Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 17 de 17
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Tipo de estudo
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Lancet ; 395(10219): 200-211, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. It is considered a major cause of health loss, but data for the global burden of sepsis are limited. As a syndrome caused by underlying infection, sepsis is not part of standard Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) estimates. Accurate estimates are important to inform and monitor health policy interventions, allocation of resources, and clinical treatment initiatives. We estimated the global, regional, and national incidence of sepsis and mortality from this disorder using data from GBD 2017. METHODS: We used multiple cause-of-death data from 109 million individual death records to calculate mortality related to sepsis among each of the 282 underlying causes of death in GBD 2017. The percentage of sepsis-related deaths by underlying GBD cause in each location worldwide was modelled using mixed-effects linear regression. Sepsis-related mortality for each age group, sex, location, GBD cause, and year (1990-2017) was estimated by applying modelled cause-specific fractions to GBD 2017 cause-of-death estimates. We used data for 8·7 million individual hospital records to calculate in-hospital sepsis-associated case-fatality, stratified by underlying GBD cause. In-hospital sepsis-associated case-fatality was modelled for each location using linear regression, and sepsis incidence was estimated by applying modelled case-fatality to sepsis-related mortality estimates. FINDINGS: In 2017, an estimated 48·9 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 38·9-62·9) incident cases of sepsis were recorded worldwide and 11·0 million (10·1-12·0) sepsis-related deaths were reported, representing 19·7% (18·2-21·4) of all global deaths. Age-standardised sepsis incidence fell by 37·0% (95% UI 11·8-54·5) and mortality decreased by 52·8% (47·7-57·5) from 1990 to 2017. Sepsis incidence and mortality varied substantially across regions, with the highest burden in sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania, south Asia, east Asia, and southeast Asia. INTERPRETATION: Despite declining age-standardised incidence and mortality, sepsis remains a major cause of health loss worldwide and has an especially high health-related burden in sub-Saharan Africa. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the University of Pittsburgh, the British Columbia Children's Hospital Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and the Fleming Fund.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(4): 1359-1368, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066838

RESUMO

This study analyzed the prevalence of bullying and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren using data produced by the 2015 National School Health Survey (PeNSE, acronym in Portuguese) consisting of a national sample of 102,301 eighth grade students. The prevalence of bullying was calculated and bivariate analysis was performed using a 95% confidence level to determine the association between victimization and socio-demographic variables and other variables relating to family background, mental health, and risk behaviors. Multivariate analysis was then conducted using the biologically plausible variables of interest. For the final model, variables that obtained p-values of < 0.05 were maintained. The prevalence of bullying was found to be 7.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that boys aged 13 years studying in public schools who worked and whose mother did not have any schooling were more likely to be bullied, as were schoolchildren who felt lonely, had no friends, suffered from insomnia, skipped lessons without parental permission, and who smoked. Victims of bullying were predominantly 13-year-olds from an unfavorable social and family background, painting a picture of vulnerability that calls for support from social protection networks, schools and families alike .


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1359-1368, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001772

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo analisou a prevalência de sofrer bullying e fatores associados em escolares brasileiros. Trata-se de análise da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) 2015 em amostra nacional com 102.301 alunos do 9º ano. Foi calculada a prevalência de sofrer bullying e foi feita inicialmente análise bivariada com estimativas de razões de chance (OR) e IC95% para estimar as associações entre vitimização e variáveis sociodemográficas, contexto familiar, violência familiar, saúde mental e comportamentos de risco. Posteriormente, procedeu-se ao modelo de regressão logística múltipla, inserindo as variáveis de interesse com (p < 0,20). No modelo final ajustado (ORa) permaneceram variáveis com p < 0,05. A prevalência de bullying foi de 7,4%. A análise multivariada mostrou que quem tem maior chance de sofrer bullying são os escolares do sexo masculino, com 13 anos, da escola pública, filhos de mães sem escolaridade, que trabalham, com relato de solidão, sem amigos, com insônia; que sofreram agressão física dos familiares, faltaram as aulas sem avisar aos pais, usaram tabaco. Predominaram vítimas de 13 anos, com contexto social e familiar desfavorável, mostrando cenário de vulnerabilidades, demandando apoio de redes de proteção social, escolar e famíliar.


