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1.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 85: 103941, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476630

RESUMO

Motor dysfunction increases in the moderate and severe stages of dementia. However, there is still no consensus on changes in mobility during its early stages. This meta-analysis aimed to measure the level of single-task functional mobility in older subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and/or Alzheimer's disease (AD). In a search of the PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases, 2728 articles were identified. At the end of the selection, a total of 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Functional mobility was investigated using the timed up and go (TUG) test in all studies. When compared to healthy elderly (HE) adults, the following mean differences (MD) in seconds were found for the investigated subgroups: no amnestic MCI (MD = 0.26; CI95% = -0.77, 1.29), amnestic MCI (MD = 0.86; CI95% = -0.02, 1.73), very mild AD (MD = 1.32; CI95% = 0.63, 2.02), mild AD (MD = 2.43; CI95% = 1.84, 3.01), mild-moderate AD (MD = 3.01; CI95% = 2.47, 3.55), and mild-severe AD (MD = 4.51; CI95% = 1.14, 7.88); for the groups, the following MD were found: MCI (MD = 0.97; CI95% = 0.51, 1.44) and AD (MD = 2.66; CI95% = 2.16, 3.15). These results suggest a transition period in motor capacity between healthy aging and dementia, wherein functional mobility analysis in a single-task (TUG) can contribute to the diagnosis and staging of predementia states and AD.

2.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(2): 196-202, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011957

RESUMO

ABSTRACT. Additional clinical tools should be investigated to facilitate and aid the early diagnosis of cognitive decline. Postural control worsens with aging and this may be related to pathological cognitive impairment. Objective: to compare the balance of older adults without dementia in a control group (CG) and with Alzheimer's disease (AD), to observe the possible association with the independent variables (diagnosis, age, gender, and global cognition) and to verify the best posturographic analyses to determine the difference between the groups. Methods: 86 older adults (AD = 48; CG = 38) were evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and postural control was assessed by stabilometry on the Wii Balance Board ® (WBB). Independent T, Mann-Whitney U-tests, Effect Size (ES) and a linear regression were performed. Results: there was a significant difference for Elliptical Area, Total Velocity, Medio-Lateral displacements with closed eyes and open eyes, antero-posterior, with closed eyes and BBS between groups. These variables showed a large effect size for BBS (-1.02), Elliptical Area (0.83) with closed eyes, Medio-Lateral (0.80, 0.96) and Total Velocity (0.92; 1.10) with eyes open and eyes closed, respectively. Regression indicated global cognition accompanied by age, gender, and diagnosis influenced postural control. Conclusion: patients with AD showed impaired postural control compared to Control Group subjects. Total Velocity with closed eyes was the most sensitive parameter for differentiating groups and should be better investigated as a possible motor biomarker of dementia in posturographic analysis with WBB.


