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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 414, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348368

RESUMO

Mosquito species belonging to the genus Aedes have attracted the interest of scientists and public health officers because of their capacity to transmit viruses that affect humans. Some of these species were brought outside their native range by means of trade and tourism and then colonised new regions thanks to a unique combination of eco-physiological traits. Considering mosquito physiological and behavioural traits to understand and predict their population dynamics is thus a crucial step in developing strategies to mitigate the local densities of invasive Aedes populations. Here, we synthesised the life cycle of four invasive Aedes species (Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. japonicus and Ae. koreicus) in a single multi-scale stochastic modelling framework which we coded in the R package dynamAedes. We designed a stage-based and time-discrete stochastic model driven by temperature, photo-period and inter-specific larval competition that can be applied to three different spatial scales: punctual, local and regional. These spatial scales consider different degrees of spatial complexity and data availability by accounting for both active and passive dispersal of mosquito species as well as for the heterogeneity of the input temperature data. Our overarching aim was to provide a flexible, open-source and user-friendly tool rooted in the most updated knowledge on the species' biology which could be applied to the management of invasive Aedes populations as well as to more theoretical ecological inquiries.


Assuntos
Aedes , Humanos , Animais , Aedes/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Dinâmica Populacional , Temperatura , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15751, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130985

RESUMO

Aedes koreicus is an invasive mosquito species which has been introduced into several European countries. Compared to other invasive Aedes mosquitoes, little is known of its biology and ecology. To determine Ae. koreicus' vectorial capacity, it is essential to establish its feeding patterns and level of anthropophagy. We report on the blood-feeding patterns of Ae. koreicus, examining the blood meal origin of engorged females and evaluating the influence of different biotic and abiotic factors on feeding behavior. Mosquitoes were collected in 23 sites in northern Italy by manual aspiration and BG-sentinel traps; host availability was estimated by survey. The source of blood meals was identified using a nested PCR and by targeting and sequencing the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. In total, 352 Ae. koreicus engorged females were collected between 2013 and 2020 and host blood meals were determined from 299 blood-fed mosquitoes (84.9%). Eleven host species were identified, with the highest prevalences being observed among roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (N = 189, 63.2%) and humans (N = 46, 15.4%). Blood meals were mostly taken from roe deer in forested sites and from humans in urban areas, suggesting that this species can feed on different hosts according to local abundance. Two blood meals were identified from avian hosts and one from lizard. Ae. koreicus' mammalophilic feeding pattern suggests that it may be a potential vector of pathogens establishing transmission cycles among mammals, whereas its role as a bridge vector between mammals and birds could be negligible.


Assuntos
Aedes , Cervos , Aedes/genética , Animais , Aves , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 315, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068549

RESUMO

Aedes koreicus is an invasive alien mosquito species native to Asia now introduced in several European countries, including northern Italy. In this temperate region, mosquito populations survive cold winter temperatures thanks to diapausing eggs or adults, depending on the species. In its native area, Ae. koreicus was reported to overwinter in the egg stage, but to the best of our knowledge, it is not confirmed whether overwintering eggs are actually diapausing or only in a quiescence stage, i.e., they might hatch as soon as external conditions are favorable. Based on previous laboratory studies, we established a diapausing Ae. koreicus colony, maintained at 21 °C with a photoperiod of 12L:12D. Females were allowed to lay eggs, which were consequently placed in water at different time intervals after oviposition, from 30 days to 5 months. We found that diapausing eggs younger than 3 months have a poor hatching rate, while after about 100 days we observed that almost all eggs hatched. Our findings highlight that water immersion alone did not lead to the hatching of eggs, as age was found to be a significantly important factor. We thus confirm effective diapause, occurring at the egg stage, for Ae. koreicus in a recently invaded area. Moreover, our quantification of diapause duration and hatching success might help in better designing future experiments and improving modeling efforts.