Abstract This study analyzed the prevalence of bullying and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren using data produced by the 2015 National School Health Survey (PeNSE, acronym in Portuguese) consisting of a national sample of 102,301 eighth grade students. The prevalence of bullying was calculated and bivariate analysis was performed using a 95% confidence level to determine the association between victimization and socio-demographic variables and other variables relating to family background, mental health, and risk behaviors. Multivariate analysis was then conducted using the biologically plausible variables of interest. For the final model, variables that obtained p-values of < 0.05 were maintained. The prevalence of bullying was found to be 7.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that boys aged 13 years studying in public schools who worked and whose mother did not have any schooling were more likely to be bullied, as were schoolchildren who felt lonely, had no friends, suffered from insomnia, skipped lessons without parental permission, and who smoked. Victims of bullying were predominantly 13-year-olds from an unfavorable social and family background, painting a picture of vulnerability that calls for support from social protection networks, schools and families alike .

4.
PLoS Med ; 16(3): e1002755, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, high rates of microcephaly were reported in Northeast Brazil following the first South American Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak. Reported microcephaly rates in other Zika-affected areas were significantly lower, suggesting alternate causes or the involvement of arboviral cofactors in exacerbating microcephaly rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We merged data from multiple national reporting databases in Brazil to estimate exposure to 9 known or hypothesized causes of microcephaly for every pregnancy nationwide since the beginning of the ZIKV outbreak; this generated between 3.6 and 5.4 million cases (depending on analysis) over the time period 1 January 2015-23 May 2017. The association between ZIKV and microcephaly was statistically tested against models with alternative causes or with effect modifiers. We found no evidence for alternative non-ZIKV causes of the 2015-2017 microcephaly outbreak, nor that concurrent exposure to arbovirus infection or vaccination modified risk. We estimate an absolute risk of microcephaly of 40.8 (95% CI 34.2-49.3) per 10,000 births and a relative risk of 16.8 (95% CI 3.2-369.1) given ZIKV infection in the first or second trimester of pregnancy; however, because ZIKV infection rates were highly variable, most pregnant women in Brazil during the ZIKV outbreak will have been subject to lower risk levels. Statistically significant associations of ZIKV with other birth defects were also detected, but at lower relative risks than that of microcephaly (relative risk < 1.5). Our analysis was limited by missing data prior to the establishment of nationwide ZIKV surveillance, and its findings may be affected by unmeasured confounding causes of microcephaly not available in routinely collected surveillance data. CONCLUSIONS: This study strengthens the evidence that congenital ZIKV infection, particularly in the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy, is associated with microcephaly and less frequently with other birth defects. The finding of no alternative causes for geographic differences in microcephaly rate leads us to hypothesize that the Northeast region was disproportionately affected by this Zika outbreak, with 94% of an estimated 8.5 million total cases occurring in this region, suggesting a need for seroprevalence surveys to determine the underlying reason.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(3): e270-e278, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yellow fever cases are under-reported and the exact distribution of the disease is unknown. An effective vaccine is available but more information is needed about which populations within risk zones should be targeted to implement interventions. Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Brazil, coupled with the global expansion of the range of its main urban vector, Aedes aegypti, suggest that yellow fever has the propensity to spread further internationally. The aim of this study was to estimate the disease's contemporary distribution and potential for spread into new areas to help inform optimal control and prevention strategies. METHODS: We assembled 1155 geographical records of yellow fever virus infection in people from 1970 to 2016. We used a Poisson point process boosted regression tree model that explicitly incorporated environmental and biological explanatory covariates, vaccination coverage, and spatial variability in disease reporting rates to predict the relative risk of apparent yellow fever virus infection at a 5 × 5 km resolution across all risk zones (47 countries across the Americas and Africa). We also used the fitted model to predict the receptivity of areas outside at-risk zones to the introduction or reintroduction of yellow fever transmission. By use of previously published estimates of annual national case numbers, we used the model to map subnational variation in incidence of yellow fever across at-risk countries and to estimate the number of cases averted by vaccination worldwide. FINDINGS: Substantial international and subnational spatial variation exists in relative risk and incidence of yellow fever as well as varied success of vaccination in reducing incidence in several high-risk regions, including Brazil, Cameroon, and Togo. Areas with the highest predicted average annual case numbers include large parts of Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and South Sudan, where vaccination coverage in 2016 was estimated to be substantially less than the recommended threshold to prevent outbreaks. Overall, we estimated that vaccination coverage levels achieved by 2016 avert between 94 336 and 118 500 cases of yellow fever annually within risk zones, on the basis of conservative and optimistic vaccination scenarios. The areas outside at-risk regions with predicted high receptivity to yellow fever transmission (eg, parts of Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand) were less extensive than the distribution of the main urban vector, A aegypti, with low receptivity to yellow fever transmission in southern China, where A aegypti is known to occur. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide the evidence base for targeting vaccination campaigns within risk zones, as well as emphasising their high effectiveness. Our study highlights areas where public health authorities should be most vigilant for potential spread or importation events. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos , Risco , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 17(11): 1209-1217, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. METHODS: For this adjusted retrospective analysis, we compiled data from a range of sources (eg, WHO reports and health-service-provider registeries) reporting on yellow fever vaccination activities between May 1, 1939, and Oct 29, 2016. To account for uncertainty in how vaccine campaigns were targeted, we calculated three population coverage values to encompass alternative scenarios. We combined these data with demographic information and tracked vaccination coverage through time to estimate the proportion of the population who had ever received a yellow fever vaccine for each second level administrative division across countries at risk of yellow fever virus transmission from 1970 to 2016. FINDINGS: Overall, substantial increases in vaccine coverage have occurred since 1970, but notable gaps still exist in contemporary coverage within yellow fever risk zones. We estimate that between 393·7 million and 472·9 million people still require vaccination in areas at risk of yellow fever virus transmission to achieve the 80% population coverage threshold recommended by WHO; this represents between 43% and 52% of the population within yellow fever risk zones, compared with between 66% and 76% of the population who would have required vaccination in 1970. INTERPRETATION: Our results highlight important gaps in yellow fever vaccination coverage, can contribute to improved quantification of outbreak risk, and help to guide planning of future vaccination efforts and emergency stockpiling. FUNDING: The Rhodes Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health, the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.


