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1.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : 101161CIRCOUTCOMES121008298, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients evaluated for coronary artery disease have a range of symptoms and underlying risk. The relationships between patient-described symptoms, clinician conclusions, and subsequent clinical management and outcomes remain incompletely described. METHODS: In this secondary analysis, we examined the association between 4 types of presenting symptoms (substernal/left-sided chest pain, other chest/neck/arm pain, dyspnea, and other symptoms) and patient risk, noninvasive test results, clinical management, and outcomes for stable outpatients randomized in the PROMISE (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain) trial. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate differences in noninvasive test result, all-cause death/myocardial infarction/unstable angina hospitalization and cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction by symptom type. RESULTS: Among 9996 patients, most presented with chest pain (47.2% substernal, 29.2% other), followed by dyspnea (14.9%), and other symptoms (8.7%). Patients with dyspnea were older (median age 63 versus 60, P≤0.02) with higher baseline risk (78.2% with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease >7.5% versus 67.6%, P≤0.02). Using patients with substernal chest pain as a reference, there was no difference in noninvasive test positivity across symptom groups (all P>0.05), but test-positive patients with dyspnea (adjusted odds ratio, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.51-0.85]) or other symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.47-0.90]) were less likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization. While symptom type alone was not associated with outcomes, symptom presentation with chest pain or dyspnea did modify the association between a positive noninvasive test and clinical outcome (interaction P=0.025 for both all-cause death/myocardial infarction/unstable angina hospitalization and cardiovascular death/MI). CONCLUSIONS: Among low-risk outpatients evaluated for coronary artery disease, typicality of symptoms was not closely associated with higher baseline risk but was related to differences in processes of care and the prognostic value of a positive test. Adverse events were not associated with clinician risk estimates or symptoms alone. These unexpected findings highlight the limitation of relying solely on symptom presentation or clinician risk estimation to evaluate patients for suspected coronary artery disease. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT01174550.

2.
Heart Rhythm O2 ; 3(1): 23-31, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wait times for catheter ablation in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) may influence clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between the duration from AF diagnosis to ablation, or diagnosis-to-ablation time (DAT), on the clinical response to catheter ablation in a large nationwide cohort of patients. METHODS: We identified patients with new AF who underwent catheter ablation between January 2014 and December 2017 using the IBM MarketScan databases. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the strength of the association between DAT and the outcomes of AF recurrence and hospitalization at 1 year postablation. RESULTS: Among 11,143 AF patients who underwent ablation, the median age was 59 years, 31% were female, and the median CHA2DS2-VASc score was 2. Median DAT was 5.5 (2.6, 13.1) months. At 1 year postablation, 10.0% (n = 1116) developed recurrent AF. For each year increase in DAT, the risk of AF recurrence increased by 20% after adjustment for baseline comorbidities and medications (hazard ratio [HR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.30). A longer DAT was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization (HR 1.08 per DAT year, 95% CI 1.02-1.15). DAT was a stronger predictor of AF recurrence postablation than traditional clinical risk factors, including age, prior heart failure, or renal failure. CONCLUSION: Increasing duration between AF diagnosis and catheter ablation is associated with higher AF recurrence rates and all-cause hospitalization. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of evidence supporting the benefits of prioritizing early restoration of sinus rhythm.

3.
