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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410561

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is successful in 60%-80% of optimal candidates, with many patients requiring repeat procedures. We performed a detailed examination of electrophysiologic findings and clinical outcomes associated with first repeat AF ablations in the era of contact force-sensing radiofrequency (RF) catheters. METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients who underwent their first repeat AF ablations for symptomatic, recurrent AF at our center between 2013 and 2019. All repeat ablations were performed using contact force-sensing RF catheters. Pulmonary vein (PV) reconnections at repeat ablation and freedom from atrial arrhythmia 1 year after repeat ablation were evaluated. We further assessed these findings based on AF classification at the time of presentation for repeat ablation, index RF versus cryoballoon (CB) ablation, and duration (≥3 versus <3 years) between index and repeat procedures. RESULTS: Among 300 patients, there were 136 (45.3%) who presented for their first repeat ablations in persistent AF. During repeat ablation, at least one PV reconnection was found in 257 (85.6%) patients, while 159 (53%) had three to four reconnections. There was a similar distribution of reconnections among patients with persistent versus paroxysmal AF (mean: 2.7 ± 1.3 vs. 2.9 ± 1.2; p = .341), index RF versus CB ablation (mean: 2.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.9 ± 1.2; p = .553), and ≥3 versus <3 years between index and repeat procedures (mean: 3.0 ± 1.1 vs. 2.7 ± 1.3; p = .119). At repeat ablation, the PVs were re-isolated in all patients, and additional non-PV ablation was performed in 171 (57%) patients. Freedom from atrial arrhythmia at 1-year follow-up after repeat ablation was 66%, similar among those with persistent versus paroxysmal AF (65.4% vs. 66.5%; p = .720), index RF versus CB ablation (66.7% vs. 68.9%; p = .930), and ≥3 versus <3 years between index and repeat ablations (64.4% vs. 66.7%; p = .760). Major complications occurred in a total of 4 (1.3%) patients. CONCLUSION: In a contemporary cohort of patients receiving their first repeat AF ablations using contact force-sensing RF catheters, PV reconnections were common, and freedom from atrial arrhythmia was 66% at 1-year follow-up. The distributions of PV reconnections and rates of freedom from atrial arrhythmia were similar, based on persistent versus paroxysmal AF at presentation for repeat ablation, index RF versus CB ablation, and duration between index and repeat procedures. The incidence of major complications was very low.

2.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(1): 36-46, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the long-term outcomes and predictors of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) improvement in patients with severe cardiomyopathies undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). BACKGROUND: Whether patients with severe LV dysfunction benefit from CRT or have reached a point in disease severity past the point at which CRT is beneficial is unknown. METHODS: We collected clinical and echocardiographic data on 420 patients with an LVEF of ≤15% and a QRS duration of ≥120 ms undergoing CRT at the Cleveland Clinic and 2 hospitals in the Johns Hopkins Health System between April 2003 and May 2014. Multivariate models were created to determine factors associated with response to CRT, defined as an absolute improvement in LVEF of >5% and survival free of LVAD and heart transplant. Procedure-related deaths were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 298 patients had pre- and appropriately timed post-CRT echocardiograms, of whom 145 (48.7%) met the criteria for response. In multivariate analysis, LV size and left bundle branch block (LBBB) were associated with response. Among the most dilated quintile (LV end-diastolic diameter [LVEDD] of >7.8 cm), 30.4% met the criteria for response. In multivariate analysis, smaller LV end-diastolic dysfunction and presence of LBBB were associated with improved survival free of heart failure and LVAD over a mean follow-up period of 5.2 years. There were no procedure-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe LV dysfunction respond to CRT, although at a lower rate compared to traditional CRT candidates. Smaller LV size and LBBB are important predictors of positive outcomes in this population. Even among the most dilated patients, 30.4% realized a meaningful improvement in LVEF with CRT. The CRT implant procedure itself appears well tolerated.

