammonium-L-lysine or tetrabutylammonium-L-glutamic acid) in electrokinetic chromatography were developed in this work to perform the enantioselective determination of econazole and sulconazole in pharmaceutical formulations. The influence of different experimental variables such as buffer concentration, applied voltage, nature and concentration of the ionic liquid, temperature and injection time, on the enantiomeric separation was investigated. The combination of hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and tetrabutylammonium-L-lysine under the optimized conditions enabled to achieve the enantiomeric determination of both drugs with high enantiomeric resolution (3.5 for econazole and 2.4 for sulconazole). The analytical characteristics of the developed methodologies were evaluated in terms of linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ and recovery showing good performance for the determination of both drugs which were successfully quantitated in pharmaceutical formulations. This work reports the first analytical methodology enabling the enantiomeric determination of sulconazole in pharmaceutical formulations.

2.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079306

RESUMO

An untargeted metabolomics strategy using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was developed in this work enabling the study of the coffee roasting process. Green coffee beans and coffee beans submitted to three different roasting degrees (light, medium, and strong) were analyzed. Chromatographic separation was carried out using water containing 10 mM ammonium formate with 0.2 % formic acid (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile containing 10 mM ammonium formate with 0.2 % formic acid (mobile phase B). A total of 93 molecular features were considered from which 31 were chosen as the most statistically significant using variable in the projection values. 13 metabolites were tentatively identified as potential biomarkers of the coffee roasting process using this metabolomic platform. Results obtained in this work were complementary to those achieved using orthogonal techniques such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) since only one metabolite was found to be common between HILIC-MS and RPLC-MS platforms (caffeoylshikimic acid isomer) and other between HILIC-MS and CE-MS platforms (choline). On the basis of these results, an untargeted metabolomics multiplatform is proposed in this work based on the integration of the three orthogonal techniques as a powerful tool to expand the coverage of the roasted coffee metabolome.

3.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991659

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the chronic loss of kidney function due to high glucose renal levels. HK-2 proximal tubular cells are good candidates to study this disease. The aim of this work was to study an in vitro model of high glucose-induced metabolic alterations in HK-2 cells to contribute to the pathogenesis of this diabetic complication. An untargeted metabolomics strategy based on CE-MS was developed to find metabolites affected under high glucose conditions. Intracellular and extracellular fluids from HK-2 cells treated with 25 mM glucose (high glucose group), with 5.5 mM glucose (normal glucose group), and with 5.5 mM glucose and 19.5 mM mannitol (osmotic control group) were analyzed. The main changes induced by high glucose were found in the extracellular medium where increased levels of four amino acids were detected. Three of them (alanine, proline, and glutamic acid) were exported from HK-2 cells to the extracellular medium. Other affected metabolites include Amadori products and cysteine, which are more likely cause and consequence, respectively, of the oxidative stress induced by high glucose in HK-2 cells. The developed CE-MS platform provides valuable insight into high glucose-induced metabolic alterations in proximal tubular cells and allows identifying discriminative molecules of diabetic nephropathy.

4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1610: 460552, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547959

RESUMO

In this work, the Dubsky's model proposed for Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) enantioseparation systems with a mixture of chiral selectors was applied to the rapid optimization of the simultaneous enantiomeric separation of a multicomponent mixture of six phenoxy acid herbicides using a dual system of two cyclodextrins (CDs), (2-hydroxypropyl)-ß-CD (HP-ß-CD) and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-ß-CD (TM-ß-CD). Simply by carrying out a small number of individual experiments separately with each CD, the Dubsky's model enabled to foresee the results that could be obtained for any possible combination of concentrations and relative proportion of both CDs in the mixture. Results obtained in this work demonstrated that the model was successful by improving the previous results experimentally obtained by the trial and error method for the simultaneous enantiomeric separation of the six phenoxy acid herbicides studied in this work. In fact, the separation was improved in terms of enantiomeric resolutions obtained (from 1.2 to 4.2 for concentrations of CDs of 4 mM HP-ß-CD and 16 mM TM-ß-CD) and by considerably reducing the time to optimize the separation conditions enabling to find, in a faster and efficient way, the most adequate proportion of both CDs and the concentration of each CD in the mixture to obtain baseline separation of the twelve enantiomers. Additionally, the apparent complexation constants between enantiomers and each CD were calculated. This is the first time that the above-mentioned model was applied to a multicomponent mixture of chiral compounds.