Assuntos
Aedes , Diapausa , Animais , Feminino , Espécies Introduzidas , Oviposição , Água
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes koreicus (Edwards, 1917) is a recent invader on the European continent that was introduced to several new places since its first detection in 2008. Compared to other exotic Aedes mosquitoes with public health significance that invaded Europe during the last decades, this species' biology, behavior, and dispersal patterns were poorly investigated to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the species' population relationships and dispersal patterns within Europe, a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI or COX1) gene was sequenced from 130 mosquitoes, collected from five countries where the species has been introduced and/or established. Oxford Nanopore and Illumina sequencing techniques were combined to generate the first complete nuclear and mitochondrial genomic sequences of Ae. koreicus from the European region. The complete genome of Ae. koreicus is 879 Mb. COI haplotype analyses identified five major groups (altogether 31 different haplotypes) and revealed a large-scale dispersal pattern between European Ae. koreicus populations. Continuous admixture of populations from Belgium, Italy, and Hungary was highlighted, additionally, haplotype diversity and clustering indicate a separation of German sequences from other populations, pointing to an independent introduction of Ae. koreicus to Europe. Finally, a genetic expansion signal was identified, suggesting the species might be present in more locations than currently detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results highlight the importance of genetic research of invasive mosquitoes to understand general dispersal patterns, reveal main dispersal routes and form the baseline of future mitigation actions. The first complete genomic sequence also provides a significant leap in the general understanding of this species, opening the possibility for future genome-related studies, such as the detection of 'Single Nucleotide Polymorphism' markers. Considering its public health importance, it is crucial to further investigate the species' population genetic dynamic, including a larger sampling and additional genomic markers.


Assuntos
Aedes , Aedes/genética , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Espécies Introduzidas , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
5.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 38(1): 40-45, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276728

RESUMO

Among the few mosquito larvicides available in the market, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) represent the most environmentally safe alternatives. The combination of the 2 products is known to overcome their specific limitations by producing a synergistic effect. The aim of the study was to assess the effect and persistence of a single treatment with a granular Bti + Bs formulation on highly vegetated ditches in northeastern Italy that represents the primary rural larval sites for Culex pipiens, the primary vector of the West Nile virus in Europe. The analysis takes into account the nonlinear temporal effects on the population dynamics of larvae and pupae. The results showed a dramatic reduction in mosquito larval abundance 24 h posttreatment (93%) and was effective against larvae up to 22 days (100%). The residual effect after 28 days was 99.5%, and a limited residual effect was observed after 39 days (31.2%). A reduction in pupal density was observed after 4 days (70%) and was >98% from days 14 to 28 posttreatment, persisting for up to 39 days (84% after 39 days). The results demonstrate the effective use of the Bti + Bs formulation against Cx. pipiens in vegetated ditches in rural areas. Our modeling framework provides a flexible statistical approach to predict the residual effect of the product over time, in order to plan a seasonal intervention scheme.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Bacillus , Culex , Culicidae , Animais , Bacillaceae , Larva , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Pupa
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010075, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which has been posing continuous challenges to public health worldwide due to the identification of new lineages and clades and its ability to invade and establish in an increasing number of countries. Its current distribution, genetic variability, ecology, and epidemiological pattern in the African continent are only partially known despite the general consensus on the urgency to obtain such information for quantifying the actual disease burden in Africa other than to predict future threats at global scale. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: References were searched in PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases on January 21, 2020, using selected keywords, without language and date restriction. Additional manual searches of reference list were carried out. Further references have been later added accordingly to experts' opinion. We included 153 scientific papers published between 1940 and 2021. This review highlights: (i) the co-circulation of WNV-lineages 1, 2, and 8 in the African continent; (ii) the presence of diverse WNV competent vectors in Africa, mainly belonging to the Culex genus; (iii) the lack of vector competence studies for several other mosquito species found naturally infected with WNV in Africa; (iv) the need of more competence studies to be addressed on ticks; (iv) evidence of circulation of WNV among humans, animals and vectors in at least 28 Countries; (v) the lack of knowledge on the epidemiological situation of WNV for 19 Countries and (vii) the importance of carrying out specific serological surveys in order to avoid possible bias on WNV circulation in Africa. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the state of art on WNV investigation carried out in Africa, highlighting several knowledge gaps regarding i) the current WNV distribution and genetic diversity, ii) its ecology and transmission chains including the role of different arthropods and vertebrate species as competent reservoirs, and iii) the real disease burden for humans and animals. This review highlights the needs for further research and coordinated surveillance efforts on WNV in Africa.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Culex/virologia , Carrapatos/virologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/patologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
7.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105796, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310078

