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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 40, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease with well-known genetic and environmental risk factors contributing to its prevalence. Epigenetic mechanisms related to changes in DNA methylation (DNAm), may also contribute to T2D risk, but larger studies are required to discover novel markers, and to confirm existing ones. RESULTS: We performed a large meta-analysis of individual epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of prevalent T2D conducted in four European studies using peripheral blood DNAm. Analysis of differentially methylated regions (DMR) was also undertaken, based on the meta-analysis results. We found three novel CpGs associated with prevalent T2D in Europeans at cg00144180 (HDAC4), cg16765088 (near SYNM) and cg24704287 (near MIR23A) and confirmed three CpGs previously identified (mapping to TXNIP, ABCG1 and CPT1A). We also identified 77 T2D associated DMRs, most of them hypomethylated in T2D cases versus controls. In adjusted regressions among diabetic-free participants in ALSPAC, we found that all six CpGs identified in the meta-EWAS were associated with white cell-types. We estimated that these six CpGs captured 11% of the variation in T2D, which was similar to the variation explained by the model including only the common risk factors of BMI, sex, age and smoking (R2 = 10.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies novel loci associated with T2D in Europeans. We also demonstrate associations of the same loci with other traits. Future studies should investigate if our findings are generalizable in non-European populations, and potential roles of these epigenetic markers in T2D etiology or in determining long term consequences of T2D.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the relationship between chronic inflammation and cognitive functioning have produced heterogeneous results. A potential reason for this is the variability of inflammatory mediators which could lead to misclassifications of individuals' persisting levels of inflammation. DNA methylation has shown utility in indexing environmental exposures and could be leveraged to provide proxy signatures of chronic inflammation. METHODS: We conducted an elastic net regression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a cohort of 875 older adults (Lothian Birth Cohort 1936; mean age: 70 years) to develop a DNA methylation-based predictor. The predictor was tested in an independent cohort (Generation Scotland; n=7,028 [417 with measured IL-6], mean age: 51 years). RESULTS: A weighted score from 35 CpG sites optimally predicted IL-6 in the independent test set (Generation Scotland; R 2=4.4%, p=2.1x10 -5). In the independent test cohort, both measured IL-6 and the DNA methylation proxy increased with age (serum IL-6: n=417, ß=0.02, SE=0.004 p=1.3x10 -7; DNAm IL-6 score: n=7,028, ß=0.02, SE=0.0009, p<2x10 -16). Serum IL-6 did not associate with cognitive ability (n=417, ß=-0.06, SE=0.05, p=0.19); however, an inverse association was identified between the DNA methylation score and cognitive functioning (n=7,028, ß=-0.16, SE=0.02, pFDR<2x10 -16). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest methylation-based predictors can be used as proxies for inflammatory markers, potentially allowing for further insight into the relationship between inflammation and pertinent health outcomes.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517400

RESUMO

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery, and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed-effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on Chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.

4.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease, whilst the ε2 allele confers protection. Previous studies report differential DNA methylation of APOE between ε4 and ε2 carriers, but associations with epigenome-wide methylation have not previously been characterised. METHODS: Using the EPIC array, we investigated epigenome-wide differences in whole blood DNA methylation patterns between Alzheimer's disease-free APOE ε4 (n = 2469) and ε2 (n = 1118) carriers from the two largest single-cohort DNA methylation samples profiled to date. Using a discovery, replication and meta-analysis study design, methylation differences were identified using epigenome-wide association analysis and differentially methylated region (DMR) approaches. Results were explored using pathway and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) analyses. RESULTS: We obtained replicated evidence for DNA methylation differences in a ~ 169 kb region, which encompasses part of APOE and several upstream genes. Meta-analytic approaches identified DNA methylation differences outside of APOE: differentially methylated positions were identified in DHCR24, LDLR and ABCG1 (2.59 × 10-100 ≤ P ≤ 2.44 × 10-8) and DMRs were identified in SREBF2 and LDLR (1.63 × 10-4 ≤ P ≤ 3.01 × 10-2). Pathway and meQTL analyses implicated lipid-related processes and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was identified as a partial mediator of the methylation differences in ABCG1 and DHCR24. CONCLUSIONS: APOE ε4 vs. ε2 carrier status is associated with epigenome-wide methylation differences in the blood. The loci identified are located in trans as well as cis to APOE and implicate genes involved in lipid homeostasis.