Circulation ; 145(17): 1294-1307, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches) compared an initial invasive treatment strategy (INV) with an initial conservative strategy in 5179 participants with chronic coronary disease and moderate or severe ischemia. The ISCHEMIA research program included a comprehensive quality-of-life (QOL) substudy. METHODS: In 1819 participants (907 INV, 912 conservative strategy), we collected a battery of disease-specific and generic QOL instruments by structured interviews at baseline; at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months postrandomization; and at study closeout. Assessments included angina-related QOL (19-item Seattle Angina Questionnaire), generic health status (EQ-5D), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8), and, for North American patients, cardiac functional status (Duke Activity Status Index). RESULTS: Median age was 67 years, 19.2% were female, and 15.9% were non-White. The estimated mean difference for the 19-item Seattle Angina Questionnaire Summary score favored INV (1.4 points [95% CI, 0.2-2.5] over all follow-up). No differences were observed in patients with rare/absent baseline angina (SAQ Angina Frequency score >80). Among patients with more frequent angina at baseline (SAQ Angina Frequency score <80, 744 patients, 41%), those randomly assigned to INV had a mean 3.7-point higher 19-item Seattle Angina Questionnaire Summary score than conservative strategy (95% CI, 1.6-5.8) with consistent effects across SAQ subscales: Physical Limitations 3.2 points (95% CI, 0.2-6.1), Angina Frequency 3.2 points (95% CI, 1.2-5.1), Quality of Life/Health Perceptions 5.3 points (95% CI, 2.8-7.8). For the Duke Activity Status Index, no difference was estimated overall by treatment, but in patients with baseline SAQ Angina Frequency scores <80, Duke Activity Status Index scores were higher for INV (3.2 points [95% CI, 0.6-5.7]), whereas patients with rare/absent baseline angina showed no treatment-related differences. Moderate to severe depression was infrequent at randomization (11.5%-12.8%) and was unaffected by treatment assignment. CONCLUSIONS: In the ISCHEMIA comprehensive QOL substudy, patients with more frequent baseline angina reported greater improvements in the symptom, physical functioning, and psychological well-being dimensions of QOL when treated with an invasive strategy, whereas patients who had rare/absent angina at baseline reported no consistent treatment-related QOL differences. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT01471522.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/terapia , Doença Crônica , Tratamento Conservador , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia , Masculino
4.
Heart ; 108(11): 860-867, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate informal physician judgement versus pretest probability scores in estimating risk in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We included 4533 patients from the PROMISE (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain) trial. Physicians categorised a priori the pretest probability of obstructive CAD (≥70% or ≥50% left main); Diamond-Forrester (D-F) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) pretest probability estimates were calculated. Agreement was calculated using the κ statistic; logistic regression evaluated estimates of pretest CAD probability and actual CAD (as determined by CT coronary angiography), and clinical outcomes were modelled using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Physician estimates agreed poorly with D-F (κ 0.16; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.18) and ESC (κ 0.04; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.05). Actual obstructive CAD was significantly more prevalent in both the high-likelihood (OR 3.30; 95% CI 2.30 to 4.74) and the intermediate-likelihood (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.76) physician-estimated groups versus the low-likelihood group; ESC similarly differentiated between the three groups (OR 9.07; 95% CI 2.87 to 28.70; and OR 3.87; 95% CI 1.22 to 12.28). However, using D-F, only the high-probability group differed (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.74 to 3.54). Only physician estimates were associated with a higher incidence of adjusted death/myocardial infarction/unstable angina hospitalisation in the high-probability versus low-probability group (HR 2.68; 95% CI 1.52 to 4.74); neither pretest probability score provided prognostic information. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with D-F and ESC estimates, physician judgement more accurately identified obstructive CAD and worse patient outcomes. Integrating physician judgement may improve risk prediction for patients with stable chest pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01174550.