Assuntos
Vacinação , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia
7.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 9: 18, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and their complications are a growing problem in Brazil. However, no comprehensive picture of this disease burden has yet been presented to date. METHODS: We used Global Burden of Disease 2015 data to characterize diabetes prevalence, incidence and risk factors from 1990 to 2015 in Brazil. Additionally, we provide mortality, years of life lost prematurely (YLL), years of life lived with disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to diabetes, as well as similar data for chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to diabetes and, as an overall summary measure, for hyperglycemia, the latter expressed as high fasting plasma glucose (HFPG). RESULTS: From 1990 to 2015 diabetes prevalence rose from around 3.6 to 6.1%, and YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs attributable to diabetes increased steadily. The crude diabetes death rate increased 90% while that of CKD due to diabetes more than doubled. In 2015, HFPG became Brazil's 4th leading cause of disability, responsible for 65% of CKD, for 7.0% of all disability and for the staggering annual loss of 4,049,510 DALYs. Diabetes DALYs increased by 118.6% during the period, increasing 42% due to growth in Brazil´s population, 72.1% due to population ageing, and 4.6% due to the change in the underlying, age-standardized rate of DALY due to diabetes. Main risk factors for diabetes were high body mass index; a series of dietary factors, most notably low intake of whole grains and of nuts and seeds, and high intake of processed meats; low physical activity and tobacco use, in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that diabetes, CKD due to diabetes, and hyperglycemia produce a large and increasing burden in Brazil. These findings call for renewed efforts to control the joint epidemics of obesity and diabetes, and to develop strategies to deal with the ever-increasing burden resulting from these diseases.

8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(1): 91-94, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618573

RESUMO

We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Modelos Estatísticos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidência , Estações do Ano , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
9.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 25(4): 701-712, out.-dez. 2016. tab, graf, mapa
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-828776

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: descrever os coeficientes de prevalência e caracterizar os casos de microcefalia ao nascer no Brasil, no período 2000-2015. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc). Foram calculados coeficientes segundo regiões e características das mães e nascidos vivos (NV). RESULTADOS: a média anual de casos de microcefalia foi 164 no período 2000-2014, enquanto em 2015 foram registrados 1.608 casos (54,6 casos por 100 mil NV). Coeficientes mais elevados foram observados entre prematuros (81,7; IC95%72,3; 92,2), nascidos de mães pretas (70,9; IC95%58,5; 85,9) ou pardas (71,5; IC95%67,4; 75,8), com idades ≤19 (70,3; IC95%63,5; 77,8) ou ≥40 anos (62,1; IC95%46,6; 82,6), ≤3 anos de estudo (73,4; IC95%58,2; 92,4) e residentes na região Nordeste (138,7; IC95%130,9; 147,0). CONCLUSÃO: o elevado número de casos de microcefalia registrado em 2015 reforça a importância do Sinasc e do aprimoramento do sistema de vigilância das anomalias congênitas.