RESUMO. Ferramentas clínicas adicionais devem ser investigadas para facilitar e auxiliar o diagnóstico prévio do declínio cognitivo. O controle postural piora com o envelhecimento e este fato pode estar relacionado com o comprometimento cognitivo patológico. Objetivo: comparar o equilíbrio de adultos idosos sem demência no grupo controle (GC) e com doença de Alzheimer (DA), observar as possíveis associações com as variáveis independentes (diagnóstico, idade, sexo e estado cognitivo global) e verificar as melhores análises posturográficas para determinar a diferença entre os grupos. Métodos: 86 idosos (DA = 48; GC=38) foram avaliados utilizando a escala de equilíbrio Berg (EEB) e o controle postural pela estabilometria no Wii Balance Board ® (WBB). Testes T independente, Mann Whitney U, o tamanho de efeito (TE) e uma regressão linear foram realizados. Resultados: houve diferença significativa para AE, VT, ML com OA e OF, AP com OF e EEB entre os grupos. Estas variáveis mostraram um TE grande para EEB (-1.02), AE (0,83) com OF, ML (0,80; 0,96) e VT (0,92; 1,10) com OA e OF, respectivamente. A regressão indicou que a cognição global acompanhada da idade, gênero e diagnóstico contribuem para as alterações do controle postural. Conclusão: pacientes com DA apresentam comprometimento do controle postural quando comparados a idosos saudáveis. A VT com OF foi o parâmetro mais sensível para diferenciar os grupos e deve ser melhor investigada como possível biomarcador motor de demência na análise posturográfica com o WBB.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Demência , Equilíbrio Postural , Doença de Alzheimer
3.
Maturitas ; 126: 28-33, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a 12-week multimodal physical exercise program on global cognition, executive function and mobility in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of two groups in parallel; single-blind. METHOD: Patients were allocated to a control group (CG; n = 28 comprising MCI = 14 and AD = 14) and an exercise group (EG; n = 28 comprising MCI = 14 and AD = 14). The participants' physical and cognitive abilities were evaluated before and three months after the intervention. The training consisted of a 1-hour supervised program of multimodal physical exercises (aerobic, strength, balance and flexibility) of moderate intensity, delivered twice a week. RESULTS: The independent t-test of the delta (Δ = post-intervention - pre-intervention) was used to compare the groups (CG x EG) for each diagnosis (MCI and AD). There was a significant difference only in the simple task mobility test (ΔCG: -0.18 ± 0.53; ΔEG: -1.05 ± 0.57; P = 0.03) and in the verbal fluency (ΔCG: -1.30 ± 2.49; ΔEG: 3.16 ± 1.72, P = 0.05) of the elderly with MCI, showing a beneficial effect of the multimodal exercise in this group. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a 12-week multimodal physical exercise program contributed to improvements in the mobility and executive function of elderly individuals with MCI, but not of those with AD. Although more RCTs are needed, physical exercise should be recommended to those in the early stages of neurocognitive disorder.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Função Executiva , Terapia por Exercício , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego
4.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 218-224, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011499

RESUMO

Objective: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of donepezil and rivastigmine therapy for mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Method: A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 individuals of both sexes, aged >65 years, and diagnosed with AD was simulated using a Markov model. The time horizon was 10 years, with 1-year cycles. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: For mild AD, the study showed an increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.61 QALY/21,907.38 Brazilian reais (BRL) for patients treated with donepezil and 0.58 QALY/BRL 24,683.33 for patients treated with rivastigmine. In the moderate AD group, QALY increases of 0.05/BRL 27,414.96 were observed for patients treated with donepezil and 0.06/BRL 34,222.96 for patients treated with rivastigmine. Conclusions: The findings of this study contradict the standard of care for mild and moderate AD in Brazil, which is based on rivastigmine. A pharmacological treatment option based on current Brazilian clinical practice guidelines for AD suggests that rivastigmine is less cost-effective (0.39 QALY/BRL 32,685.77) than donepezil. Probabilistic analysis indicates that donepezil is the most cost-effective treatment for mild and moderate AD.