RESUMO

West Nile Virus (WNV) is now endemic in many European countries, causing hundreds of human cases every year, with a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Previous studies have suggested that spring temperature might play a key role at shaping WNV transmission. Specifically, warmer temperatures in April-May might amplify WNV circulation, thus increasing the risk for human transmission later in the year. To test this hypothesis, we collated publicly available data on the number of human infections recorded in Europe between 2011 and 2019. We then applied generalized linear models to quantify the relationship between human cases and spring temperature, considering both average conditions (over years 2003-2010) and deviations from the average for subsequent years (2011-2019). We found a significant positive association both spatial (average conditions) and temporal (deviations). The former indicates that WNV circulation is higher in usually warmer regions while the latter implies a predictive value of spring conditions over the coming season. We also found a positive association with WNV detection during the previous year, which can be interpreted as an indication of the reliability of the surveillance system but also of WNV overwintering capacity. Weather anomalies at the beginning of the mosquito breeding season might act as an early warning signal for public health authorities, enabling them to strengthen in advance ongoing surveillance and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia
8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(25): 257401, 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029411

RESUMO

By using constrained density functional theory modeling, we demonstrate that ultrafast optical pumping unveils hidden charge orders in group VI monolayer transition metal ditellurides. We show that irradiation of the insulating 2H phases stabilizes multiple transient charge density wave orders with light-tunable distortion, periodicity, electronic structure, and band gap. Moreover, optical pumping of the semimetallic 1T^{'} phases generates a transient charge ordered metallic phase composed of 2D diamond clusters. For each transient phase we identify the critical fluence at which it is observed and the specific optical and Raman fingerprints to directly compare with future ultrafast pump-probe experiments. Our work demonstrates that it is possible to stabilize charge density waves even in insulating 2D transition metal dichalcogenides by ultrafast irradiation.

9.
Insects ; 11(11)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212996

RESUMO

The mosquito species Aedes albopictus has successfully colonized many areas at temperate latitudes, representing a major public health concern. As mosquito bionomics is critically affected by temperature, we experimentally investigated the influence of different constant rearing temperatures (10, 15, 25, and 30 °C) on the survival rates, fecundity, and developmental times of different life stages of Ae. albopictus using a laboratory colony established from specimens collected in northern Italy. We compared our results with previously published data obtained with subtropical populations. We found that temperate Ae. albopictus immature stages are better adapted to colder temperatures: temperate larvae were able to develop even at 10 °C and at 15 °C, larval survivorship was comparable to the one observed at warmer conditions. Nonetheless, at these lower temperatures, we did not observe any blood-feeding activity. Adult longevity and fecundity were substantially greater at 25 °C with respect to the other tested temperatures. Our findings highlight the ability of Ae. albopictus to quickly adapt to colder environments and provide new important insights on the bionomics of this species at temperate latitudes.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326530

RESUMO

Aedes koreicus is a mosquito species native to Asia that has recently successfully invaded new areas in several European countries. Here, we provide important data on Ae. koreicus establishment in Pécs (Southern Hungary). Mosquito surveillance was carried out weekly between 2016 and 2019 at 10 different sites located throughout the city from May to September. We conducted a statistical analysis to evaluate the most important abiotic factors driving Ae. koreicus abundance. We then calibrated a previously developed temperature-dependent mathematical model to the recorded captures to evaluate mosquito abundance in the study area. We found that too high summer temperatures negatively affect mosquito abundance. The model accurately replicated the observed capture patterns, providing an estimate of Ae. koreicus density for each breeding season, which we interpolated to map Ae. koreicus abundance throughout Pécs. We found a negative correlation between mosquito captures and human density, suggesting that Ae. koreicus does not necessarily require humans for its blood meals. Our study provides a successful application of a previously published mathematical model to investigate Ae. koreicus population dynamics, proving its suitability for future studies, also within an epidemiological framework.