5.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 186: 110746, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877444

RESUMO

Protein sample preparation is the bottleneck in the analysis of proteins. The aim of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of carbosilane dendrimers functionalized with cationic groups to make easier this step. Anionic carbosilane dendrimers (sulphonate- and carboxylate-terminated) have already demonstrated their interaction with proteins and their potential in protein sample preparation. In this work, interactions between positively charged carbosilane dendrimers and different model proteins were studied when working under different pH conditions, dendrimer concentrations, and dendrimer generations. Amino- and trimethylammonium-terminated carbosilane dendrimers presented, in some cases, weak interactions with proteins. Unlike them, carbosilane dendrimers with terminal dimethylamino groups could interact, in many cases, with proteins and these interactions were affected by the pH, the dendrimer concentration, and the dendrimer generation. Moreover, dendrimer precipitation was observed at all pHs, although just second and fourth generation (2 G and 4 G) dendrimers resulted in the formation of complexes with proteins. Under experimental conditions promoting dendrimer-protein interactions, 2 G dimethylamino-terminated dendrimers were proposed as an alternative to other methods used in analytical chemistry or analysis in which an organic solvent or a resin are required to enrich/purify proteins in a complex sample.

6.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460776, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839354

RESUMO

Inspired by the fact that antibody recognizes antigen's epitope rather than its whole structure, we selected the glycosyl moiety of teicoplanin as the template, 4-vinylphenylboronic acid and methyl methacrylate as the functional monomers, and divinylbenzene as the cross-linker to synthesis molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres via precipitation co-polymerization. The glycosyl-imprinted microspheres can selectively capture the target glycopeptide antibiotic in aqueous solutions when the pH of surrounding environment is 9.0, and the captured antibiotic can be reversibly released when the pH falls below 4.0 again. This pH-controlled catch-and-release mechanism permits entrapping of glycopeptide antibiotics in slightly basic environments and keeping them entrapped under neutral conditions, and eluting in acidic media. Five teicoplanin components were selectively captured by using the prepared glycosyl-imprinted microspheres as solid-phase extraction adsorbents, and then detected using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Finally, the method was thoroughly validated for accuracy and reproducibility by determining teicoplanin in food and biological samples, and achieving quantification limits of 0.1 µg/kg, 0.5 µg/L and 1.0 µg/L for milk, urine and plasma samples, respectively.

7.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; : 1-31, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569950

RESUMO

Chirality is a relevant issue in the pharmaceutical field due to the different biological activity that enantiomers of a chiral drug can show. In fact, the desired biological or pharmaceutical activity might be present in only one of the enantiomers, while the other enantiomer(s) may have different biological activity, be inactive or even toxic. This has motivated in recent years the development of drugs marketed as pure enantiomers to avoid exposing the organism to the action of enantiomers that may not be active or even harmful to health. Thus, it is of high interest to develop enantioselective analytical methodologies to control the presence of enantiomeric impurities and to understand the enantioselective metabolism of chiral drugs. This review gives an overview about the analytical strategies developed by electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) from 2010 to June 2019 for the enantiomeric determination of drugs in both pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples. The types of chiral selectors used, the migration order of enantiomers, their resolution, the detection technique employed and the sensitivity achieved are revised and compared. Also, applications to assess the enantiomeric purity control of pharmaceutical formulations and to determine chiral drugs in biological samples to study their metabolism are included. Advantages and limitations of the chiral methods developed by EKC are also discussed.