5.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 33(2): 129-135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Awareness of disease is the ability to acknowledge changes caused by deficits related to the disease process. We aimed to investigate whether there are differences in awareness of disease between young-onset dementia (YOD) and late-onset dementia (LOD) and examined how awareness interacts with cognitive and clinical variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 49 people with YOD and 83 with LOD and their caregivers were included. We assessed awareness of disease, cognition, functionality, stage of dementia, mood, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregivers' quality of life (QoL) and burden. RESULTS: We found that people with YOD were more aware of the disease than people with LOD (P<0.005). Multivariate linear regression revealed that higher impairment in functional level was associated with unawareness in both groups (YOD=P<0.001; LOD=P<0.001). In the YOD group, preserved awareness was related to worse self-reported QoL (P<0.05), whereas, in LOD, deficits in awareness were related to caregivers' worst perceptions about people with dementia QoL (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the distinct nature of awareness between YOD and LOD. The YOD group had higher levels of disease awareness compared with the LOD group, even though the first group had a greater impairment in functionality.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial navigation is a fundamental cognitive ability that allows an individual to maintain independence by facilitating the safe movement from one place to another. It emerges as one of the first deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To compare spatial navigation performance in the healthy elderly and AD patients through use of the Floor Maze Test (FMT)- an easy-to-apply two-dimensional (2D) maze- and determine which cognitive and functional capacities were associated with performance in this task. METHODS: The FMT was administered to 24 AD patients and 36 healthy controls. Spatial navigation was evaluated through the FMT. Functional capacity was evaluated through the Senior Fitness Test battery of tests. Cognitive functions were evaluated through the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), verbal fluency, digit span test, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). RESULTS: The group with AD was significantly slower and presented more errors at all stages of the FMT. Planning Time (PT) performance was associated with cardiorespiratory resistance (Step test) and delayed memory according to the RAVLT (R2 = 0.395, p <  0.001). Performance in the Immediate Maze Time (IMT) and Delayed Maze Time (DMT) was associated with global cognitive status (MMSE) (R2 = 0.509) and delayed memory (R2 = 0.540). CONCLUSION: Patients with AD present significant spatial navigation deficits. Their performance on the FMT is influenced by cardiorespiratory capacity, memory, and global cognitive function. As exercise helps to improve executive function and functional capacity, future intervention studies should be carried out to analyze the possible effects of physical exercise on spatial navigation.

7.
Braz J Psychiatr ; : 0, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of donepezil and rivastigmine therapy for mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHOD: A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 individuals of both sexes, aged >65 years, and diagnosed with AD was simulated using a Markov model. The time horizon was 10 years, with 1-year cycles. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. RESULTS: For mild AD, the study showed an increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.61 QALY/21,907.38 Brazilian reais (BRL) for patients treated with donepezil and 0.58 QALY/BRL 24,683.33 for patients treated with rivastigmine. In the moderate AD group, QALY increases of 0.05/BRL 27,414.96 were observed for patients treated with donepezil and 0.06/BRL 34,222.96 for patients treated with rivastigmine. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study contradict the standard of care for mild and moderate AD in Brazil, which is based on rivastigmine. A pharmacological treatment option based on current Brazilian clinical practice guidelines for AD suggests that rivastigmine is less cost-effective (0.39 QALY/BRL 32,685.77) than donepezil. Probabilistic analysis indicates that donepezil is the most cost-effective treatment for mild and moderate AD.

8.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-5, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of dementia has been increasing particularly in developing countries. However, people with dementia (PwD) in Brazil are currently offered no psychosocial treatment upon diagnosis. Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) that originated in the UK has proven benefits on cognition and quality of life in PwD. We investigate the possible issues for the implementation of CST for the Brazilian population and its cultural appropriateness. METHOD: Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with PwD, their caregivers and health professionals (n = 37). Data were recorded and transcribed, before being analyzed using Framework Analysis. RESULTS: Regarding the issues for implementation of CST in the Brazilian population, two main themes emerged, 'Barriers' and 'Facilitators', along with nine subthemes. Overall, the activities and materials were seen as being appropriate for use with the Brazilian population, some minor changes were suggested. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that CST is appropriate for use in the Brazilian population, only some cultural adaptations are necessary. In the stakeholders' opinions, CTS intervention is needed in Brazil, due to the lack of treatment options for PwD in developing countries.

9.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 12(1): 75-79, 2018 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682237

RESUMO

Frontotemporal dementias are classically described as early onset dementias with personality and behavioral changes, however, late onset forms can also be found. Considering the paucity of information about late onset behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and its challenging diagnosis, we present a case report of an 85-year-old woman with behavioral changes and slow progression to dementia who was first diagnosed as having bipolar disorder and then Alzheimer's disease. The Daphne scale provided a structured means to improve clinical diagnosis, also supported by characteristic features on MRI and SPECT, while CSF biomarkers ruled out atypical Alzheimer's disease.

