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1.
Ann Neurol ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) is one of the most severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. We delineate the genetic causes and genotype-phenotype correlations of a large EIMFS cohort. METHODS: Phenotypic and molecular data were analyzed on patients recruited through an international collaborative study. RESULTS: We ascertained 135 patients from 128 unrelated families. Ninety-three of 135 (69%) had causative variants (42/55 previously reported) across 23 genes, including 9 novel EIMFS genes: de novo dominant GABRA1, GABRB1, ATP1A3; X-linked CDKL5, PIGA; and recessive ITPA, AIMP1, KARS, WWOX. The most frequently implicated genes were KCNT1 (36/135, 27%) and SCN2A (10/135, 7%). Mosaicism occurred in 2 probands (SCN2A, GABRB3) and 3 unaffected mothers (KCNT1). Median age at seizure onset was 4 weeks, with earlier onset in the SCN2A, KCNQ2, and BRAT1 groups. Epileptic spasms occurred in 22% patients. A total of 127 patients had severe to profound developmental impairment. All but 7 patients had ongoing seizures. Additional features included microcephaly, movement disorders, spasticity, and scoliosis. Mortality occurred in 33% at median age 2 years 7 months. INTERPRETATION: We identified a genetic cause in 69% of patients with EIMFS. We highlight the genetic heterogeneity of EIMFS with 9 newly implicated genes, bringing the total number to 33. Mosaicism was observed in probands and parents, carrying critical implications for recurrence risk. EIMFS pathophysiology involves diverse molecular processes from gene and protein regulation to ion channel function and solute trafficking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513310

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) refer to a heterogeneous group of devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. Variants in KCNB1 have been recently reported in patients with early-onset DEE. KCNB1 encodes the α subunit of the delayed rectifier voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv 2.1. We review the 37 previously reported patients carrying 29 distinct KCNB1 variants and significantly expand the mutational spectrum describing 18 novel variants from 27 unreported patients. Most variants occur de novo and mainly consist of missense variants located on the voltage sensor and the pore domain of Kv 2.1. We also report the first inherited variant (p.Arg583*). KCNB1-related encephalopathies encompass a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with predominant language difficulties and behavioral impairment. Eighty-five percent of patients developed epilepsies with variable syndromes and prognosis. Truncating variants in the C-terminal domain are associated with a less-severe epileptic phenotype. Overall, this report provides an up-to-date review of the mutational and clinical spectrum of KCNB1, strengthening its place as a causal gene in DEEs and emphasizing the need for further functional studies to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

3.
Epilepsy Res ; 156: 106181, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394400

RESUMO

Infantile spasms (IS) is a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with heterogeneous etiologies including many genetic causes. Genetic studies have identified pathogenic variants in over 30 genes as causes of IS. Many of these genetic causes are extremely rare, with only one reported incidence in an individual with IS. To better understand the genetic landscape of IS, we used targeted sequencing to screen 42 candidate IS genes and 53 established developmental and epileptic encephalopathy genes in 92 individual with IS. We identified a genetic diagnosis for 7.6% of our cohort, including pathogenic variants in KCNB1 (n = 2), GNAO1 (n = 1), STXBP1 (n = 1), SLC35A2 (n = 1), TBL1XR1 (n = 1), and KIF1A (n = 1). Our data emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of IS and will inform the diagnosis and management of individuals with this devastating disorder.

4.
Epilepsy Behav ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300382

RESUMO

Status epilepticus is a life-threatening medical condition which requires immediate diagnosis and treatment. In children, it may be a recurrent manifestation in the context of heterogeneous severe developmental genetic encephalopathies, as well as the first neurological manifestation. Mutations in several genes have been consistently associated with status epilepticus despite none of them can be considered as 'pure' Mendelian status epilepticus gene. Most genetic conditions featuring status epilepticus can be assigned to specific phenotypic subgroups, including cortical dysplasias, inborn errors of metabolism, mitochondrial diseases, or epileptic encephalopathies and childhood syndromes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has increased the number of genes associated with, and improved the turnaround time for molecular diagnosis of, status epilepticus, allowing more timely and rationale management choices for specific conditions. Next generation sequencing might become part of the standard of care in the near future for a large subset of patients with status epilepticus, especially in early life. At present, trios whole exome sequencing, with a first analysis of point and copy number variants of an in silico panel containing 'status epilepticus' genes might represent best choice as it would allow a rapid screening. This article is part of the Special Issue "Proceedings of the 7th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus and Acute Seizures".