5.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(2): 316-324, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation on the left atrium (LA) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To examine short- and long-term associations of AF catheter ablation with LA function using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS: Fifty-one AF patients (mean age 56 ± 8 years) underwent CMR at baseline, 1 day (n = 17) and 11 ± 2 months after ablation (n = 38). LA phasic volumes, emptying fractions (LAEF), and longitudinal strain were measured using feature-tracking CMR. LA fibrosis was quantified using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). RESULTS: There were no acute changes in volume; however, active, total LAEF, and peak LA strain decreased significantly compared to the baseline. During long-term follow-up, there was a decrease in maximum but not minimum LA volume (from 99 ± 5.2 ml to 89 ± 4.7 ml; p = .009) and a decrease in total LAEF (from 43 ± 1.8% to 39 ± 2.0%; p = .001). In patients with AF recurrence, LA volumes were unchanged. However, total LAEF decreased from 38 ± 3% to 33 ± 3%; p = .015. Patients without AF recurrence had no changes in LA functional parameters during follow-up. The amount of LA LGE at long-term follow-up was higher compared to the baseline, however, was significantly less compared to immediately post-procedure (37 ± 1.9% vs. 47 ± 2.8%; p = .015). A higher increase in LA LGE extent compared to the baseline was associated with a greater decrease in total LAEF (r = -.59; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: LA function is impaired acutely following AF catheter ablation. However, long-term changes of LA function are associated positively with the successful restoration of sinus rhythm and inversely with increased LA LGE.

8.
Heart Rhythm ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to historical trials, EAST-AFNET 4 suggests the superiority of early rhythm control over rate control in patients with recent-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). The relative contribution of timing vs improvement in AF therapeutics over time is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to isolate the assessment of early intervention for AF from temporal changes in AF treatments through a secondary analysis of AFFIRM subjects. METHODS: We compared rate and rhythm control treatments in AFFIRM subjects stratified by time from their diagnosis of AF. Time-to-event analysis was performed to compare all-cause mortality, cardiovascular hospitalizations, stroke, and number of hospitalization days. RESULTS: Of the 4060 AFFIRM subjects, 2526 subjects (62.2%) had their first episode of AF within 6 months of study enrollment. Participants with "new" AF had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality (P = .001) than did those with prior AF diagnoses. Individuals previously diagnosed with AF were similar in age and demographic characteristics, but had more medical comorbidities, including myocardial infarction (P = .006), diabetes mellitus (P = .002), smoking (P = .003), and hepatic or renal comorbidities (P = .008). There were no differences in mortality, cardiovascular hospitalization, or stroke between rate and rhythm control strategies in either AF subgroup. CONCLUSION: AFFIRM subjects diagnosed with AF within 6 months of study enrollment showed no difference in survival, cardiovascular hospitalization, or ischemic stroke between rate and rhythm control strategies. Superiority of rhythm control strategies reported by newer AF trials may be more attributable to the refinement of AF therapies and less related to the timing of intervention.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(20): e017002, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023350

RESUMO

Background Current approaches fail to separate patients at high versus low risk for ventricular arrhythmias owing to overreliance on a snapshot left ventricular ejection fraction measure. We used statistical machine learning to identify important cardiac imaging and time-varying risk predictors. Methods and Results Three hundred eighty-two cardiomyopathy patients (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance before primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator insertion. The primary end point was appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator discharge or sudden death. Patient characteristics; serum biomarkers of inflammation, neurohormonal status, and injury; and cardiac magnetic resonance-measured left ventricle and left atrial indices and myocardial scar burden were assessed at baseline. Time-varying covariates comprised interval heart failure hospitalizations and left ventricular ejection fractions. A random forest statistical method for survival, longitudinal, and multivariable outcomes incorporating baseline and time-varying variables was compared with (1) Seattle Heart Failure model scores and (2) random forest survival and Cox regression models incorporating baseline characteristics with and without imaging variables. Age averaged 57±13 years with 28% women, 66% white, 51% ischemic, and follow-up time of 5.9±2.3 years. The primary end point (n=75) occurred at 3.3±2.4 years. Random forest statistical method for survival, longitudinal, and multivariable outcomes with baseline and time-varying predictors had the highest area under the receiver operating curve, median 0.88 (95% CI, 0.75-0.96). Top predictors comprised heart failure hospitalization, left ventricle scar, left ventricle and left atrial volumes, left atrial function, and interleukin-6 level; heart failure accounted for 67% of the variation explained by the prediction, imaging 27%, and interleukin-6 2%. Serial left ventricular ejection fraction was not a significant predictor. Conclusions Hospitalization for heart failure and baseline cardiac metrics substantially improve ventricular arrhythmic risk prediction.