OBJECTIVE: to describe the prevalence coefficients and characterize cases of microcephaly at birth in Brazil from 2000-2015. METHODS: this is a descriptive study with data from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc). The coefficients were calculated by region and characteristics of mothers and live births (LB). RESULTS: the annual average number of microcephaly cases was 164 for the period 2000-2014, whilst in 2015, 1,608 cases were registered (54.6 cases per 100 thousand LB). Higher coefficients were observed among preterm babies (81.7; 95%CI 72.3;92.2), born from black-skinned (70.9; 95%CI 58.5;85.9) or to brown-skinned (71.5; 95%CI67.4;75.8) women, to women aged ≤19 (70.3; 95%CI 63.5;77.8) or ≥40 (62.1; 95%CI 46.6;82.6), with ≤3 years of study (73.4; 95%CI 58.2;92.4) and residents in the Northeast region (138.7; 95%CI 130.9;147.0). CONCLUSION: the high number of microcephaly cases in 2015 reinforces the importance of Sinasc and the need to improve the surveillance of congenital anomalies.


OBJETIVO: describir coeficientes de prevalencia y caracterizar casos de microcefalia al nacer en Brasil, en el periodo 2000-2015. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo con datos del Sistema de Informaciones sobre Nacidos Vivos (Sinasc). Los coeficientes fueron calculados según regiones, características maternas y del nacido vivo (NV). RESULTADOS: el promedio anual de casos de microcefalia fue 164 en el periodo 2000-2014, mientras en 2015 fue 1.608 (54,6 casos por 100.000 NV). Coeficientes más elevados fueron observados entre prematuros (81,7; IC95% 72,3-92,2), nacidos de madres negras (70,9; IC95% 58,5-85,9) o pardas (71,5; IC95% 67,4-75,8), con edades ≤19 (70,3; IC95% 63,5-77,8) o ≥40 años (62,1; IC95% 46,6-82,6), ≤3 años de estudio (73,4; IC95% 58,2-92,4), y residentes del Noreste (138,7; IC95% 130,9-147,0). CONCLUSIÓN: el elevado número de casos de microcefalia, en 2015, refuerza la importancia del Sinasc y necesidad de mejorías del sistema de vigilancia de anomalías congénitas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Anormalidades Congênitas/embriologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Microcefalia/embriologia , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Nascimento Vivo
10.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 25(4): 713-724, out.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-828778

RESUMO

Resumo OBJETIVO: descrever a carga de doença no Brasil de 1990 a 2010. MÉTODOS: análise das estimativas do Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 - anos de vida perdidos por morte prematura (YLL), anos vividos com incapacidade (YLD), anos de vida perdidos por morte ou incapacidade (DALY=YLL+YLD) e fatores de risco. RESULTADOS: a mortalidade por diarreia reduziu-se, aumentou por diabetes e doença renal e estabilizou-se por homicídios e acidentes de transporte; doenças cardiovasculares persistiram como principal causa de morte, apesar da redução de 30%; os maiores aumentos de DALY foram por diabetes e doenças osteomusculares em mulheres, e abuso do álcool e dor lombar em homens; os principais fatores de risco foram dieta inadequada e hipertensão; reduziram-se tabagismo, poluição doméstica e aleitamento materno insuficiente. CONCLUSÃO: a rápida transição epidemiológica alerta para a necessidade de controlar as doenças infecciosas e investir na redução da violência e de doenças não transmissíveis.


Abstract OBJECTIVE: to describe the burden of disease in Brazil from 1990 to 2010. METHODS: analysis of the estimates of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 - Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality (YLL), Years Lost due to Disability (YLD), Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY=YLL+YLD) and risk factors. RESULTS: there was a decrease in deaths due to diarrhea and an increase in deaths due to diabetes and kidney disease, whilst deaths due to homicides and traffic accidents remained stable; cardiovascular diseases continued to be the leading cause of death despite a 30% reduction; the largest increases in DALY were due to diabetes and musculoskeletal diseases in women and alcohol abuse and low back pain in men; the main risk factors were poor diet and high blood pressure; smoking, domestic pollution and insufficient breastfeeding were found to have reduced. CONCLUSION: the rapid epidemiological transition highlights the need to control infectious diseases and invest in reducing violence and non-communicable diseases.