5.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 161: 3-15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307608

RESUMO

Idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE) are characterized by normal background EEG activity and generalized interictal spike-and-wave discharges in the absence of any evidence of brain lesion. Absence epilepsies are the prototypes of IGEs. In childhood and juvenile absence epilepsies, by definition, all patients manifest absence seizures associated with an EEG pattern of generalized spike-wave (GSW) discharges. In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, myoclonic jerks, usually affecting shoulders and arms bilaterally and appearing upon awakening, are the most characteristic clinical feature. Myoclonic jerks are accompanied on the EEG by generalized spike/polyspike-and-wave (GSW, GPWS) complexes at 3.5-6Hz. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only is a broad and nonspecific category including all patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and an interictal EEG pattern of GSW discharges. Despite the strong heritability and the recent advances in genetic technology, the genetic basis of IGEs remains largely elusive and only in a small minority of patients with classic IGE phenotypes is a monogenic cause identified. Early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME), early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, West syndrome, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, once classified among the generalized epilepsies, are now considered to be epileptic encephalopathies. Among them, only Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is characterized by prominent generalized clinical and EEG features.

6.
Epileptic Disord ; 21(2): 185-191, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977726

RESUMO

Epilepsy with auditory features (EAF) is a focal epilepsy syndrome characterized by prominent auditory ictal manifestations. Two main genes, LGI1 and RELN, have been implicated in EAF, but the genetic aetiology remains unknown in half of families and most sporadic cases. We previously described a pathogenic SCN1A missense variant (p.Thr956Met) segregating in a large family in which the proband and her affected daughter had EAF, thus satisfying the minimum requirement for diagnosis of autosomal dominant EAF (ADEAF). However, the remaining eight affected family members had clinical manifestations typically found in families with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). We aimed to investigate the role/impact of SCN1A mutations in EAF. We detailed the phenotype of this family and report on SCN1A screening in a cohort of 29 familial and 52 sporadic LGI1 variant-negative EAF patients. We identified two possibly pathogenic missense variants (p.Tyr790Phe and p.Thr140Ile) in sporadic patients (3.8%) showing typical EAF and no antecedent febrile seizures. Both p.Thr956Met and p.Tyr790Phe were previously described in unrelated patients with epilepsies within the GEFS+ spectrum. SCN1A mutations may be involved in EAF within the GEFS+ spectrum, however, the role of SCN1A in EAF without features that lead to a suspicion of underlying GEFS+ remains unclear and should be elucidated in future studies.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva , Epilepsias Parciais , Epilepsia Generalizada , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Convulsões Febris , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/etiologia , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/genética , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Convulsões Febris/complicações , Convulsões Febris/genética , Convulsões Febris/fisiopatologia
7.
Epilepsia ; 60(4): 689-706, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. RESULTS: Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 × 10-9 ). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.

8.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1238-e1249, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to expand the spectrum of epilepsy syndromes related to STX1B, encoding the presynaptic protein syntaxin-1B, and establish genotype-phenotype correlations by identifying further disease-related variants. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing in the framework of research projects and diagnostic testing. Clinical data and EEGs were reviewed, including already published cases. To estimate the pathogenicity of the variants, we used established and newly developed in silico prediction tools. RESULTS: We describe 17 new variants in STX1B, which are distributed across the whole gene. We discerned 4 different phenotypic groups across the newly identified and previously published patients (49 patients in 23 families): (1) 6 sporadic patients or families (31 affected individuals) with febrile and afebrile seizures with a benign course, generally good drug response, normal development, and without permanent neurologic deficits; (2) 2 patients with genetic generalized epilepsy without febrile seizures and cognitive deficits; (3) 13 patients or families with intractable seizures, developmental regression after seizure onset and additional neuropsychiatric symptoms; (4) 2 patients with focal epilepsy. More often, we found loss-of-function mutations in benign syndromes, whereas missense variants in the SNARE motif of syntaxin-1B were associated with more severe phenotypes. CONCLUSION: These data expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of STX1B-related epilepsies to a diverse range of epilepsies that span the International League Against Epilepsy classification. Variants in STX1B are protean and contribute to many different epilepsy phenotypes, similar to SCN1A, the most important gene associated with fever-associated epilepsies.

