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1.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815265

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T cell (CTL) infiltration of the tumor carries the potential to limit cancer progression, but their exclusion by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment hampers the efficiency of immunotherapy. Here, we show that expression of the axon guidance molecule PlexinA4 (Plxna4) in CTLs, especially in effector/memory CD8+ T cells, is induced upon T-cell activation, sustained in the circulation, but reduced when entering the tumor bed. Therefore, we deleted Plxna4 and observed that Plxna4-deficient CTLs acquired improved homing capacity to the lymph nodes and to the tumor, as well as increased proliferation, both achieved through enhanced Rac1 activation. Mice with stromal or hematopoietic Plxna4 deletion exhibited enhanced CTL infiltration and impaired tumor growth. In a melanoma model, adoptive transfer of CTLs lacking Plxna4 prolonged survival and improved therapeutic outcome, which was even stronger when combined with anti-PD-1 treatment. PLXNA4 abundance in circulating CTLs was augmented in melanoma patients versus healthy volunteers but decreased after the first cycle of anti-PD-1, alone or in combination with anti-CTLA-4, in those patients showing complete or partial response to the treatment. Altogether, our data suggest that PlexinA4 acts as a "checkpoint", negatively regulating CTL migration and proliferation through cell autonomous mechanisms independent of the interaction with host-derived PlexinA4 ligands semaphorins. These findings pave the way towards PlexinA4-centric immunotherapies and propose PlexinA4 detection in circulating CTLs as a potential way to monitor the response to immune checkpoint blockade in metastatic melanoma patients.

3.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 302, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Precise gene dosage of the X chromosomes is critical for normal development and cellular function. In mice, XX female somatic cells show transcriptional X chromosome upregulation of their single active X chromosome, while the other X chromosome is inactive. Moreover, the inactive X chromosome is reactivated during development in the inner cell mass and in germ cells through X chromosome reactivation, which can be studied in vitro by reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency. How chromatin processes and gene regulatory networks evolved to regulate X chromosome dosage in the somatic state and during X chromosome reactivation remains unclear. RESULTS: Using genome-wide approaches, allele-specific ATAC-seq and single-cell RNA-seq, in female embryonic fibroblasts and during reprogramming to pluripotency, we show that chromatin accessibility on the upregulated mammalian active X chromosome is increased compared to autosomes. We further show that increased accessibility on the active X chromosome is erased by reprogramming, accompanied by erasure of transcriptional X chromosome upregulation and the loss of increased transcriptional burst frequency. In addition, we characterize gene regulatory networks during reprogramming and X chromosome reactivation, revealing changes in regulatory states. Our data show that ZFP42/REX1, a pluripotency-associated gene that evolved specifically in placental mammals, targets multiple X-linked genes, suggesting an evolutionary link between ZFP42/REX1, X chromosome reactivation, and pluripotency. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal the existence of intrinsic compensatory mechanisms that involve modulation of chromatin accessibility to counteract X-to-Autosome gene dosage imbalances caused by evolutionary or in vitro X chromosome loss and X chromosome inactivation in mammalian cells.

5.
Oncogene ; 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508176

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can exhibit cell-type and cancer-type specific expression profiles, making them highly attractive as therapeutic targets. Pan-cancer RNA sequencing data revealed broad expression of the SAMMSON lncRNA in uveal melanoma (UM), the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Currently, there are no effective treatments for UM patients with metastatic disease, resulting in a median survival time of 6-12 months. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of SAMMSON inhibition in UM. Antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated SAMMSON inhibition impaired the growth and viability of a genetically diverse panel of uveal melanoma cell lines. These effects were accompanied by an induction of apoptosis and were recapitulated in two uveal melanoma patient derived xenograft (PDX) models through subcutaneous ASO delivery. SAMMSON pulldown revealed several candidate interaction partners, including various proteins involved in mitochondrial translation. Consequently, inhibition of SAMMSON impaired global, mitochondrial and cytosolic protein translation levels and mitochondrial function in uveal melanoma cells. The present study demonstrates that SAMMSON expression is essential for uveal melanoma cell survival. ASO-mediated silencing of SAMMSON may provide an effective treatment strategy to treat primary and metastatic uveal melanoma patients.