Assuntos
Aedes , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Hungria , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1340, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165617

RESUMO

We show that Cs intercalated bilayer graphene acts as a substrate for the growth of a strained Cs film hosting quantum well states with high electronic quality. The Cs film grows in an fcc phase with a substantially reduced lattice constant of 4.9 Å corresponding to a compressive strain of 11% compared to bulk Cs. We investigate its electronic structure using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and show the coexistence of massless Dirac and massive Schrödinger charge carriers in two dimensions. Analysis of the electronic self-energy of the massive charge carriers reveals the crystallographic direction in which a two-dimensional Fermi gas is realized. Our work introduces the growth of strained metal quantum wells on intercalated Dirac matter.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007953, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) transmission was much greater in 2018 than in previous seasons in Europe. Focusing on Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy), we analyzed detailed entomological and epidemiological data collected in 2013-2018 to quantitatively assess environmental drivers of transmission and explore hypotheses to better understand why the 2018 epidemiological season was substantially different than the previous seasons. In particular, in 2018 WNV was detected at least two weeks before the observed circulation in 2013-2017 and in a larger number of mosquito pools. Transmission resulted in 100 neuroinvasive human cases in the region, more than the total number of cases recorded between 2013 and 2017. METHODOLOGY: We used temperature-driven mathematical models calibrated through a Bayesian approach to simulate mosquito population dynamics and WNV infection rates in the avian population. We then estimated the human transmission risk as the probability, for a person living in the study area, of being bitten by an infectious mosquito in a given week. Finally, we translated such risk into reported WNV human infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The estimated prevalence of WNV in the mosquito and avian populations were significantly higher in 2018 with respect to 2013-2017 seasons, especially in the eastern part of the region. Furthermore, peak avian prevalence was estimated to have occurred earlier, corresponding to a steeper decline towards the end of summer. The high mosquito prevalence resulted in a much greater predicted risk for human transmission in 2018, which was estimated to be up to eight times higher than previous seasons. We hypothesized, on the basis of our modelling results, that such greater WNV circulation might be partially explained by exceptionally high spring temperatures, which have likely helped to amplify WNV transmission at the beginning of the 2018 season.


Assuntos
Culex/virologia , Temperatura , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Aves/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Estações do Ano , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
13.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 1055-1069, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825586

RESUMO

A flat energy dispersion of electrons at the Fermi level of a material leads to instabilities in the electronic system and can drive phase transitions. Here we show that the flat band in graphene can be achieved by sandwiching a graphene monolayer by two cesium (Cs) layers. We investigate the flat band by a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiment and the calculations. Our work highlights that charge transfer, zone folding of graphene bands, and the covalent bonding between C and Cs atoms are the origin of the flat energy band formation. Analysis of the Stoner criterion for the flat band suggests the presence of a ferromagnetic instability. The presented approach is an alternative route for obtaining flat band materials to twisting bilayer graphene which yields thermodynamically stable flat band materials in large areas.