5.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221487

RESUMO

Inflammatory processes are implicated in the aetiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD); however, the relationship between peripheral inflammation, brain structure and depression remains unclear, partly due to complexities around the use of acute/phasic inflammatory biomarkers. Here, we report the first large-scale study of both serological and methylomic signatures of CRP (considered to represent acute and chronic measures of inflammation respectively) and their associations with depression status/symptoms, and structural neuroimaging phenotypes (T1 and diffusion MRI) in a large community-based sample (Generation Scotland; NMDD cases = 271, Ncontrols = 609). Serum CRP was associated with overall MDD severity, and specifically with current somatic symptoms- general interest (ß = 0.145, PFDR = 6 × 10-4) and energy levels (ß = 0.101, PFDR = 0.027), along with reduced entorhinal cortex thickness (ß = -0.095, PFDR = 0.037). DNAm CRP was significantly associated with reduced global grey matter/cortical volume and widespread reductions in integrity of 16/24 white matter tracts (with greatest regional effects in the external and internal capsules, ßFA= -0.12 to -0.14). In general, the methylation-based measures showed stronger associations with imaging metrics than serum-based CRP measures (ßaverage = -0.15 versus ßaverage = 0.01 respectively). These findings provide evidence for central effects of peripheral inflammation from both serological and epigenetic markers of inflammation, including in brain regions previously implicated in depression. This suggests that these imaging measures may be involved in the relationship between peripheral inflammation and somatic/depressive symptoms. Notably, greater effects on brain morphology were seen for methylation-based rather than serum-based measures of inflammation, indicating the importance of such measures for future studies.

6.
Epigenetics ; : 1-14, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079621

RESUMO

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) theory predicts that prenatal and early life events shape adult health outcomes. Birth weight is a useful indicator of the foetal experience and has been associated with multiple adult health outcomes. DNA methylation (DNAm) is one plausible mechanism behind the relationship of birth weight to adult health. Through data linkage between Generation Scotland and historic Scottish birth cohorts, and birth records held through the NHS Information and Statistics Division, a sample of 1,757 individuals with available birth weight and DNAm data was derived. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) were performed in two independently generated DNAm subgroups (nSet1 = 1,395, nSet2 = 362), relating adult DNAm from whole blood to birth weight. Meta-analysis yielded one genome-wide significant CpG site (p = 5.97x10-9), cg00966482. There was minimal evidence for attenuation of the effect sizes for the lead loci upon adjustment for numerous potential confounder variables (body mass index, educational attainment, and socioeconomic status). Associations between birth weight and epigenetic measures of biological age were also assessed. Associations between lower birth weight and higher Grim Age acceleration (p(FDR) = 3.6x10-3) and shorter DNAm-derived telomere length (p(FDR) = 1.7x10-3) are described, although results for three other epigenetic clocks were null. Our results provide support for an association between birth weight and DNAm both locally at one CpG site, and globally via biological ageing estimates.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4799, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968074