5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 15(2): e010304, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35089799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the amount of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients experience conveys important prognostic information beyond that provided by the diagnosis of AF is uncertain. The study objective was to assess the dose-response relationship between device-detected AF burden and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: Among patients with paroxysmal AF who underwent cardiac implantable electronic device implantation (2010-2016), Merlin.net remote-monitoring data were linked to Medicare claims to assess the magnitude and strength of the associations between device-based AF burden (defined as a daily percentage of time spent in AF or maximal AF episode duration ascertained at baseline over 30 days) and key cardiovascular outcomes. RESULTS: Among 39 710 patients (mean age 77.1±8.7 years, 60.7% male, and a mean CHA2DS2-VASc score 4.9±1.3), all-cause mortality at 1-year increased with baseline AF burden: 8.54% with AF burden 0%, 8.9% with AF burden 0% to 5%, and 10.9% with AF burden 5% to 98% (P<0.001) There was also a dose-response relationship between increasing AF burden and all-cause or cardiovascular hospitalization and ischemic stroke. Updating AF burden data every 30 days did not alter the AF burden-prognostic relationships determined from the use of baseline data alone. Results were also consistent when 3-year outcomes were considered and after accounting for the use of oral anticoagulants. CONCLUSIONS: In paroxysmal AF, there is a clinically relevant dose-response relationship between increasing AF burden and rates of adverse outcomes at 1- and 3-years, including increasing risks of cardiovascular hospitalization, ischemic stroke, and mortality.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Frequência Cardíaca , Marca-Passo Artificial , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Potenciais de Ação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/diagnóstico , AVC Isquêmico/mortalidade , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Circulation ; 145(11): 819-828, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STICH Randomized Clinical Trial (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) demonstrated that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) reduced all-cause mortality rates out to 10 years compared with medical therapy alone (MED) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and reduced left ventricular function (ejection fraction ≤35%). We examined the economic implications of these results. METHODS: We used a decision-analytic patient-level simulation model to estimate the lifetime costs and benefits of CABG and MED using patient-level resource use and clinical data collected in the STICH trial. Patient-level costs were calculated by applying externally derived US cost weights to resource use counts during trial follow-up. A 3% discount rate was applied to both future costs and benefits. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio assessed from the US health care sector perspective. RESULTS: For the CABG arm, we estimated 6.53 quality-adjusted life-years (95% CI, 5.70-7.53) and a lifetime cost of $140 059 (95% CI, $106 401 to $180 992). For the MED arm, the corresponding estimates were 5.52 (95% CI, 5.06-6.09) quality-adjusted life-years and $74 894 lifetime cost (95% CI, $58 372 to $93 541). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for CABG compared with MED was $63 989 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. At a societal willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, CABG was found to be economically favorable compared with MED in 87% of microsimulations. CONCLUSIONS: In the STICH trial, in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and reduced left ventricular function, CABG was economically attractive relative to MED at current benchmarks for value in the United States. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT00023595.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Isquemia Miocárdica , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Card Fail ; 28(2): 334-338, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative care (PC) in advanced heart failure (HF) aims to improve symptoms and quality of life (QOL), in part through medication management. The impact of PC on polypharmacy (>5 medications) remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We explored patterns of polypharmacy in the Palliative Care in HF (PAL-HF) randomized controlled trial of standard care vs interdisciplinary PC in advanced HF (N = 150). We describe differences in medication counts between arms at 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks for HF (12 classes) and PC (6 classes) medications. General linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between treatment arm and polypharmacy over time. The median age of the patients was 72 years (interquartile range 62-80 years), 47% were female, and 41% were Black. Overall, 48% had ischemic etiology, and 55% had an ejection fraction of 40% or less. Polypharmacy was present at baseline in 100% of patients. HF and PC medication counts increased in both arms, with no significant differences in counts by drug class at any time point between arms. CONCLUSIONS: In a trial of patients with advanced HF considered eligible for PC, polypharmacy was universal at baseline and increased during follow-up with no effect of the palliative intervention on medication counts relative to standard care.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Polimedicação , Volume Sistólico
8.