8.
Neurol Sci ; 40(10): 2217-2234, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392641

RESUMO

Epilepsy in brain tumors (BTE) may require medical attention for a variety of unique concerns: epileptic seizures, possible serious adverse effects of antineoplastic and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), physical disability, and/or neurocognitive disturbances correlated to tumor site. Guidelines for the management of tumor-related epilepsies are lacking. Treatment is not standardized, and overall management might differ according to different specialists. The aim of this document was to provide directives on the procedures to be adopted for a correct diagnostic-therapeutic path of the patient with BTE, evaluating indications, risks, and benefits. A board comprising neurologists, epileptologists, neurophysiologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, neuropsychologists, and patients' representatives was formed. The board converted diagnostic and therapeutic problems into seventeen questions. A literature search was performed in September-October 2017, and a total of 7827 unique records were retrieved, of which 148 constituted the core literature. There is no evidence that histological type or localization of the brain tumor affects the response to an AED. The board recommended to avoid enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs because of their interference with antitumoral drugs and consider as first-choice newer generation drugs (among them, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, and topiramate). Valproic acid should also be considered. Both short-term and long-term prophylaxes are not recommended in primary and metastatic brain tumors. Management of seizures in patients with BTE should be multidisciplinary. The panel evidenced conflicting or lacking data regarding the role of EEG, the choice of therapeutic strategy, and timing to withdraw AEDs and recommended high-quality long-term studies to standardize BTE care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1608: 460407, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383356

RESUMO

A chiral methodology was developed for the first time to ensure the quality control of ivabradine, a novel anti-ischemic and heart rate lowering drug commercialized as a pure enantiomer. With this aim, electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) was employed and the enantiomeric separation of ivabradine was investigated using different anionic and neutral cyclodextrins (CDs) and amino acid-based chiral ionic liquids (CILs) as sole chiral selectors. Baseline separation was only achieved with sulfated CDs, and the best enantiomeric resolution was obtained with sulfated-γ-CD. Under the optimized conditions, ivabradine enantiomers were separated in 6 min with a resolution of 2.7. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments showed a 1:1 stoichiometry for the enantiomer-CD complexes and apparent and averaged equilibrium constants were determined. The combined use of sulfated-γ-CD and different CILs as dual separation systems was investigated, resulting in a significant increase in the resolution. The use of 5 mM tetrabutylammonium-aspartic acid ([TBA][L-Asp]) in 50 mM formate buffer (pH 2.0) containing 4 mM sulfated-γ-CD were considered the best conditions in terms of resolution and migration times for ivabradine enantiomers. Nevertheless, as no inversion of the enantiomer migration order was observed when combining CILs and sulfated-γ-CD and a good enantiomeric resolution and efficiency were obtained using just sulfated-γ-CD as the sole chiral selector, the analytical characteristics of this method were evaluated, showing good recovery (98% and 103% for S- and R-ivabradine, respectively) and precision values (RSD < 5% for instrumental repeatability, < 6% for method repeatability and < 7% for intermediate precision). The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.22 and 0.28 µg mL-1 for S- and R-ivabradine, respectively, and the method enabled to detect a 0.1% of the enantiomeric impurity, allowing to accomplish the requirements of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of a pharmaceutical formulation of ivabradine. The content of R-ivabradine was below the LOD and the amount of S-ivabradine was in agreement to the labeled content.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar , Ciclodextrinas/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Ivabradina/isolamento & purificação , Tampões (Química) , Ivabradina/química , Limite de Detecção , Estereoisomerismo , Sulfatos/química
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1605: 360345, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326091

RESUMO

The use of pesticides has increased sharply in the last decades, not only in agriculture, but also in industry, public health, and other areas. Pyrethroids and organophosphorus insecticides are among the most employed pesticides. These chemicals usually contain asymmetric chiral atoms; thus, they are characterized by stereoisomerism. Although most of these chiral pesticides are produced, used, and released as racemic mixtures, the different enantiomers of these compounds can present different insecticidal activity, different toxicity against vertebrates and invertebrates, and also different persistence in the environment. In fact, in some cases, only one enantiomer is active, while the other can be less active or even toxic to non-target organisms. Therefore, the development of enantioselective analytical methodologies enabling their determination presents a high interest. Different separation techniques, including high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis, have been employed to achieve the chiral analysis of pyrethroids and organophosphorus insecticides. This review presents the characteristics of the stereoselective analytical methodologies developed with this aim from 2010 to April 2019 and their applications to the analysis of real samples as well as for toxicity and biodegradation studies.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Eletroforese Capilar , Inseticidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(22): 5885-5896, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280476