RESUMO

Genetic association studies have identified 44 common genome-wide significant risk loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). However, LOAD genetic architecture and prediction are unclear. Here we estimate the optimal P-threshold (Poptimal) of a genetic risk score (GRS) for prediction of LOAD in three independent datasets comprising 676 cases and 35,675 family history proxy cases. We show that the discriminative ability of GRS in LOAD prediction is maximised when selecting a small number of SNPs. Both simulation results and direct estimation indicate that the number of causal common SNPs for LOAD may be less than 100, suggesting LOAD is more oligogenic than polygenic. The best GRS explains approximately 75% of SNP-heritability, and individuals in the top decile of GRS have ten-fold increased odds when compared to those in the bottom decile. In addition, 14 variants are identified that contribute to both LOAD risk and age at onset of LOAD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
9.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 115, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals of the same chronological age display different rates of biological ageing. A number of measures of biological age have been proposed which harness age-related changes in DNA methylation profiles. These measures include five 'epigenetic clocks' which provide an index of how much an individual's biological age differs from their chronological age at the time of measurement. The five clocks encompass methylation-based predictors of chronological age (HorvathAge, HannumAge), all-cause mortality (DNAm PhenoAge, DNAm GrimAge) and telomere length (DNAm Telomere Length). A sixth epigenetic measure of ageing differs from these clocks in that it acts as a speedometer providing a single time-point measurement of the pace of an individual's biological ageing. This measure of ageing is termed DunedinPoAm. In this study, we test the association between these six epigenetic measures of ageing and the prevalence and incidence of the leading causes of disease burden and mortality in high-income countries (n ≤ 9537, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study). RESULTS: DNAm GrimAge predicted incidence of clinically diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease after 13 years of follow-up (hazard ratios = 2.22, 1.52 and 1.41, respectively). DunedinPoAm predicted the incidence of COPD and lung cancer (hazard ratios = 2.02 and 1.45, respectively). DNAm PhenoAge predicted incidence of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.54). DNAm Telomere Length associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio = 0.80). DNAm GrimAge associated with all-cause mortality, the prevalence of COPD and spirometry measures at the study baseline. These associations were present after adjusting for possible confounding risk factors including alcohol consumption, body mass index, deprivation, education and tobacco smoking and surpassed stringent Bonferroni-corrected significance thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that epigenetic measures of ageing may have utility in clinical settings to complement gold-standard methods for disease assessment and management.

10.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 12(1): e12078, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789163

RESUMO

Introduction: Dementia pathogenesis begins years before clinical symptom onset, necessitating the understanding of premorbid risk mechanisms. Here we investigated potential pathogenic mechanisms by assessing DNA methylation associations with dementia risk factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-free participants. Methods: Associations between dementia risk measures (family history, AD genetic risk score [GRS], and dementia risk scores [combining lifestyle, demographic, and genetic factors]) and whole-blood DNA methylation were assessed in discovery and replication samples (n = ~400 to ~5000) from Generation Scotland. Results: AD genetic risk and two dementia risk scores were associated with differential methylation. The GRS associated predominantly with methylation differences in cis but also identified a genomic region implicated in Parkinson disease. Loci associated with dementia risk scores were enriched for those previously associated with body mass index and alcohol consumption. Discussion: Dementia risk measures show widespread association with blood-based methylation, generating several hypotheses for assessment by future studies.

11.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 113, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic systemic inflammation has been associated with incident dementia, but its association with age-related cognitive decline is less clear. The acute responses of many inflammatory biomarkers mean they may provide an unreliable picture of the chronicity of inflammation. Recently, a large-scale epigenome-wide association study identified DNA methylation correlates of C-reactive protein (CRP)-a widely used acute-phase inflammatory biomarker. DNA methylation is thought to be relatively stable in the short term, marking it as a potentially useful signature of exposure. METHODS: We utilise a DNA methylation-based score for CRP and investigate its trajectories with age, and associations with cognitive ability in comparison with serum CRP and a genetic CRP score in a longitudinal study of older adults (n = 889) and a large, cross-sectional cohort (n = 7028). RESULTS: We identified no homogeneous trajectories of serum CRP with age across the cohorts, whereas the epigenetic CRP score was consistently found to increase with age (standardised ß = 0.07 and 0.01) and to do so more rapidly in males compared to females. Additionally, the epigenetic CRP score had higher test-retest reliability compared to serum CRP, indicating its enhanced temporal stability. Higher serum CRP was not found to be associated with poorer cognitive ability (standardised ß = - 0.08 and - 0.05); however, a consistent negative association was identified between cognitive ability and the epigenetic CRP score in both cohorts (standardised ß = - 0.15 and - 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: An epigenetic proxy of CRP may provide a more reliable signature of chronic inflammation, allowing for more accurate stratification of individuals, and thus clearer inference of associations with incident health outcomes.

12.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 60, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular factors which control circulating levels of inflammatory proteins are not well understood. Furthermore, association studies between molecular probes and human traits are often performed by linear model-based methods which may fail to account for complex structure and interrelationships within molecular datasets. METHODS: In this study, we perform genome- and epigenome-wide association studies (GWAS/EWAS) on the levels of 70 plasma-derived inflammatory protein biomarkers in healthy older adults (Lothian Birth Cohort 1936; n = 876; Olink® inflammation panel). We employ a Bayesian framework (BayesR+) which can account for issues pertaining to data structure and unknown confounding variables (with sensitivity analyses using ordinary least squares- (OLS) and mixed model-based approaches). RESULTS: We identified 13 SNPs associated with 13 proteins (n = 1 SNP each) concordant across OLS and Bayesian methods. We identified 3 CpG sites spread across 3 proteins (n = 1 CpG each) that were concordant across OLS, mixed-model and Bayesian analyses. Tagged genetic variants accounted for up to 45% of variance in protein levels (for MCP2, 36% of variance alone attributable to 1 polymorphism). Methylation data accounted for up to 46% of variation in protein levels (for CXCL10). Up to 66% of variation in protein levels (for VEGFA) was explained using genetic and epigenetic data combined. We demonstrated putative causal relationships between CD6 and IL18R1 with inflammatory bowel disease and between IL12B and Crohn's disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may aid understanding of the molecular regulation of the circulating inflammatory proteome as well as causal relationships between inflammatory mediators and disease.

13.
Cell Syst ; 11(1): 11-24.e4, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619549

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global challenge, and point-of-care diagnostic classifiers are urgently required. Here, we present a platform for ultra-high-throughput serum and plasma proteomics that builds on ISO13485 standardization to facilitate simple implementation in regulated clinical laboratories. Our low-cost workflow handles up to 180 samples per day, enables high precision quantification, and reduces batch effects for large-scale and longitudinal studies. We use our platform on samples collected from a cohort of early hospitalized cases of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and identify 27 potential biomarkers that are differentially expressed depending on the WHO severity grade of COVID-19. They include complement factors, the coagulation system, inflammation modulators, and pro-inflammatory factors upstream and downstream of interleukin 6. All protocols and software for implementing our approach are freely available. In total, this work supports the development of routine proteomic assays to aid clinical decision making and generate hypotheses about potential COVID-19 therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Proteômica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523041

RESUMO

Variation in DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with lifestyle factors such as smoking and body mass index (BMI) but there has been little research exploring its ability to identify individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Using penalised regression on genome-wide CpG methylation, we tested whether DNAm risk scores (MRS), trained on 1223 MDD cases and 1824 controls, could discriminate between cases (n = 363) and controls (n = 1417) in an independent sample, comparing their predictive accuracy to polygenic risk scores (PRS). The MRS explained 1.75% of the variance in MDD (ß = 0.338, p = 1.17 × 10-7) and remained associated after adjustment for lifestyle factors (ß = 0.219, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.68%). When modelled alongside PRS (ß = 0.384, p = 4.69 × 10-9) the MRS remained associated with MDD (ß = 0.327, p = 5.66 × 10-7). The MRS was also associated with incident cases of MDD who were well at recruitment but went on to develop MDD at a later assessment (ß = 0.193, p = 0.016, R2 = 0.52%). Heritability analyses found additive genetic effects explained 22% of variance in the MRS, with a further 19% explained by pedigree-associated genetic effects and 16% by the shared couple environment. Smoking status was also strongly associated with MRS (ß = 0.440, p ≤ 2 × 10-16). After removing smokers from the training set, the MRS strongly associated with BMI (ß = 0.053, p = 0.021). We tested the association of MRS with 61 behavioural phenotypes and found that whilst PRS were associated with psychosocial and mental health phenotypes, MRS were more strongly associated with lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. DNAm-based risk scores of MDD significantly discriminated MDD cases from controls in an independent dataset and may represent an archive of exposures to lifestyle factors that are relevant to the prediction of MDD.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2865, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513961