11.
Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev ; 9(2): 104-107, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983532

RESUMO

A significant proportion of AF patients with advanced age are being treated in clinical practice. Cryoballoon ablation of AF, given its shorter procedure time and comparable efficacy to radiofrequency ablation, has rapidly become a commonly used tool for AF ablation. Data regarding the outcomes of cryoballoon ablation of AF in octogenarians are limited because of the exclusion of this age group in the previous studies. The authors report outcomes of 15 octogenarian AF patients undergoing index cryoballoon ablation at a single centre. The mean age of the included patients was 83 ± 3 years. In total, 13 patients (87%) presented with paroxysmal AF, and two (13%) had long-standing persistent AF. At 6 and 12 months of follow-up, freedom from AF was 80% and 70%, respectively. None of the patients suffered any procedure-related complications. Cryoballoon ablation appears to be a safe and effective approach for treating symptomatic AF refractory to antiarrhythmic drug therapy in octogenarian patients, based on outcomes in this cohort. These findings require further validation in prospective randomised studies with larger sample sizes.

12.
Heart Rhythm O2 ; 1(3): 222-226, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835317

RESUMO

Our world is faced with a global pandemic that threatens to overwhelm many national health care systems for a prolonged period. Consequently, the elective long-term cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) management of millions of patients is potentially compromised, raising the likelihood of patients experiencing major adverse events owing to loss of CIED therapy. This review gives practical guidance to health care providers to help promptly recognize the requirement for expert consultation for urgent interrogation and/or surgery in CIED patients.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 12-15, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650904

RESUMO

Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is strongly associated with stroke, previous studies have shown suboptimal use of anticoagulation (AC). In particular, there is a lack of data on the long-term use of AC after AF catheter ablation. We followed up patients 1 to 5 years out from catheter ablation at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) to assess their long-term use of AC. We sent a survey to patients from the JHH AF database who underwent an AF catheter ablation between 01/01/2014 and 03/31/2018. Patients were asked whether they were still on AC, if they thought the ablation was successful in controlling AF symptoms and whether they had follow-up rhythm monitoring. Replies were compared with risk scores and demographic data from the electronic medical record. We sent the survey to 628 patients in the database meeting our inclusion criteria, and we received 289 responses. The average age of patients was 67 ± 10 with a median CHA2DS2-VASc of 2 and a median follow-up of 3.6 years. Overall, 81.6% of patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc >2 reported taking AC. Use of AC was positively correlated with a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score (p = 0.012) and older age (p = 0.028), but negatively correlated with a successful ablation (p = 0.040). The most common reason (50.0%) for not being on AC was that doctors were recommending stopping it after a successful ablation. In general, higher risk patients (older, higher CHA2DS2-VASC score) were more likely to remain on AC. However, patients who self-reported a successful ablation were less likely to remain on AC. There may be many patients who can tolerate AC, but are recommended to stop due to a successful ablation. It is still debated how successful AF ablation affects stroke risk. In conclusion, there is considerable variation in the long-term management of AC after an ablation, but for the present, it seems prudent to continue AC based on stroke risk scores until more definite data are available.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Desprescrições , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
14.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(7): e008213, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective treatment strategy for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but many experience AF recurrence and require repeat ablation procedures. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology that combines machine learning (ML) and personalized computational modeling to predict, before PVI, which patients are most likely to experience AF recurrence after PVI. METHODS: This single-center retrospective proof-of-concept study included 32 patients with documented paroxysmal AF who underwent PVI and had preprocedural late gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. For each patient, a personalized computational model of the left atrium simulated AF induction via rapid pacing. Features were derived from pre-PVI late gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance images and from results of simulations of AF induction. The most predictive features were used as input to a quadratic discriminant analysis ML classifier, which was trained, optimized, and evaluated with 10-fold nested cross-validation to predict the probability of AF recurrence post-PVI. RESULTS: In our cohort, the ML classifier predicted probability of AF recurrence with an average validation sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 89%, respectively, and a validation area under the curve of 0.82. Dissecting the relative contributions of simulations of AF induction and raw images to the predictive capability of the ML classifier, we found that when only features from simulations of AF induction were used to train the ML classifier, its performance remained similar (validation area under the curve, 0.81). However, when only features extracted from raw images were used for training, the validation area under the curve significantly decreased (0.47). CONCLUSIONS: ML and personalized computational modeling can be used together to accurately predict, using only pre-PVI late gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans as input, whether a patient is likely to experience AF recurrence following PVI, even when the patient cohort is small.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Potenciais de Ação , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Meglumina/análogos & derivados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Veias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Circulation ; 141(21): e823-e831, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228309