6.
J Exp Med ; 218(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287642

RESUMO

The ability to adapt to environmental stress, including therapeutic insult, contributes to tumor evolution and drug resistance. In suboptimal conditions, the integrated stress response (ISR) promotes survival by dampening cytosolic translation. We show that ISR-dependent survival also relies on a concomitant up-regulation of mitochondrial protein synthesis, a vulnerability that can be exploited using mitoribosome-targeting antibiotics. Accordingly, such agents sensitized to MAPK inhibition, thus preventing the development of resistance in BRAFV600E melanoma models. Additionally, this treatment compromised the growth of melanomas that exhibited elevated ISR activity and resistance to both immunotherapy and targeted therapy. In keeping with this, pharmacological inactivation of ISR, or silencing of ATF4, rescued the antitumoral response to the tetracyclines. Moreover, a melanoma patient exposed to doxycycline experienced complete and long-lasting response of a treatment-resistant lesion. Our study indicates that the repurposing of mitoribosome-targeting antibiotics offers a rational salvage strategy for targeted therapy in BRAF mutant melanoma and a therapeutic option for NRAS-driven and immunotherapy-resistant tumors.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Ribossomos Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tigeciclina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Uveais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uveais/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Cancer Cell ; 39(8): 1135-1149.e8, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143978

RESUMO

Therapy resistance arises from heterogeneous drug-tolerant persister cells or minimal residual disease (MRD) through genetic and nongenetic mechanisms. A key question is whether specific molecular features of the MRD ecosystem determine which of these two distinct trajectories will eventually prevail. We show that, in melanoma exposed to mitogen-activated protein kinase therapeutics, emergence of a transient neural crest stem cell (NCSC) population in MRD concurs with the development of nongenetic resistance. This increase relies on a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-dependent signaling cascade, which activates the AKT survival pathway in a focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-dependent manner. Ablation of the NCSC population through FAK inhibition delays relapse in patient-derived tumor xenografts. Strikingly, all tumors that ultimately escape this treatment exhibit resistance-conferring genetic alterations and increased sensitivity to extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibition. These findings identify an approach that abrogates the nongenetic resistance trajectory in melanoma and demonstrate that the cellular composition of MRD deterministically imposes distinct drug resistance evolutionary paths.

8.
FEBS J ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999497

RESUMO

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process through which epithelial tumor cells acquire mesenchymal phenotypic properties, contributes to both metastatic dissemination and therapy resistance in cancer. Accumulating evidence indicates that nonepithelial tumors, including melanoma, can also gain mesenchymal-like properties that increase their metastatic propensity and decrease their sensitivity to therapy. In this review, we discuss recent findings, illustrating the striking similarities-but also knowledge gaps-between the biology of mesenchymal-like state(s) in melanoma and mesenchymal state(s) from epithelial cancers. Based on this comparative analysis, we suggest hypothesis-driven experimental approaches to further deepen our understanding of the EMT-like process in melanoma and how such investigations may pave the way towards the identification of clinically relevant biomarkers for prognosis and new therapeutic strategies.

10.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(5): e13466, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724679

RESUMO

Most genetic alterations that drive melanoma development and resistance to targeted therapy have been uncovered. In contrast, and despite their increasingly recognized contribution, little is known about the non-genetic mechanisms that drive these processes. Here, we performed in vivo gain-of-function CRISPR screens and identified SMAD3, BIRC3, and SLC9A5 as key actors of BRAFi resistance. We show that their expression levels increase during acquisition of BRAFi resistance and remain high in persister cells and during relapse. The upregulation of the SMAD3 transcriptional activity (SMAD3-signature) promotes a mesenchymal-like phenotype and BRAFi resistance by acting as an upstream transcriptional regulator of potent BRAFi-resistance genes such as EGFR and AXL. This SMAD3-signature predicts resistance to both current melanoma therapies in different cohorts. Critically, chemical inhibition of SMAD3 may constitute amenable target for melanoma since it efficiently abrogates persister cells survival. Interestingly, decrease of SMAD3 activity can also be reached by inhibiting the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), another druggable transcription factor governing SMAD3 expression level. Our work highlights novel drug vulnerabilities that can be exploited to develop long-lasting antimelanoma therapies.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Plasticidade Celular , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
11.
Cancer Cell ; 39(5): 610-631, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545064