9.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): e31-e36, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719712

RESUMO

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common syndrome of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs). Linkage and association studies suggest that the gene encoding the bromodomain-containing protein 2 (BRD2) may increase risk of JME. The present methylation and association study followed up a recent report highlighting that the BRD2 promoter CpG island (CpG76) is differentially hypermethylated in lymphoblastoid cells from Caucasian patients with JME compared to patients with other GGE subtypes and unaffected relatives. In contrast, we found a uniform low average percentage of methylation (<4.5%) for 13 CpG76-CpGs in whole blood cells from 782 unrelated European Caucasians, including 116 JME patients, 196 patients with genetic absence epilepsies, and 470 control subjects. We also failed to confirm an allelic association of the BRD2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3918149 with JME (Armitage trend test, P = 0.98), and we did not detect a substantial impact of SNP rs3918149 on CpG76 methylation in either 116 JME patients (methylation quantitative trait loci [meQTL], P = 0.29) or 470 German control subjects (meQTL, P = 0.55). Our results do not support the previous observation that a high DNA methylation level of the BRD2 promoter CpG76 island is a prevalent epigenetic motif associated with JME in Caucasians.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 909-918, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683929

RESUMO

Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a brain malformation in which nodules of neurons are ectopically retained along the lateral ventricles. Genetic causes include FLNA abnormalities (classical X-linked PNH), rare variants in ARFGEF2, DCHS1, ERMARD, FAT4, INTS8, MAP1B, MCPH1, and NEDD4L, as well as several chromosomal abnormalities. We performed array-CGH in 106 patients with different malformations of cortical development (MCD) and looked for common pathways possibly involved in PNH. Forty-two patients, including two parent/proband couples, exhibited PNH associated or not with other brain abnormalities, 44 had polymicrogyria and 20 had rarer MCDs. We found an enrichment of either large rearrangements or cryptic copy number variants (CNVs) in PNH (15/42, 35.7%) vs polymicrogyria (4/44, 9.1%) (i.e., 5.6 times increased risk for PNH of carrying a pathogenic CNV). CNVs in seven genomic regions (2p11.2q12.1, 4p15, 14q11.2q12, 16p13.3, 19q13.33, 20q13.33, 22q11) represented novel, potentially causative, associations with PNH. Through in silico analysis of genes included in imbalances whose breakpoints were clearly detailed, we detected in 9/12 unrelated patients in our series and in 15/24 previously published patients, a significant (P < 0.05) overrepresentation of genes involved in vesicle-mediated transport. Rare genomic imbalances, either small CNVs or large rearrangements, are cumulatively a frequent cause of PNH. Dysregulation of specific cellular mechanisms might play a key pathogenic role in PNH but it remains to be determined whether this is exerted through single genes or the cumulative dosage effect of more genes. Array-CGH should be considered as a first-line diagnostic test in PNH, especially if sporadic and non-classical.

11.
J Neurol ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Gaucher Disease (GD) exhibit three phenotypes, including type 1 (non-neuronopathic), type 2 (acute neuronopathic), and type 3 (subacute neuronopathic). AIM: Identifying which GBA changes represent benign polymorphisms and which may result in disease-causing mutations is essential for diagnosis and genotype/phenotype correlations but is often challenging. RESULTS: Here, we describe a patient with type 3 GD, presenting with drug-resistant epilepsy, who bears a set of GBA polymorphic variants including the novel c.363A > G (Gly82Gly) synonymous mutation. In silico predictions, mRNA and functional studies revealed that the new Gly82Gly mutation causes skipping of GBA exon 4, leading to a severe reduction of the wild type GBA mRNA. This is the first report of a synonymous change causing GD through loss of an exonic splicing enhancer sequence. The synonymous mutation is in trans with the Asn188Ser missense mutation, thus making the Asn188Ser responsible for the patient's phenotype and strengthening the association of Asn188Ser with the particular neurological phenotype of type 3 GD. CONCLUSION: We strengthen the association of Asn188Ser with the type 3 GD phenotype and progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Our data confirm that in silico predictions and mRNA analysis are mandatory in discriminating pathological mutations from the background of harmless polymorphisms, especially synonymous changes.