Resumen OBJETIVO: describir la carga de enfermedad en Brasil entre 1990 y 2010. MÉTODOS: analizar las estimaciones del Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 - años de vida perdidos por muerte prematura (YLL), años de vida perdidos por discapacidad (YLD), años de vida perdidos por muerte o discapacidad (DALY=YLL+YLD) y factores de riesgo. RESULTADOS: hubo reducción de muertes por diarrea, aumento por diabetes y enfermedad renal, con estabilización para homicidios y accidentes de tráfico; las enfermedades cardiovasculares siguen siendo la principal causa de muerte, a pesar de una reducción de 30%; los mayores incrementos de DALY fueron por diabetes y enfermedades osteomusculares en mujeres y abuso del alcohol y dolor lumbar en hombres; los principales factores de riesgo son mala alimentación e hipertensión; hubo reducción del tabaquismo, contaminación doméstica y lactancia materna inadecuada. CONCLUSIÓN: la rápida transición epidemiológica advierte la necesidad de controlar las enfermedades infecciosas e invertir en la reducción de la violencia y enfermedades no transmisibles.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Causas de Morte/tendências , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Fatores de Risco , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade
11.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 25(4): 713-724, 2016.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe the burden of disease in Brazil from 1990 to 2010. METHODS: analysis of the estimates of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 - Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality (YLL), Years Lost due to Disability (YLD), Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY=YLL+YLD) and risk factors. RESULTS: there was a decrease in deaths due to diarrhea and an increase in deaths due to diabetes and kidney disease, whilst deaths due to homicides and traffic accidents remained stable; cardiovascular diseases continued to be the leading cause of death despite a 30% reduction; the largest increases in DALY were due to diabetes and musculoskeletal diseases in women and alcohol abuse and low back pain in men; the main risk factors were poor diet and high blood pressure; smoking, domestic pollution and insufficient breastfeeding were found to have reduced. CONCLUSION: the rapid epidemiological transition highlights the need to control infectious diseases and invest in reducing violence and non-communicable diseases.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte/tendências , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
12.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 25(4): 701-712, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe the prevalence coefficients and characterize cases of microcephaly at birth in Brazil from 2000-2015. METHODS: this is a descriptive study with data from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc). The coefficients were calculated by region and characteristics of mothers and live births (LB). RESULTS: the annual average number of microcephaly cases was 164 for the period 2000-2014, whilst in 2015, 1,608 cases were registered (54.6 cases per 100 thousand LB). Higher coefficients were observed among preterm babies (81.7; 95%CI 72.3;92.2), born from black-skinned (70.9; 95%CI 58.5;85.9) or to brown-skinned (71.5; 95%CI67.4;75.8) women, to women aged ≤19 (70.3; 95%CI 63.5;77.8) or ≥40 (62.1; 95%CI 46.6;82.6), with ≤3 years of study (73.4; 95%CI 58.2;92.4) and residents in the Northeast region (138.7; 95%CI 130.9;147.0). CONCLUSION: the high number of microcephaly cases in 2015 reinforces the importance of Sinasc and the need to improve the surveillance of congenital anomalies.


Assuntos
Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Sistemas de Informação , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Elife ; 52016 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27090089

RESUMO

Zika virus was discovered in Uganda in 1947 and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which also act as vectors for dengue and chikungunya viruses throughout much of the tropical world. In 2007, an outbreak in the Federated States of Micronesia sparked public health concern. In 2013, the virus began to spread across other parts of Oceania and in 2015, a large outbreak in Latin America began in Brazil. Possible associations with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome observed in this outbreak have raised concerns about continued global spread of Zika virus, prompting its declaration as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. We conducted species distribution modelling to map environmental suitability for Zika. We show a large portion of tropical and sub-tropical regions globally have suitable environmental conditions with over 2.17 billion people inhabiting these areas.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Saúde Global , Humanos , Clima Tropical
14.
PLoS Curr ; 82016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28123858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data from social media have been shown to have utility in augmenting traditional approaches to public health surveillance. Quantifying the representativeness of these data is needed for making accurate public health inferences. METHODS: We applied machine-learning methods to explore spatial and temporal dengue event reporting trends on Twitter relative to confirmed cases, and quantified associations with sociodemographic factors across three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais) at the municipality level. RESULTS: Education and income were positive predictors of dengue reporting on Twitter. In contrast, municipalities with a higher percentage of older adults, and males were less likely to report suspected dengue disease on Twitter. Overall, municipalities with dengue disease tweets had higher mean per capita income and lower proportion of individuals with no primary school education. CONCLUSIONS: These observations highlight the need to understand population representation across locations, age, and racial/ethnic backgrounds in studies using social media data for public health research. Additional data is needed to assess and compare data representativeness across regions in Brazil.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25949709