RESUMO

Olive (Olea europaea) processing results in large amounts of by-products that contain valuable molecules such as phenolic compounds and phytosterols. These molecules have demonstrated to reduce blood cholesterol levels. This work proposes the development of a method to obtain simultaneously phenolic compounds and phytosterols from the olive stone using CO2-expanded liquid extraction. Hansen solubility parameters were employed for the theoretical prediction of the most suitable bio-based solvent to extract target compounds. The Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to select the optimal conditions of pressure (8-25 MPa), the molar fraction of CO2 in ethyl acetate (0.15-0.55), and the temperature (40-80 °C). Extracts showing the highest and the lowest reductions of micellar cholesterol solubility capacity were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to find out the compounds responsible for this activity. Different phenolic compounds, free fatty acids, and phytosterols were identified in the extracts. ß-Sitosterol and, especially, tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were the compounds that primarily contributed to the reduction of micellar cholesterol solubility capacity.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Anticolesterolemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Olea/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1605: 360353, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307792

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to develop a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-QToF-MS) method to carry out the metabolic fingerprinting of green and roasted coffee samples (Arabica variety). To evaluate changes in the metabolic profiles of coffee occurring along the roasting process, green coffee beans were submitted to different roasting degrees. The effect of different parameters concerning the electrophoretic separation (background electrolyte, temperature, voltage, and injection time), the MS detection (temperature and flow of drying gas, sheath gas of jet stream temperature, and capillary, fragmentator, nozzle, skimmer, and octapole voltages) and the sheath liquid (composition and flow rate) was studied to achieve an adequate separation and to obtain the largest number of molecular features. The analyses were carried out in positive ESI mode allowing to detect highly polar cationic metabolites present in coffee beans. Non-supervised and supervised multivariate analyses were performed showing a good discrimination among the different coffee groups. Those features having a high variable importance in the projection values on supervised analyses were selected as significant metabolites for their identification. Thus, 13 compounds were proposed as potential markers of the coffee roasting process, being 7 of them tentatively identified and 2 of them unequivocally identified. Different families of compounds such as pyridines, pyrroles, betaines, or indoles could be pointed out as markers of the coffee roasting process.


Assuntos
Café/química , Café/metabolismo , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Coffea/química , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metaboloma , Análise de Componente Principal
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1607: 460375, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353071

RESUMO

Four amino acid chiral ionic liquids were evaluated in dual systems with hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin to investigate the enantioseparation by CE of a group of seven drugs as model compounds (duloxetine, verapamil, terbutaline, econazole, sulconazole, metoprolol, and nadolol). The use of two of these chiral ionic liquids (tetramethylammonium L-Lysine ([TMA][L-Lys]) and tetramethylammonium L-glutamic acid ([TMA][L-Glu])) as modifiers in CE is reported for the first time in this work whereas tetrabutylammonium L-lysine ([TBA][L-Lys]) and tetrabutylammonium L-glutamic acid ([TBA][L-Glu]) were employed previously in CE although very scarcely. The effect of the nature and the concentration of each ionic liquid added to the separation buffer containing the neutral cyclodextrin on the enantiomeric resolution and the migration time obtained for each drug, was investigated. A synergistic effect was observed when combining each chiral ionic liquid with hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin in the case of the five compounds for which the cyclodextrin showed enantiomeric discrimination power when used as sole chiral selector (duloxetine, verapamil, terbutaline, econazole, sulconazole). Buffer concentration and pH, temperature and separation voltage were varied in order to optimize the enantiomeric separation of these five compounds using dual systems giving rise to resolutions ranging from 1.1 to 6.6.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Aminoácidos/química , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/isolamento & purificação , Tampões (Química) , Ácido Glutâmico/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estereoisomerismo , Temperatura
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2030: 277-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347125