12.
Epilepsia ; 59(12): 2260-2271, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: PCDH19-related epilepsy is an epileptic syndrome with infantile onset, characterized by clustered and fever-induced seizures, often associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autistic features. The aim of this study was to analyze a large cohort of patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy and better define the epileptic phenotype, genotype-phenotype correlations, and related outcome-predicting factors. METHODS: We retrospectively collected genetic, clinical, and electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 61 patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy followed at 15 epilepsy centers. All consecutively performed EEGs were analyzed, totaling 551. We considered as outcome measures the development of ID, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and seizure persistence. The analyzed variables were the following: gender, age at onset, age at study, genetic variant, fever sensitivity, seizure type, cluster occurrence, status epilepticus, EEG abnormalities, and cognitive and behavioral disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the age at which seizures might decrease in frequency. RESULTS: At last follow-up (median = 12 years, range = 1.9-42.1 years), 48 patients (78.7%) had annual seizures/clusters, 13 patients (21.3%) had monthly to weekly seizures, and 12 patients (19.7%) were seizure-free for ≥2 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a significant decrease of seizure frequency after the age of 10.5 years (sensitivity = 81.0%, specificity = 70.0%). Thirty-six patients (59.0%) had ID and behavioral disturbances. ASD was present in 31 patients. An earlier age at epilepsy onset emerged as the only predictive factor for ID (P = 0.047) and ASD (P = 0.014). Conversely, age at onset was not a predictive factor for seizure outcome (P = 0.124). SIGNIFICANCE: We found that earlier age at epilepsy onset is related to a significant risk for ID and ASD. Furthermore, long-term follow-up showed that after the age of 10 years, seizures decrease in frequency and cognitive and behavioral disturbances remain the primary clinical problems.

13.
Brain ; 141(11): 3160-3178, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351409

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels control neuronal excitability and their dysfunction has been linked to epileptogenesis but few individuals with neurological disorders related to variants altering HCN channels have been reported so far. In 2014, we described five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo HCN1 variants. To delineate HCN1-related disorders and investigate genotype-phenotype correlations further, we assembled a cohort of 33 unpublished patients with novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants: 19 probands carrying 14 different de novo mutations and four families with dominantly inherited variants segregating with epilepsy in 14 individuals, but not penetrant in six additional individuals. Sporadic patients had epilepsy with median onset at age 7 months and in 36% the first seizure occurred during a febrile illness. Overall, considering familial and sporadic patients, the predominant phenotypes were mild, including genetic generalized epilepsies and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) spectrum. About 20% manifested neonatal/infantile onset otherwise unclassified epileptic encephalopathy. The study also included eight patients with variants of unknown significance: one adopted patient had two HCN1 variants, four probands had intellectual disability without seizures, and three individuals had missense variants inherited from an asymptomatic parent. Of the 18 novel pathogenic missense variants identified, 12 were associated with severe phenotypes and clustered within or close to transmembrane domains, while variants segregating with milder phenotypes were located outside transmembrane domains, in the intracellular N- and C-terminal parts of the channel. Five recurrent variants were associated with similar phenotypes. Using whole-cell patch-clamp, we showed that the impact of 12 selected variants ranged from complete loss-of-function to significant shifts in activation kinetics and/or voltage dependence. Functional analysis of three different substitutions altering Gly391 revealed that these variants had different consequences on channel biophysical properties. The Gly391Asp variant, associated with the most severe, neonatal phenotype, also had the most severe impact on channel function. Molecular dynamics simulation on channel structure showed that homotetramers were not conducting ions because the permeation path was blocked by cation(s) strongly complexed to the Asp residue, whereas heterotetramers showed an instantaneous current component possibly linked to deformation of the channel pore. In conclusion, our results considerably expand the clinical spectrum related to HCN1 variants to include common generalized epilepsy phenotypes and further illustrate how HCN1 has a pivotal function in brain development and control of neuronal excitability.