RESUMO

Linking epigenetic marks to clinical outcomes improves insight into molecular processes, disease prediction, and therapeutic target identification. Here, a statistical approach is presented to infer the epigenetic architecture of complex disease, determine the variation captured by epigenetic effects, and estimate phenotype-epigenetic probe associations jointly. Implicitly adjusting for probe correlations, data structure (cell-count or relatedness), and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, improves association estimates and in 9,448 individuals, 75.7% (95% CI 71.70-79.3) of body mass index (BMI) variation and 45.6% (95% CI 37.3-51.9) of cigarette consumption variation was captured by whole blood methylation array data. Pathway-linked probes of blood cholesterol, lipid transport and sterol metabolism for BMI, and xenobiotic stimuli response for smoking, showed >1.5 times larger associations with >95% posterior inclusion probability. Prediction accuracy improved by 28.7% for BMI and 10.2% for smoking over a LASSO model, with age-, and tissue-specificity, implying associations are a phenotypic consequence rather than causal.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Adulto , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Simulação por Computador , Metilação de DNA/genética , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 39, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large numbers of autosomal sites are found differentially methylated in the aging genome. Due to analytical difficulties in dealing with sex differences in X-chromosome content and X-inactivation (XCI) in females, this has not been explored for the X chromosome. METHODS: Using data from middle age to elderly individuals (age 55+ years) from two Danish cohorts of monozygotic twins and the Scottish Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, we conducted an X-chromosome-wide analysis of age-associated DNA methylation patterns with consideration of stably inferred XCI status. RESULTS: Through analysing and comparing sex-specific X-linked DNA methylation changes over age late in life, we identified 123, 293 and 55 CpG sites significant (FDR < 0.05) only in males, only in females and in both sexes of Danish twins. All findings were significantly replicated in the two Danish twin cohorts. CpG sites escaping XCI are predominantly de-methylated with increasing age across cohorts. In contrast, CpGs highly methylated in both sexes are methylated even further with increasing age. Among the replicated sites in Danish samples, 16 (13%), 24 (8.2%) and 3 (5.5%) CpGs were further validated in LBC1921 (FDR < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The X-chromosome of whole blood leukocytes displays age- and sex-dependent DNA methylation patterns in relation to XCI across cohorts.

17.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 6(1): e12026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346601

RESUMO

Introduction: Genetic variation in the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). DNA methylationat APOE has been associated with altered cognition and AD. It is unclear if epigenetic marks could be used for predicting future disease. Methods: We assessed blood-based DNA methylation at 13 CpGs in the APOE gene in 5828 participants from the Generation Scotland (GS) cohort. Using linear mixed models regression, we examined the relationships among APOE methylation, cognition, cholesterol, the family history of AD and the risk for CVD. Results: DNA methylation at two CpGs was associated with the ratio of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, but not with cognition, family history of AD, or the risk of CVD. Discussion: APOE methylation is associated with the levels of blood cholesterol, but there is no evidence for the utility of APOE methylation as a biomarker for predicting AD or CVD.