14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 524, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes koreicus was detected in northern Italy for the first time in 2011, and it is now well established in several areas as a new invasive mosquito species. Data regarding the influence of temperature on mosquito survival and development are not available yet for this species. METHODS: We experimentally investigated the influence of different constant rearing temperatures (between 4 and 33 °C) on the survival rates and developmental times of different life stages of Ae. koreicus under laboratory conditions. The resulting data were subsequently used to inform a mathematical model reproducing the Ae. koreicus life-cycle calibrated to counts of adult females captured in the field in the autonomous province of Trento (northern Italy) between 2016 and 2018. RESULTS: We found that temperatures above 28 °C are not optimal for the survival of pupae and adults, whereas temperate conditions of 23-28 °C seem to be very favorable, explaining the recent success of Ae. koreicus at establishing into new specific areas. Our results indicate that Ae. koreicus is less adapted to local climatic conditions compared to Ae. albopictus, another invasive species which has been invading the area for the last three decades. Warmer seasons, which are more likely to occur in the future because of climate change, might extend the breeding time and therefore increase the abundance of Ae. koreicus in the study region. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence on how temperature influences the bionomics and dynamics of Ae. koreicus and highlight the need for further studies on the phenology of this species in temperate areas of Europe.


Assuntos
Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Introduzidas , Dinâmica Populacional , Temperatura , Animais , Ecologia , Feminino , Itália , Modelos Teóricos , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 9: 394-401, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341772

RESUMO

In the Anthropocene context, changes in climate, land use and biodiversity are considered among the most important anthropogenic factors affecting parasites-host interaction and wildlife zoonotic diseases emergence. Transmission of vector borne pathogens are particularly sensitive to these changes due to the complexity of their cycle, where the transmission of a microparasite depends on the interaction between its vector, usually a macroparasite, and its reservoir host, in many cases represented by a wildlife vertebrate. The scope of this paper focuses on the effect of some major, fast-occurring anthropogenic changes on the vectorial capacity for tick and mosquito borne pathogens. Specifically, we review and present the latest advances regarding two emerging vector-borne viruses in Europe: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). In both cases, variation in vector to host ratio is critical in determining the intensity of pathogen transmission and consequently infection hazard for humans. Forecasting vector-borne disease hazard under the global change scenarios is particularly challenging, requiring long term studies based on a multidisciplinary approach in a One-Health framework.

16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(3): e1006831, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849074

RESUMO

Management of vector population is a commonly used method for mitigating transmission of mosquito-borne infections, but quantitative information on its practical public health impact is scarce. We study the effectiveness of Ultra-Low Volume (ULV) insecticide spraying in public spaces for preventing secondary dengue virus (DENV) cases in Porto Alegre, a non-endemic metropolitan area in Brazil. We developed a stochastic transmission model based on detailed entomological, epidemiological and population data, accounting for the geographical distribution of mosquitoes and humans in the study area and spatial transmission dynamics. The model was calibrated against the distribution of DENV cluster sizes previously estimated from the same geographical setting. We estimated a ULV-induced mortality of 40% for mosquitoes and found that the implemented control protocol avoided about 24% of symptomatic cases occurred in the area throughout the 2015-2016 epidemic season. Increasing the radius of treatment or the mortality of mosquitoes by treating gardens and/or indoor premises would greatly improve the result of control, but trade-offs with respect to increased efforts need to be carefully analyzed. We found a moderate effectiveness for ULV-spraying in public areas, mainly due to the limited ability of this strategy in effectively controlling the vector population. These results can be used to support the design of control strategies in low-incidence, non-endemic settings.


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Mosquitos Vetores
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14005, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228340

RESUMO

An intensified and continuous West Nile virus (WNV) spread across northern Italy has been observed since 2008, which caused more than one hundred reported human infections until 2016. Veneto is one of the Italian regions where WNV is considered endemic, and the greatest intensity of circulation was observed during 2013 and 2016. By using entomological data collected across the region in those years, we calibrated a temperature-driven mathematical model through a Bayesian approach that simulates the WNV infection in an avian population with seasonal demography. We considered two alternative routes of life cycle re-activation of the virus at the beginning of each vector breeding season: in the first one the virus is maintained by infected birds, in the other by diapausing mosquitoes previously infected. Afterwards, we computed seasonal risk curves for human infection and quantified how they translate into reported symptomatic cases. According to our results, WNV is more likely to be re-activated each year via previously infected mosquitoes. The highest probability of human infection is expected to occur in August, consistently with observations. Our epidemiological estimates can be of particular interest for public health authorities, to support decisions in term of designing efficient surveillance plans and preventive measures.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Mosquitos Vetores , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Estações do Ano , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia
18.
Euro Surveill ; 22(37)2017 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933344