14.
Neurology ; 91(12): e1112-e1124, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate the electroclinical features of SCN8A infantile developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE13, OMIM #614558). METHODS: Twenty-two patients, aged 19 months to 22 years, underwent electroclinical assessment. RESULTS: Sixteen of 22 patients had mildly delayed development since birth. Drug-resistant epilepsy started at a median age of 4 months, followed by developmental slowing, pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs (22/22), movement disorders (12/22), cortical blindness (17/22), sialorrhea, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms (15/22), worsening during early childhood and plateauing at age 5 to 9 years. Death occurred in 4 children, following extreme neurologic deterioration, at 22 months to 5.5 years. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus recurred in 14 of 22 patients. The most effective antiepileptic drugs were oxcarbazepine, carbamazepine, phenytoin, and benzodiazepines. EEG showed background deterioration, epileptiform abnormalities with a temporo-occipital predominance, and posterior delta/beta activity correlating with visual impairment. Video-EEG documented focal seizures (FS) (22/22), spasm-like episodes (8/22), cortical myoclonus (8/22), and myoclonic absences (1/22). FS typically clustered and were prolonged (<20 minutes) with (1) cyanosis, hypomotor, and vegetative semiology, sometimes unnoticed, followed by (2) tonic-vibratory and (3) (hemi)-clonic manifestations ± evolution to a bilateral tonic-clonic seizure. FS had posterior-temporal/occipital onset, slowly spreading and sometimes migrating between hemispheres. Brain MRI showed progressive parenchymal atrophy and restriction of the optic radiations. CONCLUSIONS: SCN8A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy has strikingly consistent electroclinical features, suggesting a global progressive brain dysfunction primarily affecting the temporo-occipital regions. Both uncontrolled epilepsy and developmental compromise contribute to the profound impairment (increasing risk of death) during early childhood, but stabilization occurs in late childhood.

15.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(8): 699-708, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic generalised epilepsy is the most common type of inherited epilepsy. Despite a high concordance rate of 80% in monozygotic twins, the genetic background is still poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the burden of rare genetic variants in genetic generalised epilepsy. METHODS: For this exome-based case-control study, we used three different genetic generalised epilepsy case cohorts and three independent control cohorts, all of European descent. Cases included in the study were clinically evaluated for genetic generalised epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing was done for the discovery case cohort, a validation case cohort, and two independent control cohorts. The replication case cohort underwent targeted next-generation sequencing of the 19 known genes encoding subunits of GABAA receptors and was compared to the respective GABAA receptor variants of a third independent control cohort. Functional investigations were done with automated two-microelectrode voltage clamping in Xenopus laevis oocytes. FINDINGS: Statistical comparison of 152 familial index cases with genetic generalised epilepsy in the discovery cohort to 549 ethnically matched controls suggested an enrichment of rare missense (Nonsyn) variants in the ensemble of 19 genes encoding GABAA receptors in cases (odds ratio [OR] 2·40 [95% CI 1·41-4·10]; pNonsyn=0·0014, adjusted pNonsyn=0·019). Enrichment for these genes was validated in a whole-exome sequencing cohort of 357 sporadic and familial genetic generalised epilepsy cases and 1485 independent controls (OR 1·46 [95% CI 1·05-2·03]; pNonsyn=0·0081, adjusted pNonsyn=0·016). Comparison of genes encoding GABAA receptors in the independent replication cohort of 583 familial and sporadic genetic generalised epilepsy index cases, based on candidate-gene panel sequencing, with a third independent control cohort of 635 controls confirmed the overall enrichment of rare missense variants for 15 GABAA receptor genes in cases compared with controls (OR 1·46 [95% CI 1·02-2·08]; pNonsyn=0·013, adjusted pNonsyn=0·027). Functional studies for two selected genes (GABRB2 and GABRA5) showed significant loss-of-function effects with reduced current amplitudes in four of seven tested variants compared with wild-type receptors. INTERPRETATION: Functionally relevant variants in genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits constitute a significant risk factor for genetic generalised epilepsy. Examination of the role of specific gene groups and pathways can disentangle the complex genetic architecture of genetic generalised epilepsy. FUNDING: EuroEPINOMICS (European Science Foundation through national funding organisations), Epicure and EpiPGX (Sixth Framework Programme and Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission), Research Unit FOR2715 (German Research Foundation and Luxembourg National Research Fund).