RESUMO

There is a lack of appropriate melanoma models that can be used to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic modalities. Here, we discuss the current state of the art of melanoma models including genetically engineered mouse, patient-derived xenograft, zebrafish, and ex vivo and in vitro models. We also identify five major challenges that can be addressed using such models, including metastasis and tumor dormancy, drug resistance, the melanoma immune response, and the impact of aging and environmental exposures on melanoma progression and drug resistance. Additionally, we discuss the opportunity for building models for rare subtypes of melanomas, which represent an unmet critical need. Finally, we identify key recommendations for melanoma models that may improve accuracy of preclinical testing and predict efficacy in clinical trials, to help usher in the next generation of melanoma therapies.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
12.
EMBO Rep ; 22(3): e50852, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586907

RESUMO

Transition from proliferative-to-invasive phenotypes promotes metastasis and therapy resistance in melanoma. Reversion of the invasive phenotype, however, is challenged by the poor understanding of mechanisms underlying its maintenance. Here, we report that the lncRNA TINCR is down-regulated in metastatic melanoma and its silencing increases the expression levels of invasive markers, in vitro migration, in vivo tumor growth, and resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors. The critical mediator is ATF4, a central player of the integrated stress response (ISR), which is activated in TINCR-depleted cells in the absence of starvation and eIF2α phosphorylation. TINCR depletion increases global protein synthesis and induces translational reprogramming, leading to increased translation of mRNAs encoding ATF4 and other ISR proteins. Strikingly, re-expression of TINCR in metastatic melanoma suppresses the invasive phenotype, reduces numbers of tumor-initiating cells and metastasis formation, and increases drug sensitivity. Mechanistically, TINCR interacts with mRNAs associated with the invasive phenotype, including ATF4, preventing their binding to ribosomes. Thus, TINCR is a suppressor of the melanoma invasive phenotype, which functions in nutrient-rich conditions by repressing translation of selected ISR RNAs.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Preparações Farmacêuticas , RNA Longo não Codificante , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Fosforilação , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
13.
J Histochem Cytochem ; 69(3): 203-218, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283624

RESUMO

The mouse line carrying the Tg(Tyr-NRAS*Q61K)1Bee transgene is widely used to model in vivo NRAS-driven melanomagenesis. Although the pathological features of this model are well described, classification and interpretation of the resulting proliferative lesions-including their origin, evolution, grading, and pathobiological significance-are still unclear and not supported by molecular and biological evidence. Focusing on their classification and grading, this work combines histopathology and expression analysis (using both immunohistochemistry [IHC] and quantitative PCR) of selected biomarkers to study the full spectrum of cutaneous and lymph nodal melanocytic proliferations in the Tg(Tyr-NRAS*Q61K)1Bee mouse. The analysis of cutaneous and lymph nodal melanocytic proliferations has demonstrated that a linear correlation exists between tumor grade and Ki-67, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), gp100, and nestin IHC, with a significantly increased expression in high-grade lesions compared with low-grade lesions. The accuracy of the assessment of MITF IHC in melanomas was also confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis. In conclusion, we believe the incorporation of MITF, Ki-67, gp100, and nestin analysis into the histopathological classification/grading scheme of melanocytic proliferations described for this model will help to assess with accuracy the nature and evolution of the phenotype, monitor disease progression, and predict response to experimental treatment or other preclinical manipulations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
14.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 20(12): 743-756, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033407