Am Heart J ; 244: 149-156, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burden of atrial fibrillation (AF), as a continuous measure, is an emerging alternative classification often assumed to increase linearly with progression of disease. Yet there are no descriptions of AF burden distributions across populations. METHODS: We examined patterns of AF burden (% time in AF) across 3 different cohorts: outpatients with AF undergoing Holter monitoring in a national registry (ORBIT-AF II), routine outpatients undergoing Holter monitoring in a tertiary healthcare system (UHealth), and patients >= 65 years with cardiac implantable electronic devices (Merlin.netTM linked to Medicare). RESULTS: We included 2,058 ORBIT-AF II patients, 4,537 UHealth patients, and 39,710 from Merlin.net. Mean age ranged from 56 to 77 years, sex ranged from 40% to 61% male, and mean CHA2DS2-VASc scores ranged from 2.2 to 4.9. Across all cohorts, AF burden demonstrated skewed frequency towards the extremes, with the vast majority of patients having either very low or very high AF burden. This bimodal distribution was consistent across cohorts, across clinically-documented AF types (paroxysmal v persistent), patients with or without a known AF diagnosis, and among patients with different types of cardiac implantable electronic devices. CONCLUSIONS: Across 3 broad, diverse cohorts with continuous monitoring, distribution of AF burden was consistently skewed towards the extremes without an even, linear distribution or progression. As AF burden is increasingly recognized as a descriptor and potential risk-stratifier, these findings have important implications for future research and patient care.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Eur Heart J ; 43(2): 148-149, 2022 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514494

RESUMO

AIMS: The International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) trial prespecified an analysis to determine whether accounting for recurrent cardiovascular events in addition to first events modified understanding of the treatment effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and moderate or severe ischaemia on stress testing were randomized to either initial invasive (INV) or initial conservative (CON) management. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or cardiac arrest. The Ghosh-Lin method was used to estimate mean cumulative incidence of total events with death as a competing risk. The 5179 ISCHEMIA patients experienced 670 index events (318 INV, 352 CON) and 203 recurrent events (102 INV, 101 CON). A single primary event was observed in 9.8% of INV and 10.8% of CON patients while ≥2 primary events were observed in 2.5% and 2.8%, respectively. Patients with recurrent events were older; had more frequent hypertension, diabetes, prior MI, or cerebrovascular disease; and had more multivessel CAD. The average number of primary endpoint events per 100 patients over 4 years was 18.2 in INV [95% confidence interval (CI) 15.8-20.9] and 19.7 in CON (95% CI 17.5-22.2), difference -1.5 (95% CI -5.0 to 2.0, P = 0.398). Comparable results were obtained when all-cause death was substituted for cardiovascular death and when stroke was added as an event. CONCLUSIONS: In stable CAD patients with moderate or severe myocardial ischaemia enrolled in ISCHEMIA, an initial INV treatment strategy did not prevent either net recurrent events or net total events more effectively than an initial CON strategy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISCHEMIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01471522, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01471522.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Isquemia Miocárdica , Angina Instável , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Isquemia , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia
11.
Am Heart J ; 244: 116-124, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increases, a greater understanding of the costs associated with AF care is required. While individuals with greater arrhythmic burden may interact with the health system more frequently, the relationship between AF burden and costs remains undefined. METHODS: In a longitudinal patient cohort with paroxysmal AF and newly implanted cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) (2010-2016), we linked CIED remote-monitoring data with Medicare claims to assess the association between the 30-day averaged device-detected daily percentage of time in AF ("AF burden") and healthcare costs. RESULTS: Among 39,345 patients, the mean age was 77.1 ± 8.7 years, 60.7% were male, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.9 ± 1.3. The mean total 1-year costs were $18,668 ± 29,173, driven by hospitalization costs where two-thirds of admissions were due to heart failure. Increasing AF burden was associated with increasing costs: $17,860 ± 28,525 for 0% daily AF burden; $18,840 ± 29,104 for 0-5% daily AF burden; and $20,968 ± 31,228 for 5-98% daily AF burden. There was a linear relationship between AF burden expressed as a continuous variable and 1-year costs (adjusted cost rate ratio 1.031 per 10% daily duration in AF, 95% confidence interval 1.023-1.038; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among older patients with paroxysmal AF and CIEDs, increasing AF burden is associated with higher healthcare costs. As the observational study design is unable to determine causal relationships, prospective study is required to explore the intriguing hypothesis that targeted AF strategies, including comorbidity management, that reduce AF burden may also reduce the high annual costs associated with AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Eletrônica , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Palliat Med ; 25(2): 296-300, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851740