RESUMO

Background The incidences of common mental disorders such as anxiety, depression and low-level post-traumatic stress are associated with deprivation. Since 2007, the Improving Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) programme in Ealing has made it easier for primary care practitioners to refer patients with common mental disorders for treatment. However, fewer patients of a black and minority ethnic (BME) background were referred than expected. Setting Southall, Ealing, is a diverse ethnic community; over 70% of the population is classified as having a BME background. Aim To evaluate the effect of locating mental health link workers in general practitioners' (GP) surgeries on referral of BME patients to IAPT services. Methods In 2009, an initiative in Southall helped practitioners and managers that served geographic areas to work with many different agencies to improve whole systems of care. One strand of this work led to mental health link workers being placed in 6 of the 23 GP practices. They provided psychological therapy and raised awareness of common mental disorders in BME groups and what mental health services can do to improve these. Referrals to the service were monitored and assessed using statistical process control. Results The mean referral rate of BME patients for GP practices without a link worker was 0.35 per week per 10 000 patients and was unchanged throughout the period of the study. The referral rates for the six practices with a link worker increased from 0.65 to 1.37 referrals per week per 10 000 patients. Conclusions Link workers located in GP practices, as part of a collaborative network of healthcare, show promise as one way to improve the care of patients with anxiety and depression from BME communities.

16.
London J Prim Care (Abingdon) ; 6(2): 29-34, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25949710

RESUMO

Background Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a leading cause of disability. The Department of Health has launched a large-scale initiative to improve access to evidence-based psychological treatments, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) programme. Access to IAPT services by black and minority ethnic (BME) communities is lower than for other groups. Setting The London Borough of Ealing in west London; a diverse borough with areas of high BME population and relatively high deprivation. Aim To compare the outcomes of two linked quality improvement (QI) projects undertaken by Ealing Mental Health and Wellbeing Service (MHWBS), both with the same aim of increasing access to talking therapies for BME communities. Methods Application of QI methodologies supported by the NIHR CLAHRC for northwest London in two different settings in Ealing. One, the 'Southall project', was set within a wider initiative for collaborative improvements and shared learning (the Southall Initiative for Integrated Care) in an ethnically diverse area of Ealing; it was undertaken between April 2010 and September 2011. The second, 'the Ealing project', operated in the two other Ealing localities that did not have the advantage of a broader initiative for collaborative improvements; it was undertaken between April 2011 and September 2012. Results Comparison of the monthly referral rates of BME patients (standardised per 10 000 general practitioner (GP)-registered patients) show that the Southall project was more effective in increasing referrals from BME communities than the Ealing project. Conclusion Broad local participation and ownership in the project design of the Southall project may explain why it was more effective in achieving its aims than the Ealing project which lacked these ownership-creating mechanisms.

17.
Glob Health Action ; 6: 21518, 2013 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24041439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a systematic approach for determining causes of death (CoD) in populations without routine medical certification. It has mainly been used in research contexts and involved relatively lengthy interviews. Our objective here is to describe the process used to shorten, simplify, and standardise the VA process to make it feasible for application on a larger scale such as in routine civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems. METHODS: A literature review of existing VA instruments was undertaken. The World Health Organization (WHO) then facilitated an international consultation process to review experiences with existing VA instruments, including those from WHO, the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH) Network, InterVA, and the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium (PHMRC). In an expert meeting, consideration was given to formulating a workable VA CoD list [with mapping to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) CoD] and to the viability and utility of existing VA interview questions, with a view to undertaking systematic simplification. FINDINGS: A revised VA CoD list was compiled enabling mapping of all ICD-10 CoD onto 62 VA cause categories, chosen on the grounds of public health significance as well as potential for ascertainment from VA. A set of 221 indicators for inclusion in the revised VA instrument was developed on the basis of accumulated experience, with appropriate skip patterns for various population sub-groups. The duration of a VA interview was reduced by about 40% with this new approach. CONCLUSIONS: The revised VA instrument resulting from this consultation process is presented here as a means of making it available for widespread use and evaluation. It is envisaged that this will be used in conjunction with automated models for assigning CoD from VA data, rather than involving physicians.


Assuntos
Autopsia/métodos , Causas de Morte , Vigilância da População/métodos , Autopsia/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Estatísticas Vitais , Organização Mundial da Saúde
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA