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1.
Chemistry ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634149

RESUMO

Organic materials with multiple emissions tunable by external stimuli represent a great challenge. TTPyr, crystallizing in different polymorphs, shows a very rich photophyisics comprising excitation-dependent fluorescence and phosphorescence at ambient conditions, and mechanochromic and thermochromic behavior. Transformation among the different species has been followed by thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses and the emissive features interpreted through structural results and DFT/TDDFT calculations. Particularly intriguing is the polymorph TTPyr(HT), serendipitously obtained at high temperature but stable also at room temperature, whose non-centrosymmetric structure guarantees an SHG efficiency 10 times higher than that of standard urea. Its crystal packing, where only the TT units are strongly rigidified by π-π stacking interactions while the Pyr moieties possess partial conformational freedom, is responsible for the observed dual fluorescence. The potentialities of TTPyr for bioimaging have been successfully established.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 60(13): 9332-9344, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115489

RESUMO

A comprehensive investigation of the functional properties of heteroleptic donor-M-acceptor dithiolene complexes Bu4N[MII(L1)(L2)] is presented (M = Pd, Pt). The acceptor L1 consists of the chiral (R)-(+)α-methylbenzyldithiooxamidate ((R)-α-MBAdto), the donor L2 is 2-thioxo-1,3-dithiole-4,5-dithiolato (dmit) in 1 (Pd) and 2 (Pt), 1,2-dicarbomethoxyethylenedithiolate (ddmet) in 3 (Pd) and 4 (Pt), or [4',5':5,6][1,4]dithiino[2,3-b]quinoxaline-1',3'-dithiolato (quinoxdt) in 5 (Pd) and 6 (Pt). L1 is capable of undergoing proton exchange and promoting crystal formation in noncentrosymmetric space groups. L2 has different molecular structures while it maintains similar electron-donating capabilities. Thanks to the synergy of the ligands, 1-6 behave as H+ and Ag+ switchable linear chromophores. Moreover, the compounds exhibit a H+-switchable second-order NLO response in solution, which is maintained in the bulk for 1, 3, and 4 when they are embedded into a PMMA poled matrix. 5 and 6 show unique anti-Kasha H+ and Ag+ tunable colored emission originating from the quinoxdt ligand. A correlation between the electronic structure and properties is shown through density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations.

3.
Chem Sci ; 11(29): 7599-7608, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033610

RESUMO

The development of purely organic materials showing multicolor fluorescent and phosphorescent behaviour represents a formidable challenge in view of practical applications. Herein the rich photophysical behaviour of 3-(pyridin-2-yl)triimidazotriazine (TT-Py) organic molecule, comprising excitation-dependent fluorescence and phosphorescence under ambient conditions in both blended films and the crystalline phase, is investigated by means of steady state, time resolved and ultrafast spectroscopies and interpreted on the basis of X-ray diffraction studies and DFT/TDDFT calculations. In particular, by proper excitation wavelength, dual fluorescence and dual phosphorescence of molecular origin can be observed together with low energy phosphorescences resulting from aggregate species. It is demonstrated that the multiple emission properties originate from the copresence, in the investigated system, of an extended polycyclic nitrogen-rich moiety (TT), strongly rigidified by π-π stacking interactions and short C-H···N hydrogen bonds, and a fragment (Py) having partial conformational freedom.

4.
Dalton Trans ; 49(6): 1854-1863, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967141

RESUMO

New Y-shaped ferrocene conjugated imidazole chromophores were prepared and fully characterized. The Y-shaped structure was confirmed by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The chromophores show interesting second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties in solution, as determined by the Electric-Field Induced Second Harmonic generation (EFISH) technique. Remarkably, the trifluoro substituted compound 3 is characterized by a high µßEFISH value and has good potential as a molecular building block for composite films with Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) properties. For all compounds, the dipole moments and frontier orbital energies were calculated by the Density Functional Theoretical method.

5.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337009

RESUMO

Organic room temperature persistent luminescence is a fascinating but still largely unexplored phenomenon. Cyclic-triimidazole and its halogenated (Br, I) derivatives have recently revealed as intriguing phosphors characterized by multifaceted emissive behavior including room temperature ultralong phosphorescence (RTUP) associated with the presence of H-aggregates in their crystal structure. Here, we move towards a multicomponent system by incorporating a fluoropyridinic fragment on the cyclic-triimidazole scaffold. Such chromophore enhances the molecular properties resulting in a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) in solution but preserves the solid-state RTUP. By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, theoretical calculations, steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy on solutions, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blends and crystals, the nature of the different radiative deactivation channels of the compound has been disclosed. In particular, the molecular fluorescence and phosphorescence, this latter observed in frozen solution and in PMMA blends, are associated to deactivation from S1 and T1 respectively, while the low energy RTUP, observed only for crystals, is interpreted as originated from H aggregates.


Assuntos
Fluorescência , Luminescência , Temperatura , Triazinas/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Análise Espectral
6.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(3)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30960527

RESUMO

Chiral polyamidoamino acids were obtained by polyaddition of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide with d-, d,l- and l-tryptophan (M-d-Trp, M-d,l-Trp and M-l-Trp). l-tryptophan/glycine copolymers, M-G-l-Trp5, M-G-l-Trp10, M-G-l-Trp20 and M-G-l-Trp40, were prepared from l-tryptophan/glycine mixtures. These polymers were amphoteric, with acid-base properties similar to those of the parent amino acids. The l-tryptophan/glycine copolymers with high glycine content were water soluble in the pH range 2-12. M-G-l-Trp40 showed a solubility gap centred at pH 4.5 and all tryptophan homopolymers were soluble only at pH > 7. Dynamic light scattering measurements performed in their solubility ranges, namely 2-11 M-G-l-Trp5, M-G-l-Trp10 and M-G-l-Trp20 and 7-11 for M-G-l-Trp40, M-d-Trp, M-l-Trp and M-d,l-Trp, showed that the size of all samples did not significantly vary with pH. Both M-l-Trp and M-G-l-Trp copolymers showed pH-dependent circular dichroism spectra in the wavelength interval 200⁻280 nm, revealing structuring. All samples were fluorescent. Their emission spectra were unstructured and, if normalized for their tryptophan content, almost superimposable at the same pH, providing evidence that only tryptophan governed the photoluminescence properties. Changing pH induced in all cases a slight shift of the emission wavelength maximum ascribed to the modification of the microenvironment surrounding the indole ring induced by different protonation degrees.

7.
Chem Asian J ; 14(6): 853-858, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600907

RESUMO

Four coordination compounds [Zn3 (CH3 COO)6 (H2 O)2 ](TT)2 [Cd(H2 O)6 ](ClO4 )2 (TT)2 , [Cd(H2 O)6 ](BF4 )2 (TT)2 , [Zn(H2 O)6 ](BF4 )2 (TT)2 (1-4) accommodating the crystallization induced emissive triimidazo[1,2-a:1',2'-c:1'',2''-e][1,3,5]triazine (TT) as a guest in their crystal lattice are isolated and fully photophysically and structurally characterized. Their emission properties are compared with those of afterglow TT and interpreted taking into account the heavy atom effect and crystal packing similarities and differences. In the case of 1, due to the closeness of the TT H-aggregates arrangement with that of the phosphor's pure phase, the observed intensification of the phosphorescent emission at the expense of the prompt one is attributed to the extrinsic heavy atom effect of Zn. In 2 and 3, the heavier Cd atom is responsible for a decrease in the lifetimes of the afterglow emission, despite the presence of tightly overlapped H-dimers in the crystal structure. Finally, for 4, isostructural with 3, the Zn atom reveals in RTUP lifetime comparable with that of 1.

8.
Chemistry ; 25(10): 2452-2456, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561845

RESUMO

Considering that heavy halogen atoms can be used to tune the emissive properties of organic luminogens, the understanding of their role in photophysics is fundamental for materials engineering. Here, the extrinsic and intrinsic heavy-atom effects on the photophysics of organic crystals were separately evaluated by comparing cyclic triimidazole (TT) with its monoiodo derivative (TTI) and its co-crystal with diiodotetrafluorobenzene (TTCo). Crystals of TT showed room-temperature ultralong phosphorescence (RTUP) originated from H-aggregation. TTI and TTCo displayed two additional long-lived components, the origin of which is elucidated through single-crystal X-ray and DFT/TDDFT studies. The results highlight the different effects of the I atom on the three phosphorescent emissions. Intrinsic heavy-atom effects play a major role on molecular phosphorescence, which is displayed at room temperature only for TTI. The H-aggregate RTUP and the I⋅⋅⋅N XB-induced (XB=halogen bond) phosphorescence on the other side depend only on packing features.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 57(12): 7051-7063, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869490

RESUMO

We disclose a new family of photochromic cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes (PtDTE1 and PtDTE2), where a dithienylethene (DTE) unit is connected at the para-position of the central phenyl ring of (N^C^N) cyclometalated ligand, through two different linkages. Their syntheses are presented along with the X-ray characterizations of both the open and closed isomers of PtDTE1. The investigation of their photophysical properties is made, including absorption, photochromism, emission, and second-order nonlinear properties. We report a quantitative photoisomerization for both PtDTE1 and PtDTE2, irrespective of the nature of the connecting mode between the DTE unit and the platinum(II) moiety. The efficient photochromism allows a significant NLO photomodulation, both in solution and in thin films. In addition, we show that the photoluminescence of the PtDTE1 and PtDTE2 can be controlled by the open/closed isomerization of the DTE unit.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(51): 16302-16307, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106768

RESUMO

The performance of solid luminogens depends on both their inherent electronic properties and their packing status. Intermolecular interactions have been exploited to achieve persistent room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) from organic molecules. However, the design of organic materials with bright RTP and the rationalization of the role of interchromophoric electronic coupling remain challenging tasks. Cyclic triimidazole has been shown to be a promising scaffold for such purposes owing to its crystallization-induced room-temperature ultralong phosphorescence (RTUP), which has been associated with H-aggregation. Herein, we report three triimidazole derivatives as significant examples of multifaceted emission. In particular, dual fluorescence, RTUP, and phosphorescence from the molecular and supramolecular units were observed. H-aggregation is responsible for the red RTUP, and Br substituents favor yellow molecular phosphorescence while halogen-bonded Br⋅⋅⋅Br tetrameric units are involved in the blue-green phosphorescence.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(8): 1894-1898, 2017 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388077

RESUMO

Solid-state luminescent materials with long lifetimes are the subject of ever-growing interest from both a scientific and a technological point of view. However, when dealing with organic compounds, the achievement of highly efficient materials is limited by aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) phenomena on one side and by ultrafast deactivation of the excited states on the other. Here, we report on a simple organic molecule, namely, cyclic triimidazole (C9H6N6), 1, showing crystallization-induced emissive (CIE) behavior and, in particular, ultralong phosphorescence due to strong coupling in H-aggregated molecules. Our experimental data reveal that luminescence lifetimes up to 1 s, which are several orders of magnitude longer than those of conventional organic fluorophores, can be realized under ambient conditions, thus expanding the class of organic materials for phosphorescence applications.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 56(9): 5141-5151, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418662

RESUMO

On the way to copper(I) iodide coordination polymers with specific luminescent properties, the in situ reduction of Cu(II) in the presence of KI and bidentate N-heteroatomic ligand, either pyrazine (pyz) or 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy), resulted in one two-dimensional and two three-dimensional new coordination networks. Starting from Cu(NO3)2·3H2O in the presence of pyz, successive precipitation of known yellow [(CuII)2(pyz)]n, new orange [CuII(pyz)]n, and new dark blue {[CuI(pyz)2]·I5}n polymeric solids was observed. Starting from the same salt in the presence of bpy resulted in the successive precipitation of known yellow [(CuII)2(bpy)]n and new brown {[CuII(NO3)(bpy)2]·I3·(dmf·H2O)}n coordination polymers. By using either Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O or Cu(BF4)2 as starting materials, both known forms, yellow [(CuII)2(bpy)]n and orange [CuII(bpy)]n, precipitated successively. The new solids were characterized by IR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. [CuII(pyz)]n represents the missing member in the row of two-dimensional coordination networks with general formula [CuIX(pyz)]n (X = Cl, Br, I). Its steady state and time-resolved characterization together with DFT and TDDFT calculations revealed that the emission at room temperature is mainly delayed fluorescence originating from mixed singlet metal-to-ligand charge transfer and halide-to-ligand charge transfer states, while that at 77 K is phosphorescence, associated with the small singlet-triplet energy differences (ΔE = 70 meV).

13.
Dalton Trans ; 45(30): 11939-43, 2016 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402322

RESUMO

The first example of a Y-shaped ferrocene quinoxaline derivative with a surprisingly high and stable second harmonic generation (SHG) response in composite polymeric films is reported. The interesting quadratic hyperpolarizability values of different substituted Y-shaped chromophores are also investigated in solution by the EFISH technique.

14.
Dalton Trans ; 45(27): 11052-60, 2016 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27315336

RESUMO

This work reports on the design, synthesis and photo-physical properties of two ruthenium σ-alkynyl complexes. It is shown that, despite similar optical absorption features recorded in solution, the introduction of a benzaldehyde moiety leads to an improved non-linear optical (NLO) response as measured by Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic (EFISH) generation and Third Harmonic Generation (THG) at 1.907 µm, both related to the second order hyperpolarizability. These structure-property relationships are rationalized based on few state modelling. Complex is subsequently processed to afford composite films that demonstrate a χ(2) of 1.4 pm V(-1), quite remarkable given the ease of film processing implemented in this work.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(37): 7805-8, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25858789

RESUMO

An unprecedented DTE-based Pt(II) complex, 2(o), which stands as the first example of a sequential double nonlinear optical switch, induced first by protonation and next upon irradiation with UV light is presented.

16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(59): 7986-9, 2014 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24914760

RESUMO

The unexpectedly high quadratic hyperpolarizability values of simple Ru and Pt alkynyl complexes have been measured by the EFISH technique, and this prompted us to investigate their potential as molecular building blocks for composite films with second harmonic generation properties.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(14): 5367-75, 2014 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24635126

RESUMO

Novel photochromic dithienylethene-based platinum(II) complexes (C^N^N)Pt(C≡C-DTE-C6H4-D) ((C^N^N) = 4,4'-di(n-hexyl)-6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine; D = H, NMe2) were prepared and characterized. Their excellent photochromic properties allow the photoinduced switching of their second-order nonlinear optical properties in solution, as measured by the EFISH technique, due to formation of an extended π-conjugated ligand upon suitable electromagnetic radiation. Insights into the electronic structures of the complexes and the nature of their excited states have been obtained by DFT and TD-DFT calculations. These novel Pt(II) complexes were nanoorganized in polymer films which were poled, affording new materials characterized by a good second-order NLO response that can be easily switched, with an excellent NLO contrast. To the best of our knowledge, our compounds allowed designing the very first examples of switchable NLO polymer films based on metal complexes.

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