RESUMO

Introduction: Black patients have a higher incidence of heart failure (HF) and worse outcomes than white patients. Guidelines recommend palliative care for patients with advanced HF, but no studies have examined outcomes in a black patient cohort. Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the Palliative Care in Heart Failure trial, which randomized patients to usual care plus a palliative care intervention (UC+PAL) or usual care (UC). Quality of life (QoL) was measured using Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative Care scale (FACIT-Pal). Results: Black patients represented 41% of the 148 patients. At six months, QoL improved more in UC+PAL than UC for both racial subgroups. The difference was greater for black than white patients (difference: KCCQ 10.8 vs. 2.5; FACIT-Pal: 14.8 vs. 3.9). However, the findings were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Larger studies are needed to assess the benefits of palliative care for black patients with HF. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01589601.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Fatores Raciais , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(3): 259-267, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935857

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Race and ethnicity have been studied as risk factors in cardiovascular disease. How risk factors, epicardial coronary artery disease, and cardiac events differ between Black and White individuals undergoing noninvasive testing for coronary artery disease is not known. OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in cardiovascular risk burden, coronary plaque, and major adverse cardiac events between Black and White individuals assigned to receive coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) or functional testing for stable chest pain. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nested observational cohort study within the PROMISE trial was conducted at 193 outpatient sites in North America. A total of 1071 non-Hispanic Black (hereafter Black) and 7693 non-Hispanic White (hereafter White) participants with stable chest pain undergoing noninvasive cardiovascular testing were included. This analysis was conducted from February 13, 2015, to November 2, 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina over a median follow-up of 24.4 months. RESULTS: Among 1071 Black individuals (12.2%) (women, 646 [60.3%]; mean [SD] age, 59 [8] years) and 7693 White individuals (87.8%) (women, 4029 [52.4%]; mean [SD] age, 61.1 [8.4] years), Black participants had a higher cardiovascular risk burden (more hypertension and diabetes), yet there was a similarly low major adverse cardiovascular events rate over a median 2-year follow-up (32 [3.0%] vs 243 [3.2%]; P = .84). Sensitivity analyses restricted to the 79.8% (6993 of 8764) individuals with a normal or mildly abnormal noninvasive testing result and the 54.3% (4559 of 8396) not receiving statin therapy yielded similar findings. In comparison of Black and White individuals in the CCTA group (n = 3323), significant coronary stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 7.21; 95% CI, 1.94-26.76 vs HR, 4.30; 95% CI, 2.62-7.04) and high-risk plaque (HR, 3.47; 95% CI, 1.00-12.06 vs HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.37-3.57) were associated with major adverse cardiovascular events in both Black and White patients. However, with respect to epicardial coronary artery disease burden, Black individuals had a less-prevalent coronary artery calcium score greater than 0 (45.1% vs 63.2%; P < .001), coronary stenosis greater than or equal to 50% (32 [8.7%] vs 430 [14.6%]; P = .001), and high-risk plaque (139 [37.6%] vs 1547 [52.4%]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this study suggest that, despite a greater cardiovascular risk burden in Black persons, rates of coronary artery calcium, stenosis, and high-risk plaque observed via CCTA were lower in Black persons than White persons. This result suggests differences in cardiovascular risk burden and coronary plaque in Black and White individuals with stable chest pain.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Placa Aterosclerótica , Cálcio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Estenose Coronária/complicações , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
14.
Circulation ; 145(11): 796-804, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data suggest that catheter ablation may be safe and effective to treat younger and older patients with atrial fibrillation. No large, randomized trial has examined this issue. This report describes outcomes according to age at entry in the CABANA trial (Catheter Ablation versus Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation). METHODS: Patients with atrial fibrillation ≥65 years of age, or <65 with ≥1 risk factor for stroke, were randomly assigned to catheter ablation versus drug therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of death, disabling stroke, serious bleeding, or cardiac arrest. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, the composite of mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization, and recurrence of atrial fibrillation. Treatment effect estimates were adjusted for baseline covariables using proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Of 2204 patients randomly assigned in CABANA, 766 (34.8%) were <65 years of age, 1130 (51.3%) were 65 to 74 years of age, and 308 (14.0%) were ≥75 years of age. Catheter ablation was associated with a 43% reduction in the primary outcome for patients <65 years of age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.57 [95% CI, 0.30-1.09]), a 21% reduction for 65 to 74 years of age (aHR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.54-1.16]), and an indeterminate effect for age ≥75 years of age (aHR, 1.39 [95% CI, 0.75-2.58]). Four-year event rates for ablation versus drug therapy across age groups, respectively, were 3.2% versus 7.8%, 7.8% versus 9.6%, and 14.8% versus 9.0%. For every 10-year increase in age, the primary outcome aHR increased (ie, less favorable to ablation) an average of 27% (interaction P value=0.215). A similar pattern was seen with all-cause mortality: for every 10-year increase in age, the aHR increased an average of 46% (interaction P value=0.111). Atrial fibrillation recurrence rates were lower with ablation than with drug therapy across age subgroups (aHR 0.47, 0.58, and 0.49, respectively). Treatment-related complications were infrequent for both arms (<3%) regardless of age. CONCLUSIONS: We found age-based variations in clinical outcomes for catheter ablation compared with drug therapy, with the largest relative and absolute benefits of catheter ablation in younger patients. No prognostic benefits for ablation were seen in the oldest patients. No differences were found by age in treatment-related complications or in the relative effectiveness of catheter ablation in preventing recurrent atrial arrhythmias. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT00911508.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Hemorragia/complicações , Humanos , Recidiva , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Am Heart J ; 245: 136-148, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34953768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians vary widely in their preferred diagnostic approach to patients with non-acute chest pain. Such variation exposes patients to potentially avoidable risks, as well as inefficient care with increased costs and unresolved patient concerns. METHODS: The Prospective Randomized Trial of the Optimal Evaluation of Cardiac Symptoms and Revascularization (PRECISE) trial (NCT03702244) compares an investigational "precision" diagnostic strategy to a usual care diagnostic strategy in participants with stable chest pain and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). RESULTS: PRECISE randomized 2103 participants with stable chest pain and a clinical recommendation for testing for suspected CAD at 68 outpatient international sites. The investigational precision evaluation strategy started with a pre-test risk assessment using the PROMISE Minimal Risk Tool. Those at lowest risk were assigned to deferred testing (no immediate testing), and the remainder received coronary computed tomographic angiography (cCTA) with selective fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) for any stenosis meeting a threshold of ≥30% and <90%. For participants randomized to usual care, the clinical care team selected the initial noninvasive or invasive test (diagnostic angiography) according to customary practice. The use of cCTA as the initial diagnostic strategy was proscribed by protocol for the usual care strategy. The primary endpoint is time to a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: all-cause death or non-fatal myocardial infarction) or invasive cardiac catheterization without obstructive CAD at 1 year. Secondary endpoints include health care costs and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: PRECISE will determine whether a precision approach comprising a strategically deployed combination of risk-based deferred testing and cCTA with selective FFRCT improves the clinical outcomes and efficiency of the diagnostic evaluation of stable chest pain over usual care.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Resuscitation ; 168: 75-83, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with sudden cardiac arrest occurring in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI-SCA) are believed to be at similar risk of death after revascularization compared with MI patients without SCA (MI-no SCA). Among patients with anterior MI, we examined whether those with MI-SCA were at greater risk of all-cause mortality or sudden cardiac death (SCD) than MI-no SCA patients. METHODS: The Home Automated External Defibrillator Trial enrolled patients with anterior MI who had not received or were candidates for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Our cohort included patients with a reported SCA event, in the acute phase of an MI, prior to HAT trial enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models examined the adjusted association between MI-SCA versus MI-no SCA patients and all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We also determined whether the relationship between prior SCA and outcomes changed with subsequent events (syncope, revascularization, and recurrent MI) during follow-up. RESULTS: Of 6849 patients, 650 (9.5%) had MI-SCA before trial enrollment. Approximately 48% of patients had the MI-SCA event ≤1 year prior to enrollment; 71% of SCA events were in-hospital. MI-SCA patients were younger, more frequently white, and had higher rates of prior PCI versus MI-no SCA patients. There were no differences in adjusted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.65-1.38]) or SCD (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.68-1.83) for MI-SCA vs. MI-no SCA. After ICD implantation, MI-SCA patients experienced higher all-cause mortality risk (HR 5.01, 95% CI 1.05-23.79) versus MI-no SCA patients; there was no mortality difference between MI-SCA and MI-no SCA patients without ICD implantation (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.60-1.31), [interaction p = 0.035]. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MI-SCA had similar adjusted risk of all-cause mortality and SCD compared with MI-no SCA. After ICD implantation, MI-SCA patients had higher mortality compared with MI-no SCA patients.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Parada Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Fatores de Risco
17.