16.
Brain ; 141(6): 1703-1718, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668857

RESUMO

V-type proton (H+) ATPase (v-ATPase) is a multi-subunit proton pump that regulates pH homeostasis in all eukaryotic cells; in neurons, v-ATPase plays additional and unique roles in synapse function. Through whole exome sequencing, we identified de novo heterozygous mutations (p.Pro27Arg, p.Asp100Tyr, p.Asp349Asn, p.Asp371Gly) in ATP6V1A, encoding the A subunit of v-ATPase, in four patients with developmental encephalopathy with epilepsy. Early manifestations, observed in all patients, were developmental delay and febrile seizures, evolving to encephalopathy with profound delay, hypotonic/dyskinetic quadriparesis and intractable multiple seizure types in two patients (p.Pro27Arg, p.Asp100Tyr), and to moderate delay with milder epilepsy in the other two (p.Asp349Asn, p.Asp371Gly). Modelling performed on the available prokaryotic and eukaryotic structures of v-ATPase predicted p.Pro27Arg to perturb subunit interaction, p.Asp100Tyr to cause steric hindrance and destabilize protein folding, p.Asp349Asn to affect the catalytic function and p.Asp371Gly to impair the rotation process, necessary for proton transport. We addressed the impact of p.Asp349Asn and p.Asp100Tyr mutations on ATP6V1A expression and function by analysing ATP6V1A-overexpressing HEK293T cells and patients' lymphoblasts. The p.Asp100Tyr mutant was characterized by reduced expression due to increased degradation. Conversely, no decrease in expression and clearance was observed for p.Asp349Asn. In HEK293T cells overexpressing either pathogenic or control variants, p.Asp349Asn significantly increased LysoTracker® fluorescence with no effects on EEA1 and LAMP1 expression. Conversely, p.Asp100Tyr decreased both LysoTracker® fluorescence and LAMP1 levels, leaving EEA1 expression unaffected. Both mutations decreased v-ATPase recruitment to autophagosomes, with no major impact on autophagy. Experiments performed on patients' lymphoblasts using the LysoSensor™ probe revealed lower pH of endocytic organelles for p.Asp349Asn and a reduced expression of LAMP1 with no effect on the pH for p.Asp100Tyr. These data demonstrate gain of function for p.Asp349Asn characterized by an increased proton pumping in intracellular organelles, and loss of function for p.Asp100Tyr with decreased expression of ATP6V1A and reduced levels of lysosomal markers. We expressed p.Asp349Asn and p.Asp100Tyr in rat hippocampal neurons and confirmed significant and opposite effects in lysosomal labelling. However, both mutations caused a similar defect in neurite elongation accompanied by loss of excitatory inputs, revealing that altered lysosomal homeostasis markedly affects neurite development and synaptic connectivity. This study provides evidence that de novo heterozygous ATP6V1A mutations cause a developmental encephalopathy with a pathomechanism that involves perturbations of lysosomal homeostasis and neuronal connectivity, uncovering a novel role for v-ATPase in neuronal development.