RESUMO

Since 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread throughout Latin and Central America. This emerging infectious disease has been causing considerable public health concern because of severe neurological complications, especially in newborns after congenital infections. In July 2016, the first outbreak in the continental United States was identified in the Wynwood neighbourhood of Miami-Dade County, Florida. In this work, we investigated transmission dynamics using a mathematical model calibrated to observed data on mosquito abundance and symptomatic human infections. We found that, although ZIKV transmission was detected in July 2016, the first importation may have occurred between March and mid-April. The estimated highest value for R0 was 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-4.17); the attack rate was 14% (95% CI: 5.6-27.4%), with 15 (95% CI: 6-29) pregnant women involved and a 12% probability of infected blood donations. Vector control avoided 60% of potential infections. According to our results, it is likely that further ZIKV outbreaks identified in other areas of Miami-Dade County were seeded by commuters to Wynwood rather than by additional importation from international travellers. Our study can help prepare future outbreak-related interventions in European areas where competent mosquitoes for ZIKV transmission are already established.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Culicidae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Modelos Teóricos , Saúde Pública , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Insetos Vetores , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos , Gestantes , Estados Unidos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 10(1): 102, 2017 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28228159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens larvae reared in the same breeding site compete for resources, with an asymmetrical outcome that disadvantages only the latter species. The impact of these interactions on the overall ecology of these two species has not yet been assessed in the natural environment. In the present study, the temporal patterns of adult female mosquitoes from both species were analysed in north-eastern Italy, and substantial temporal shifts between abundance curves of Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus were observed in several sites. To understand which factors can drive the observed temporal shifts, we developed a mechanistic model that takes explicitly into account the effect of temperature on the development and survival of all mosquito stages. We also included into the model the effect of asymmetric interspecific competition, by adding a mortality term for Cx. pipiens larvae proportional to the larval abundance of Ae. albopictus within the same breeding site. Model calibration was performed through a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach using weekly capture data collected in our study sites during 2014 and 2015. RESULTS: In almost half of observation sites, temporal shifts were due to competition, with an early decline of Cx. pipiens caused by the concurrent rise in abundance of its competitor, and this effect was enhanced by higher abundance of both species. We estimate that competition may reduce Cx. pipiens abundance in some sites by up to about 70%. However, in some cases temporal shifts can also be explained in the absence of competition between species resulting from a "temporal niche" effect, when the optimal fitness to environmental conditions for the two species are reached at different times of the year. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering ecological interactions and, in particular, competition between mosquito species in temperate climates, with important implications for risk assessment of mosquito transmitted pathogens, as well as the implementation of effective control measures.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Culex/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Theor Biol ; 415: 58-69, 2017 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27986465

RESUMO

In this study, we develop a model to investigate how ecological factors might affect the dynamics of a vector-borne pathogen in a population composed by different hosts which interact with each other. Specifically, we consider the case when different host species compete with each other, as they share the same habitat, and the vector might have different feeding preference, which can also be time dependent. As a prototypical example, we apply our model to study the invasion and spread, during a typical season, of West Nile virus in an ecosystem composed of two competent avian host species and possibly of dead-end host species. We found that competition and vector feeding preferences can profoundly influence pathogen invasion, influencing its probability to start an epidemic, and influencing transmission rates. Finally, when considering time-dependent feeding preferences, as observed in the field, we noted that the virus circulation could be amplified and that the timing of epidemic peaks could be changed. Our work highlights that ecological interactions between hosts can have a profound influence on the dynamics of the pathogen and that, when modeling vector-borne infections, vector feeding behavior should, for this reason, be carefully evaluated.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Modelos Teóricos , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/patogenicidade , Animais , Aves , Culex/virologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Interações Microbianas
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