RESUMO

A high number of non-protein amino acids are chiral compounds that have demonstrated to be relevant in different fields. Their determination enables to obtain valuable information related to food quality and safety and has also a high interest from a biological point of view since many of them are key compounds in metabolic pathways or are related with different pathologies.In the development of analytical methodologies to perform chiral separations, capillary electrophoresis (CE) is well-established and one of the most powerful separation techniques as a consequence of its high efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility.This chapter shows, by means of three interesting examples, the application of different CE methodologies to the chiral analysis of non-protein amino acids. The first example describes different electrokinetic chromatography (EKC)-UV methodologies based on the use of negatively charged cyclodextrins as chiral selectors to carry out the stereoselective separation of ten different non-protein amino acids of relevance from a biological or food analysis point of view. The second method illustrates the EKC-UV analysis of L-citrulline and its enantiomeric impurity in food supplements using sulfated-γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector. The last example shows the simultaneous enantiomeric separation of 3,4-dihydroxy-DL-phenylalanine and all the other chiral constituents involved in the phenylalanine-tyrosine metabolic pathway by using an EKC-MS methodology.

15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1985: 391-405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069748

RESUMO

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a well-established and one of the most powerful separation techniques in the field of chiral separations. Its hyphenation with mass spectrometry (MS) combines both the high separation efficiency and low sample consumption of CE and the high sensitivity and structural information of MS. Thus, the outstanding chiral resolution power of CE along with the MS advantages makes CE-MS a perfect combination to achieve sensitive enantioseparations. This chapter describes three representative examples of different approaches used in the chiral analysis of amino acids in biological fluids by CE-MS. The first methodology uses the partial filling technique to avoid the entry of cyclodextrins in the MS source. The second method shows the possibility to carry out the direct coupling EKC-MS even when a relative high concentration of a native cyclodextrin is used as chiral selector. The last example illustrates an alternative strategy based on the formation of stable diastereomers between an enantiomerically pure chiral reagent and the amino acids enantiomers which can be separated in an achiral environment.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilalanina/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ratos , Estereoisomerismo , Tirosina/sangue , Tirosina/líquido cefalorraquidiano
16.
Electrophoresis ; 40(15): 1951-1958, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111508

RESUMO

A MEKC methodology with UV detection was developed for the enantioselective separation of selenomethionine (SeMet). The use of (+)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate (FLEC) as chiral derivatization reagent to form SeMet diastereomers enabled their subsequent separation using ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) as a volatile pseudostationary phase. The effect of APFO concentration and pH, temperature, injection volume, and derivatization conditions (time and FLEC/SeMet ratio) were evaluated in order to select the best separation conditions. A chiral resolution of 4.4 for DL-SeMet was achieved in less than 6 min using 100 mM APFO at pH 8.5 as electrophoretic buffer. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity, precision (RSD from 3.4 to 5.1% for migration times and from 1.8 to 4.6% for corrected peak areas), accuracy, and LODs (3.1 × 10-6  M and 3.7 × 10-6  M for d and l enantiomers, respectively). The method was successfully applied to the determination of l-SeMet in food supplements.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Selenometionina/isolamento & purificação , Tensoativos/química , Caprilatos/química , Fluorenos/química , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Selenometionina/análise , Selenometionina/química , Estereoisomerismo
17.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; 49(5): 459-475, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963784

RESUMO

There are hundreds of nonprotein amino acids whose importance in food and biological matrices is still unknown. Many of these compounds can be found in food as products formed during the processing, as metabolic intermediates or because they are added to increase functional and nutritional properties of food. Moreover, this kind of amino acids have also demonstrated to play relevant roles in the pharmaceutical and clinical fields since they may be used therapeutically in the treatment of some pathologies and their levels may be related with some diseases. These facts imply that the analysis of nonprotein amino acids can be useful to obtain relevant information in the food and biological fields. This article reviews the most recent advances in the development of analytical methodologies employing capillary electrophoresis for the achiral and chiral analysis of nonprotein amino acids in food and biological samples. With this aim, the most relevant information concerning the separation and detection of these compounds by capillary electrophoresis is discussed and detailed experimental conditions under which their determination was achieved in food and biological samples are given covering the period of time from 2015 to 2018.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Líquidos Corporais/química , Análise de Alimentos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Eletroforese Capilar , Humanos
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 374: 203-210, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003121