17.
Neurol Genet ; 3(6): e206, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264397

RESUMO

Objective: To describe electroclinical features and outcome of 6 patients harboring KCNB1 mutations. Methods: Clinical, EEG, neuropsychological, and brain MRI data analysis. Targeted next-generation sequencing of a 95 epilepsy gene panel. Results: The mean age at seizure onset was 11 months. The mean follow-up of 11.3 years documented that 4 patients following an infantile phase of frequent seizures became seizure free; the mean age at seizure offset was 4.25 years. Epilepsy phenotypes comprised West syndrome in 2 patients, infantile-onset unspecified generalized epilepsy, myoclonic and photosensitive eyelid myoclonia epilepsy resembling Jeavons syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and focal epilepsy with prolonged occipital or clonic seizures in each and every one. Five patients had developmental delay prior to seizure onset evolving into severe intellectual disability with absent speech and autistic traits in one and stereotypic hand movements with impulse control disorder in another. The patient with Jeavons syndrome evolved into moderate intellectual disability. Mutations were de novo, 4 missense and 2 nonsense, 5 were novel, and 1 resulted from somatic mosaicism. Conclusions: KCNB1-related manifestations include a spectrum of infantile-onset generalized or focal seizures whose combination leads to early infantile epileptic encephalopathy including West, Lennox-Gastaut, and Jeavons syndromes. Long-term follow-up highlights that following a stormy phase, seizures subside or cease and treatment may be eased or withdrawn. Cognitive and motor functions are almost always delayed prior to seizure onset and evolve into severe, persistent impairment. Thus, KCNB1 mutations are associated with diffuse brain dysfunction combining seizures, motor, and cognitive impairment.

19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(4): 1119-1123, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328131

RESUMO

We describe the clinical and whole genome sequencing (WGS) study of a non-consanguineous Italian family in which two siblings, a boy and a girl, manifesting a severe epileptic encephalopathy (EE) with skeletal abnormalities, carried novel SLC35A3 compound heterozygous mutations. Both siblings exhibited infantile spasms, associated with focal, and tonic vibratory seizures from early infancy. EEG recordings showed a suppression-burst (SB) pattern and multifocal paroxysmal activity in both. In addition both had quadriplegia, acquired microcephaly, and severe intellectual disability. General examination showed distal arthrogryposis predominant in the hands in both siblings and severe left dorso-lumbar convex scoliosis in one. WGS of the siblings-parents quartet identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in SLC35A3 in both children. SLC35A3 encodes the major Golgi uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine transporter. With this study, we add SLC35A3 to the gene list of epilepsies. Neurological symptoms and skeletal abnormalities might result from impaired glycosylation of proteins involved in normal development and function of the central nervous system and skeletal apparatus.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleotídeos/genética , Quadriplegia/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Artrogripose/diagnóstico , Artrogripose/patologia , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Glicosilação , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/patologia , Quadriplegia/diagnóstico , Quadriplegia/patologia , Irmãos , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/patologia
20.
Mol Diagn Ther ; 21(4): 357-373, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28197949

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has contributed to the identification of many monogenic epilepsy syndromes and is favouring earlier and more accurate diagnosis in a subset of paediatric patients with epilepsy. The cumulative information emerging from NGS studies is rapidly changing our comprehension of the relations between early-onset severe epilepsy and the associated neurological impairment, progressively delineating specific entities previously gathered under the umbrella definition of epileptic encephalopathies, thereby influencing treatment choices and limiting the most aggressive drug regimens only to those conditions that are likely to actually benefit from them. Although ion channel genes represent the gene family most frequently causally related to epilepsy, other genes have gradually been associated with complex developmental epilepsy conditions, revealing the pathogenic role of mutations affecting diverse molecular pathways that regulate membrane excitability, synaptic plasticity, presynaptic neurotransmitter release, postsynaptic receptors, transporters, cell metabolism, and many formative steps in early brain development. Some of these discoveries are being followed by proof-of-concept laboratory studies that might open new pathways towards personalized treatment choices. No specific treatment is available for most of the monogenic disorders that can now be diagnosed early using NGS, and the main benefits of knowing the specific cause include etiological diagnosis, better prognostication and genetic counselling; however, for a limited number of disorders, timely treatment based on their known molecular pathology is already possible and sometimes decisive. Discovery of a causative gene defect associated with a non-progressive course may reduce the need for further diagnostic investigations in the search for a progressive disorder at the biochemical and imaging level. NGS has also improved the turnaround time for molecular diagnosis and allowed more timely and straightforward treatment choices for specific conditions as well as avoiding needless investigations and inappropriate or unnecessary treatment choices.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Idade de Início , Criança , Diagnóstico Precoce , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Expressão Gênica , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/agonistas , Canais Iônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais Iônicos/genética , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Mutação , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neurotransmissores/agonistas , Neurotransmissores/antagonistas & inibidores , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/agonistas , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/genética , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/metabolismo
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