10.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(1): 75-79, Jan.-Mar. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-891059

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Frontotemporal dementias are classically described as early onset dementias with personality and behavioral changes, however, late onset forms can also be found. Considering the paucity of information about late onset behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and its challenging diagnosis, we present a case report of an 85-year-old woman with behavioral changes and slow progression to dementia who was first diagnosed as having bipolar disorder and then Alzheimer's disease. The Daphne scale provided a structured means to improve clinical diagnosis, also supported by characteristic features on MRI and SPECT, while CSF biomarkers ruled out atypical Alzheimer's disease.


RESUMO As demências frontotemporais são classicamente descritas como demências de início precoce com mudanças de personalidade e comportamento, porém as formas de início tardio também podem ser encontradas. Considerando a escassez de informações sobre a demência frontotemporal - variante comportamental de início tardio e o diagnóstico desafiador, apresentamos um relato de caso de uma mulher de 85 anos com alterações comportamentais e progressão lenta para demência que foi diagnosticada pela primeira vez com transtorno bipolar e, em seguida, doença de Alzheimer. A escala DAPHNE foi utilizada permitindo a estruturação das características clínicas, aumentando a precisão do diagnóstico clínico, apoiado por características em RM e SPECT, enquanto os biomarcadores no líquor descartaram a doença de Alzheimer.


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar , Daphne , Demência Frontotemporal , Transtornos de Início Tardio
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 65(12): 2634-2638, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of elder abuse and to investigate potential sociodemographic, health behavior, and medical correlates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face assessments. SETTING: São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 60 to 75. MEASUREMENTS: Information on elder abuse was obtained using the Brazil-adapted, nine-item Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test. Sampling design-adjusted descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in analyses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of abuse was 14.4% (n = 46/259, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.82-20.61) in São Paulo and 13.3% (n = 27/197, 95% CI = 8.76-19.74) in Rio de Janeiro. Unadjusted analyses indicated that poor education, low physical activity, unemployment, heart disease, and psychiatric problems were associated with abuse, but in adjusted analyses, self-reported elder abuse was significantly associated only with psychiatric problems (São Paulo: OR = 4.48, 95% CI = 1.75-11.45; Rio de Janeiro: OR = 21.61, 95% CI = 6.39-73.14). CONCLUSION: Elder abuse is prevalent in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, but whether concomitants of abuse are cause, effect, or both is unclear because this was a cross-sectional study. These findings highlight the importance of the problem, as well as the need to develop measures to increase awareness, facilitate prevention, and fight against abuse of elderly adults.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos ao Idoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana
12.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 25(6): 462-7, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22914619

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the key recent issues and novel findings on anxiety disorders in older adults. Studies of the epidemiology, medical and psychiatric comorbidity, neurobiology, and treatment of anxiety in the elderly are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall prevalence studies of anxiety symptoms or disorders in older adults indicate that, although less common than in younger adults, they are relatively common in late life. We examine the prevalence of specific anxiety disorders in the elderly, as mechanisms, outcomes, and treatment response may vary by type of anxiety disorder. Physical and psychiatric comorbidity are common. Certain anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, have demonstrated a positive impact following acute coronary syndrome. Regarding treatment, small effect sizes and incomplete response are typical, posing a challenge when treating this age group. SUMMARY: The epidemiology, neurobiology, and treatment of anxiety conditions in late life have recently received more attention in the medical literature. Areas in need of further investigation include neurobiology, clinical presentation, management, and treatment, as we do not know whether procedures indicated for younger cohorts hold for older adults.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Comorbidade , Humanos
13.
Braz J Psychiatr ; 33(1): 81-90, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21537725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the therapeutic options available for treatment of cognitive and behavioral symptoms in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. METHOD: Systematic review using the descriptors "frontotemporal lobar degeneration" OR "frontotemporal dementia" OR "fronto-temporal dementia" OR "fronto-temporal degeneration" OR "Pick's disease" OR "Pick's atrophy" OR "semantic dementia" OR "progressive aphasia" AND "pharmacotherapy" OR "treatment" OR "efficacy" OR "effects" OR "management" was performed in the Medline and Lilacs databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Quality A - randomized clinical trials. Quality B - open studies or reports of six or more cases. Quality C - reports of five or fewer cases. Two reviewers independently assessed the clinical studies. Information collected included diagnostic criteria used, sample size, duration, efficacy and tolerability measures used and results obtained. RESULTS: From the 532 studies found, 29 complied with the inclusion criteria. All studies worked with a small sample, had short duration of treatment and used non-uniform measures in evaluating efficacy and tolerability. Studies showed disparate results with respect to behavior and cognition. CONCLUSION: There is still little, and poor, evidence available for treatment of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and studies with better methodological background are needed.