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that is wreaking havoc on the health and economy of much of human civilization. Electrophysiologists have been impacted personally and professionally by this global catastrophe. In this joint article from representatives of the Heart Rhythm Society, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association, we identify the potential risks of exposure to patients, allied healthcare staff, industry representatives, and hospital administrators. We also describe the impact of COVID-19 on cardiac arrhythmias and methods of triage based on acuity and patient comorbidities. We provide guidance for managing invasive and noninvasive electrophysiology procedures, clinic visits, and cardiac device interrogations. In addition, we discuss resource conservation and the role of telemedicine in remote patient care along with management strategies for affected patients.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , American Heart Association , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Cardiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sociedades Médicas , Telemedicina , Triagem , Estados Unidos
17.
Heart Rhythm ; 17(9): e233-e241, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247013

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic that is wreaking havoc on the health and economy of much of human civilization. Electrophysiologists have been impacted personally and professionally by this global catastrophe. In this joint article from representatives of the Heart Rhythm Society, the American College of Cardiology, and the American Heart Association, we identify the potential risks of exposure to patients, allied healthcare staff, industry representatives, and hospital administrators. We also describe the impact of COVID-19 on cardiac arrhythmias and methods of triage based on acuity and patient comorbidities. We provide guidance for managing invasive and noninvasive electrophysiology procedures, clinic visits, and cardiac device interrogations. In addition, we discuss resource conservation and the role of telemedicine in remote patient care along with management strategies for affected patients.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Triagem/organização & administração
20.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 30(5): 265-272, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311698

RESUMO

Bradycardia is a commonly observed arrhythmia and a frequent occasion for cardiac consultation. Defined as a heart rate of less than 50-60 bpm, bradycardia can be observed as a normal phenomenon in young athletic individuals, and in patients as part of normal aging or disease (Table 1). Pathology that produces bradycardia may occur within the sinus node, atrioventricular (AV) nodal tissue, and the specialized His-Purkinje conduction system. Given the overlap of heart rate ranges with non-pathologic changes, assessment of symptoms is a critical component in the evaluation and management of bradycardia. Treatment should rarely be prescribed solely on the basis of a heart rate lower than an arbitrary cutoff or a pause above certain duration. In the 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS Guideline on the Evaluation and Management of Patients with Bradycardia and Cardiac Conduction Delay (referred to hereafter as the 2018 Bradycardia Guideline), there was a significant shift in emphasis from prior guidelines that emphasized device-based implantation recommendations to a focus on evaluation and management of disease states [1,2]. In this review, we will highlight the changes in the new guideline as well as describe the key elements in evaluation and management of patients presenting with bradycardia.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Bradicardia/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Marca-Passo Artificial , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/terapia , Potenciais de Ação , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bradicardia/diagnóstico , Bradicardia/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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