RESUMO

Therapeutic resistance continues to be an indominable foe in our ambition for curative cancer treatment. Recent insights into the molecular determinants of acquired treatment resistance in the clinical and experimental setting have challenged the widely held view of sequential genetic evolution as the primary cause of resistance and brought into sharp focus a range of non-genetic adaptive mechanisms. Notably, the genetic landscape of the tumour and the non-genetic mechanisms used to escape therapy are frequently linked. Remarkably, whereas some oncogenic mutations allow the cancer cells to rapidly adapt their transcriptional and/or metabolic programme to meet and survive the therapeutic pressure, other oncogenic drivers convey an inherent cellular plasticity to the cancer cell enabling lineage switching and/or the evasion of anticancer immunosurveillance. The prevalence and diverse array of non-genetic resistance mechanisms pose a new challenge to the field that requires innovative strategies to monitor and counteract these adaptive processes. In this Perspective we discuss the key principles of non-genetic therapy resistance in cancer. We provide a perspective on the emerging data from clinical studies and sophisticated cancer models that have studied various non-genetic resistance pathways and highlight promising therapeutic avenues that may be used to negate and/or counteract the non-genetic adaptive pathways.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Plasticidade Celular , Humanos , Neoplasia Residual , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Evasão Tumoral
15.
Sci Adv ; 6(27): eaaz9072, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923585

RESUMO

RNA 3' end processing provides a source of transcriptome diversification which affects various (patho)-physiological processes. A prime example is the transcript isoform switch that leads to the read-through expression of the long non-coding RNA NEAT1_2, at the expense of the shorter polyadenylated transcript NEAT1_1. NEAT1_2 is required for assembly of paraspeckles (PS), nuclear bodies that protect cancer cells from oncogene-induced replication stress and chemotherapy. Searching for proteins that modulate this event, we identified factors involved in the 3' end processing of polyadenylated RNA and components of the Integrator complex. Perturbation experiments established that, by promoting the cleavage of NEAT1_2, Integrator forces NEAT1_2 to NEAT1_1 isoform switching and, thereby, restrains PS assembly. Consistently, low levels of Integrator subunits correlated with poorer prognosis of cancer patients exposed to chemotherapeutics. Our study establishes that Integrator regulates PS biogenesis and a link between Integrator, cancer biology, and chemosensitivity, which may be exploited therapeutically.

16.
Nature ; 587(7834): 377-386, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894860

RESUMO

Here we describe the LifeTime Initiative, which aims to track, understand and target human cells during the onset and progression of complex diseases, and to analyse their response to therapy at single-cell resolution. This mission will be implemented through the development, integration and application of single-cell multi-omics and imaging, artificial intelligence and patient-derived experimental disease models during the progression from health to disease. The analysis of large molecular and clinical datasets will identify molecular mechanisms, create predictive computational models of disease progression, and reveal new drug targets and therapies. The timely detection and interception of disease embedded in an ethical and patient-centred vision will be achieved through interactions across academia, hospitals, patient associations, health data management systems and industry. The application of this strategy to key medical challenges in cancer, neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and infectious, chronic inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases at the single-cell level will usher in cell-based interceptive medicine in Europe over the next decade.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Medicina/métodos , Medicina/tendências , Patologia , Análise de Célula Única , Inteligência Artificial , Atenção à Saúde/ética , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Diagnóstico Precoce , Educação Médica , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Saúde , Humanos , Legislação Médica , Masculino , Medicina/normas
17.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(8): 986-998, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753671

RESUMO

Melanoma cells can switch between a melanocytic and a mesenchymal-like state. Scattered evidence indicates that additional intermediate state(s) may exist. Here, to search for such states and decipher their underlying gene regulatory network (GRN), we studied 10 melanoma cultures using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) as well as 26 additional cultures using bulk RNA-seq. Although each culture exhibited a unique transcriptome, we identified shared GRNs that underlie the extreme melanocytic and mesenchymal states and the intermediate state. This intermediate state is corroborated by a distinct chromatin landscape and is governed by the transcription factors SOX6, NFATC2, EGR3, ELF1 and ETV4. Single-cell migration assays confirmed the intermediate migratory phenotype of this state. Using time-series sampling of single cells after knockdown of SOX10, we unravelled the sequential and recurrent arrangement of GRNs during phenotype switching. Taken together, these analyses indicate that an intermediate state exists and is driven by a distinct and stable 'mixed' GRN rather than being a symbiotic heterogeneous mix of cells.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Fenótipo , RNA Neoplásico , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição SOXE/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
18.
Genome Res ; 30(12): 1815-1834, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732264