Assuntos
Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/tratamento farmacológico , Demência Frontotemporal/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Doença de Pick/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 33(1): 81-90, Mar. 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-584109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the therapeutic options available for treatment of cognitive and behavioral symptoms in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. METHOD: Systematic review using the descriptors "frontotemporal lobar degeneration" OR "frontotemporal dementia" OR "fronto-temporal dementia" OR "fronto-temporal degeneration" OR "Pick's disease" OR "Pick's atrophy" OR "semantic dementia" OR "progressive aphasia" AND "pharmacotherapy" OR "treatment" OR "efficacy" OR "effects" OR "management" was performed in the Medline and Lilacs databases. Selection criteria: Quality A - randomized clinical trials. Quality B - open studies or reports of six or more cases. Quality C - reports of five or fewer cases. Two reviewers independently assessed the clinical studies. Information collected included diagnostic criteria used, sample size, duration, efficacy and tolerability measures used and results obtained. RESULTS: From the 532 studies found, 29 complied with the inclusion criteria. All studies worked with a small sample, had short duration of treatment and used non-uniform measures in evaluating efficacy and tolerability. Studies showed disparate results with respect to behavior and cognition. CONCLUSION: There is still little, and poor, evidence available for treatment of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and studies with better methodological background are needed.


OBJETIVO: Identificar as opções terapêuticas disponíveis para tratamento dos sintomas cognitivos e comportamentais da degeneração lobar frontotemporal. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática utilizando os descritores "frontotemporal lobar degeneration OR frontotemporal dementia OR fronto-temporal dementia OR fronto-temporal degeneration OR Pick's disease OR Pick's atrophy OR semantic dementia OR progressive aphasia AND pharmacotherapy OR treatment OR efficacy OR effects OR management" nas bases Medline e Lilacs. Critérios de seleção: Qualidade A - Estudos clínicos randomizados. Qualidade B - Estudos abertos ou relatos de seis ou mais casos. Qualidade C - Relatos de cinco ou menos casos. Dois revisores avaliaram independentemente os estudos clínicos. As informações coletadas incluíram critérios de diagnóstico utilizados, número da amostra, duração, medidas de eficácia e tolerabilidade utilizadas e os resultados obtidos. RESULTADOS: Encontraram-se 532 estudos e 29 preenchiam os critérios. Todos os estudos incluíam uma amostra pequena, com curta duração de tratamento, com utilização de medidas não uniformes na avaliação da eficácia e da tolerabilidade. O comportamento e a cognição apresentaram resultados díspares entre os estudos. CONCLUSÃO: São poucas as evidências disponíveis para tratamento da degeneração lobar frontotemporal e de qualidade insatisfatória, sendo necessários estudos com maior rigor metodológico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/tratamento farmacológico , Demência Frontotemporal/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Pick/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Cad. saúde pública ; 26(12): 2213-2233, dez. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-571476