18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 58, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) variation is an established predictor for several traits. In the context of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), where 5-year survival is ~ 65%, DNA methylation may act as a prognostic biomarker. We examined the accuracy of DNA methylation biomarkers of 4 complex exposure traits (alcohol consumption, body mass index [BMI], educational attainment and smoking status) in predicting all-cause mortality in people with OPC. RESULTS: DNAm predictors of alcohol consumption, BMI, educational attainment and smoking status were applied to 364 individuals with OPC in the Head and Neck 5000 cohort (HN5000; 19.6% of total OPC cases in the study), followed up for median 3.9 years; inter-quartile range (IQR) 3.3 to 5.2 years (time-to-event-death or censor). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained in each trait was as follows: 16.5% for alcohol consumption, 22.7% for BMI, 0.4% for educational attainment and 51.1% for smoking. We then assessed the relationship between each DNAm predictor and all-cause mortality using Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis. DNAm prediction of smoking was most consistently associated with mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.38 per standard deviation (SD) increase in smoking DNAm score; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.83; P 0.025, in a model adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, health and biological variables). Finally, we examined the accuracy of each DNAm predictor of mortality. DNAm predictors explained similar levels of variance in mortality to self-reported phenotypes. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for the DNAm predictors showed a moderate discrimination of alcohol consumption (area under the curve [AUC] 0.63), BMI (AUC 0.61) and smoking (AUC 0.70) when predicting mortality. The DNAm predictor for education showed poor discrimination (AUC 0.57). Z tests comparing AUCs between self-reported phenotype ROC curves and DNAm score ROC curves did not show evidence for difference between the two (alcohol consumption P 0.41, BMI P 0.62, educational attainment P 0.49, smoking P 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: In the context of a clinical cohort of individuals with OPC, DNAm predictors for smoking, alcohol consumption, educational attainment and BMI exhibit similar predictive values for all-cause mortality compared to self-reported data. These findings may have translational utility in prognostic model development, particularly where phenotypic data are not available.

19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 91, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated an association between DNA methylation-based measures of accelerated ageing and age-related health outcomes and mortality. As a disease closely associated with advancing age, we hypothesized that DNA methylation-based measures of accelerated ageing might be associated with risk for dementia. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between four recognised measures of age acceleration and subsequent dementia. METHODS: Study subjects (n = 488) were members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. Dementia case ascertainment used data from death certificates, electronic hospital records, and clinical reviews. Venous blood samples were taken at baseline, at age 79 years. DNA methylation and measures of epigenetic age were calculated in accordance with Horvath's epigenetic clock tutorial, using the online calculator (https://dnamage.genetics.ucla.edu/). From these values, four measures of accelerated ageing were calculated: extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA), intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA), AgeAccelPheno and AgeAccelGrim. Competing risk regression models - with death as a competing risk - were performed to examine the association between each measure of accelerated ageing and incident dementia. APOE ɛ4 status, sex, age, smoking status, history of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes were included as covariates. RESULTS: None of the multivariate models revealed a positive association between increased epigenetic age acceleration and dementia risk. Across all included models, never-smoking increased risk for dementia (HR 1.69 [1.06, 2.71], p = 0.03), and having no APOE ɛ4 alleles reduced risk for dementia (HR 0.44 [0.29, 0.67], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study did not demonstrate any consistent association between DNA methylation-based measures of accelerated ageing and dementia in subjects aged over 79 years. Further, larger studies - including separate analyses of dementia subtypes - are required to further investigate the potential association between DNA methylation-based measures of accelerated ageing and dementia.

20.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(12): 2249-2257, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154558

RESUMO

Overall or all-cause mortality is a key measure of health in a population. Multiple epigenome-wide association studies have been conducted on all-cause mortality with limited significant findings and low replication. To elucidate the coregulated DNA methylation patterns associated with all-cause mortality, we conducted a weighted DNA methylation coregulation network analysis on whole-blood samples of 1,425 older individuals from the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936. Our network-based analysis defined coregulated DNA methylation patterns in gene promoters into clusters or modules whose correlation with all-cause mortality was assessed by survival analysis. We found two significant modules or gene clusters associated with all-cause mortality in LBC1921 based on their eigengenes; one negatively correlated (p = 8.14E-03, 698 genes) and one positively correlated (p = 4.26E-02, 1,431 genes) with the risk of death. The two modules were replicated in LBC1936 with the same directions of correlation (p = 6.35E-02 and p = 3.64E-02, respectively). Furthermore, the modules revealed 32 genes associated with all-cause mortality (FDR < 0.05) linked to various diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Additionally, we performed pathway analysis and found 22 pathways (FDR < 0.05), including a pathway for taste transduction, which has been shown to be associated with poor prognosis in acutely hospitalized patients, and several pathways were linked to different types of cancer. The results from our network analysis show that DNA methylation of multiple genes could have been coregulated in an association with the overall risk of death. The identified epigenetic markers might help with our understanding of the molecular basis of all-cause mortality and general health.

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