RESUMO

Stability and toxicity studies for duloxetine and econazole were achieved using individual solutions and their mixtures. Stability of drugs racemates and enantiomers was investigated under abiotic and biotic conditions. Toxicity was evaluated for the first time on Spirodela polyrhiza. EC50 values were calculated for each individual drug and for their binary mixture. Real (not nominal) concentrations determined by Capillary Electrophoresis were employed in the calculations of toxicity parameters. The use of a 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) with 1.5% S-ß-CD as chiral selector at a temperature of 30 °C and a separation voltage of -20 kV enabled the simultaneous enantiomeric separation of duloxetine and econazole in 7.5 min with enantiomeric resolutions of 7.9 and 6.5, respectively. For individual solutions, decay percentages under abiotic conditions were higher for duloxetine (80%) than for econazole (60%), while in presence of Spirodela polyrhiza they increased for duloxetine but not for econazole. Econazole showed the highest decay percentages under abiotic or biotic conditions (100%) in binary mixtures. EC50 values for duloxetine and econazole enabled to include both drugs within the group of very toxic compounds although econazole showed a higher toxicity than duloxetine and the binary mixture.

19.
Electrophoresis ; 40(15): 1913-1920, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892703

RESUMO

The enantiomeric separation of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC)-homocysteine (Hcy) by CE was investigated using γ-CD and the chiral ionic liquid (R)-(1-hydroxybutan-2-yl)(trimethyl)azanium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfon)imidate (also called (R)-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-aminobutanol-bis(trifluoromethane-sulfon)imidate) (EtCholNTf2 ) as chiral selectors. Using 2 mM γ-CD and 5 mM EtCholNTf2 in 50 mM borate buffer (pH 9), FMOC-Hcy enantiomers were separated with a resolution value of 3.8. A reversal in the enantiomer migration order in comparison with the single use of γ-CD in the separation buffer was obtained. Then, NMR experiments were carried out to elucidate the interactions taking place in the enantiomeric separation of FMOC-Hcy. NMR analyses highlighted the formation of an inclusion complex since the hydrophobic group of FMOC-Hcy was inserted into the γ-CD cavity. Moreover, interactions between EtCholNTf2 and γ-CD were also observed, suggesting that the chiral ionic liquid would also enter the cavity of the γ-CD.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Homocisteína/isolamento & purificação , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , gama-Ciclodextrinas/química , Homocisteína/análise , Homocisteína/química , Imidazóis/química , Estereoisomerismo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 670: 770-778, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921710

RESUMO

Enantiomer stability was investigated in this work for the first time for duloxetine and econazole in individual solutions and their mixtures under the standardized ecotoxicity test experimental conditions for Daphnia magna and abiotic conditions. Real (and not nominal) enantiomer concentrations were employed for calculations since their determination was achieved by Capillary Electrophoresis. Relevant differences were found in stability profiles for both drugs in any case. Toxicity was evaluated for the first time in this work for mixtures of duloxetine and econazole on Daphnia magna. Dose-effect parameters were calculated at different exposure times (24, 48, and 72 h) showing a significant inhibition of daphnids mobility when increasing the incubation time. Combination index values enabled to obtain the type and level of interaction of drugs with the organism. A strong synergism was observed at 48 h exposure time and any effect level, which demonstrated the high toxicity of the drug mixture compared with the individual drug solutions. These results were corroborated when evaluating the oxidative stress using fluorescence images.


Assuntos
Cloridrato de Duloxetina/toxicidade , Econazol/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Daphnia , Eletroforese Capilar , Estresse Oxidativo , Estereoisomerismo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
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