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to combine the results of identified surveys on the prevalence of tobacco use in old age to estimate world prevalence of tobacco use and possible factors related to such behavior among the elderly. The literature search included electronic databases such as MEDLINE, LILACS, and Biological Abstracts, hand-searching of specialist journals and cited reference searches. The combined global prevalence was estimated using the random effects model. The total number of elderly subjects included in all surveys was 140,058, with data available from all the continents. Overall prevalence of tobacco use was 13 percent in both genders (22 percent male and 8 percent female). The prevalence rates were heterogeneous among surveys and were associated with smoking definition, questionnaire application, and country economic status. Few epidemiological studies assessed tobacco use among the elderly. A higher prevalence rate of tobacco use in males who live in higher income countries could be found, although additional evidence regarding elderly samples is still required.


O objetivo deste estudo foi combinar os resultados de pesquisas identificadas sobre a prevalência do tabagismo em idosos, para estimar sua prevalência mundial e possíveis fatores relacionados a este tipo de comportamento entre eles. A revisão da literatura incluiu busca nas bases de dados eletrônicas como MEDLINE, LILACS e Biological Abstracts, busca manual em jornais especializados e nas referências citadas. A prevalência global combinada foi estimada usando-se o modelo de efeitos randômicos. O número total de idosos incluídos em todos os levantamentos foi 140.058, com dados disponíveis em todos os continentes. A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 13 por cento em ambos os sexos (22 por cento homens e 8 por cento mulheres). As taxas de prevalência foram heterogêneas e estiveram associadas com a definição de tabagismo, aplicação do questionário e com a economia de cada país. A maior taxa de prevalência foi encontrada entre idosos do sexo masculino que vivem em países de renda mais alta.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Fumar , Tabaco , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Prevalência
16.
Cad Saude Publica ; 26(12): 2213-33, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21243218

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to combine the results of identified surveys on the prevalence of tobacco use in old age to estimate world prevalence of tobacco use and possible factors related to such behavior among the elderly. The literature search included electronic databases such as MEDLINE, LILACS, and Biological Abstracts, hand-searching of specialist journals and cited reference searches. The combined global prevalence was estimated using the random effects model. The total number of elderly subjects included in all surveys was 140,058, with data available from all the continents. Overall prevalence of tobacco use was 13% in both genders (22% male and 8% female). The prevalence rates were heterogeneous among surveys and were associated with smoking definition, questionnaire application, and country economic status. Few epidemiological studies assessed tobacco use among the elderly. A higher prevalence rate of tobacco use in males who live in higher income countries could be found, although additional evidence regarding elderly samples is still required.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Fumar/epidemiologia , Tabaco , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
17.
Cogn Behav Neurol ; 21(2): 104-6, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18541987

RESUMO

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is an insidious presenile neurodegenerative disorder presenting with personality changes, compulsive behaviors, psychosis, apathetic, aberrant, and elated mood and behavior. No psychopharmacologic strategy has proven to be efficacious in the treatment of FTD yet. This is a case report of FTD in a 53-year-old male engineer whose alcohol abuse, but not other compulsive behaviors, responded to topiramate. Alcohol exerts reinforcing effects on cortico-mesolimbic dopamine pathways through the disinhibition of the inhibitory effects of gamma-amino-butyric acid-A neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted fructopyranose derivative that may antagonize the reinforcing effects associated with the abuse liability of alcohol by modulation of cortico-mesolimbic dopamine function. On the basis of the mechanism of action of topiramate, we discuss the possible specificity of action of topiramate to control abusive drinking, but not to treat other clinical symptoms of FTD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Frutose/análogos & derivados , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Dopamina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Seguimentos , Frutose/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sistema Límbico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Límbico/patologia , Masculino , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Neurais/patologia , Topiramato
18.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 43(6): 490-7, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18385966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the frequency of current smoking in elderly people living in urban areas of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional design. A representative sample of 6,961 elderly, randomly selected subjects, living in a community, was examined to estimate the frequency of current tobacco smoking. Tobacco use was measured by means of a household questionnaire administered by trained interviewers that inquired about current tobacco use, sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and health status. Mental health was evaluated using the Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule (SPES). RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use was 28.9% among men, 13.6% among women and 18.8% for both sexes. Male gender (OR = 3.25), low income (OR = 1.52), years of schooling (illiterate) (OR = 1.35), non-Protestant religion (OR = 2.17) and absence of physical exercise (OR = 1.21) presented positive and independent association with tobacco use. Presence of pulmonary disease (OR = 1.93) and mental distress (OR = 1.32) and absence of cardiac disease (OR = 1.51), high blood pressure (OR = 1.51) and diabetes (OR = 1.50) were independently associated with an increased chance of current tobacco use. Increasing age (OR = 0.93) and marital status (married) (OR = 0.66) presented independent and negative association with smoking. CONCLUSION: Factors associated with an increased chance of tobacco smoking were: being men, illiterate, with lower income, presence of respiratory and mental disease, and absence of cardiac disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. Factors associated with a decreased risk of tobacco smoking were: aging, exercise, Protestant religion and marriage.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 65(2B): 498-502, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17665023