RESUMO

Deciphering the genomic regulatory code of enhancers is a key challenge in biology because this code underlies cellular identity. A better understanding of how enhancers work will improve the interpretation of noncoding genome variation and empower the generation of cell type-specific drivers for gene therapy. Here, we explore the combination of deep learning and cross-species chromatin accessibility profiling to build explainable enhancer models. We apply this strategy to decipher the enhancer code in melanoma, a relevant case study owing to the presence of distinct melanoma cell states. We trained and validated a deep learning model, called DeepMEL, using chromatin accessibility data of 26 melanoma samples across six different species. We show the accuracy of DeepMEL predictions on the CAGI5 challenge, where it significantly outperforms existing models on the melanoma enhancer of IRF4 Next, we exploit DeepMEL to analyze enhancer architectures and identify accurate transcription factor binding sites for the core regulatory complexes in the two different melanoma states, with distinct roles for each transcription factor, in terms of nucleosome displacement or enhancer activation. Finally, DeepMEL identifies orthologous enhancers across distantly related species, where sequence alignment fails, and the model highlights specific nucleotide substitutions that underlie enhancer turnover. DeepMEL can be used from the Kipoi database to predict and optimize candidate enhancers and to prioritize enhancer mutations. In addition, our computational strategy can be applied to other cancer or normal cell types.

19.
Cancer Res ; 80(14): 2983-2995, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503808

RESUMO

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors (TF) are well known for their ability to induce mesenchymal states associated with increased migratory and invasive properties. Unexpectedly, nuclear expression of the EMT-TF ZEB2 in human primary melanoma has been shown to correlate with reduced invasion. We report here that ZEB2 is required for outgrowth for primary melanomas and metastases at secondary sites. Ablation of Zeb2 hampered outgrowth of primary melanomas in vivo, whereas ectopic expression enhanced proliferation and growth at both primary and secondary sites. Gain of Zeb2 expression in pulmonary-residing melanoma cells promoted the development of macroscopic lesions. In vivo fate mapping made clear that melanoma cells undergo a conversion in state where ZEB2 expression is replaced by ZEB1 expression associated with gain of an invasive phenotype. These findings suggest that reversible switching of the ZEB2/ZEB1 ratio enhances melanoma metastatic dissemination. SIGNIFICANCE: ZEB2 function exerts opposing behaviors in melanoma by promoting proliferation and expansion and conversely inhibiting invasiveness, which could be of future clinical relevance. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/14/2983/F1.large.jpg.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Melanoma/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética
20.
Cell Rep ; 31(11): 107765, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553158

RESUMO

Tumor cell plasticity, including transdifferentiation, is thought to be a key driver of therapy failure, tumor dormancy, and metastatic dissemination. Although melanoma cells have been shown to adopt various phenotypic features in vitro, direct in vivo evidence of metastatic cell plasticity remains sparse. Here, we combine lineage tracing in a spontaneous metastatic mouse model of melanoma, advanced imaging, and single-cell RNA sequencing approaches to search for pathophysiologically relevant melanoma cellular states. We identify melanoma cells in intravascular niches of various metastatic organs. These cells are quiescent, are negative for characteristic melanoma markers, and acquire endothelial cell features. We replicate the endothelial transdifferentiation (EndT) finding in another mouse model and provide evidence of EndT in BRAFV600E-metastatic biopsies from human lung, brain, and small intestine, thus highlighting the clinical relevance of these findings. The tumor-vasculature pattern described herein may contribute to melanoma dormancy within metastatic organs and represent a putative target for therapies.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Melanoma/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos
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