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) and to correlate the level of the functional dependence, cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms in outpatients. In this prospective study, 35 elderly with dementia (DSM-IV) were evaluated over the course of one year with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). Spearman correlation was used to compare cognitive, functional and behavioral symptoms in the first and last visits. The psychotic versus non-psychotic subgroups were compared by means of cognitive and functional performance. The Mann-Whitney test was used for the comparison. The MMSE scores declined and the NPI scores showed better results at endpoint. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 58.8%, agitation 55.9%, and delusion 41.2%. Significant correlations were found for functional and MMSE scores, years of formal education and NPI, but not for duration of disease. Psychotic symptoms had negative effects on daily activities of outpatients and were associated with functional decline.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Idoso , Demência/complicações , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 65(2b): 498-502, jun. 2007. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-456860

RESUMO

Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar sintomas comportamentais e psicológicos na demência e correlacionar o nível de dependência funcional, declínio cognitivo e sintomas neuropsiquiátricos em pacientes ambulatoriais. Foram avaliados, em 12 meses, 35 idosos com demência (critérios do DSM-IV) com o mini-exame do estado mental (MEEM), escala de estadiamento clínico das demências (CDR), inventário neuropsiquiátrico (INP) e escala de atividades funcionais (QAF). Através da correlação de Spearman foram comparados os estados cognitivo, funcional e comportamental na primeira e na última entrevista. Os subgrupos com e sem psicose foram comparados entre si quanto ao desempenho cognitivo e funcional, utilizando-se o teste de Mann-Whitney. Houve declínio do MEEM e melhora do INP ao longo de 12 meses. Do total da amostra, 58,8 por cento apresentaram sintomas depressivos, 55,9 por cento agitação, e 41,2 por cento delírios. Houve correlação significativa entre QAF e o MEEM, a escolaridade e o INP, mas não com tempo de doença. A presença de sintomas psicóticos foi mais prejudicial para a independência dos pacientes. Sintomas psicóticos podem ser um importante fator preditivo para maior declínio funcional em pacientes ambulatoriais com síndrome demencial.


This study aimed to evaluate the behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) and to correlate the level of the functional dependence, cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms in outpatients. In this prospective study, 35 elderly with dementia (DSM-IV) were evaluated over the course of one year with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). Spearman correlation was used to compare cognitive, functional and behavioral symptoms in the first and last visits. The psychotic versus non-psychotic subgroups were compared by means of cognitive and functional performance. The Mann-Whitney test was used for the comparison. The MMSE scores declined and the NPI scores showed better results at endpoint. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 58.8 percent, agitation 55.9 percent, and delusion 41.2 percent. Significant correlations were found for functional and MMSE scores, years of formal education and NPI, but not for duration of disease. Psychotic symptoms had negative effects on daily activities of outpatients and were associated with functional decline.


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Demência/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Demência/complicações , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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