Circulation ; 144(13): 1024-1038, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ISCHEMIA trial (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches) postulated that patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and moderate or severe ischemia would benefit from revascularization. We investigated the relationship between severity of CAD and ischemia and trial outcomes, overall and by management strategy. METHODS: In total, 5179 patients with moderate or severe ischemia were randomized to an initial invasive or conservative management strategy. Blinded, core laboratory-interpreted coronary computed tomographic angiography was used to assess anatomic eligibility for randomization. Extent and severity of CAD were classified with the modified Duke Prognostic Index (n=2475, 48%). Ischemia severity was interpreted by independent core laboratories (nuclear, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, exercise tolerance testing, n=5105, 99%). We compared 4-year event rates across subgroups defined by severity of ischemia and CAD. The primary end point for this analysis was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points were myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death or MI, and the trial primary end point (cardiovascular death, MI, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest). RESULTS: Relative to mild/no ischemia, neither moderate ischemia nor severe ischemia was associated with increased mortality (moderate ischemia hazard ratio [HR], 0.89 [95% CI, 0.61-1.30]; severe ischemia HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.57-1.21]; P=0.33). Nonfatal MI rates increased with worsening ischemia severity (HR for moderate ischemia, 1.20 [95% CI, 0.86-1.69] versus mild/no ischemia; HR for severe ischemia, 1.37 [95% CI, 0.98-1.91]; P=0.04 for trend, P=NS after adjustment for CAD). Increasing CAD severity was associated with death (HR, 2.72 [95% CI, 1.06-6.98]) and MI (HR, 3.78 [95% CI, 1.63-8.78]) for the most versus least severe CAD subgroup. Ischemia severity did not identify a subgroup with treatment benefit on mortality, MI, the trial primary end point, or cardiovascular death or MI. In the most severe CAD subgroup (n=659), the 4-year rate of cardiovascular death or MI was lower in the invasive strategy group (difference, 6.3% [95% CI, 0.2%-12.4%]), but 4-year all-cause mortality was similar. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemia severity was not associated with increased risk after adjustment for CAD severity. More severe CAD was associated with increased risk. Invasive management did not lower all-cause mortality at 4 years in any ischemia or CAD subgroup. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01471522.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Circulation ; 144(13): 1024-1038, Sept. 2021. graf., tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1292581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ISCHEMIA trial (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches) postulated that patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and moderate or severe ischemia would benefit from revascularization. We investigated the relationship between severity of CAD and ischemia and trial outcomes, overall and by management strategy. METHODS: In total, 5179 patients with moderate or severe ischemia were randomized to an initial invasive or conservative management strategy. Blinded, core laboratory­interpreted coronary computed tomographic angiography was used to assess anatomic eligibility for randomization. Extent and severity of CAD were classified with the modified Duke Prognostic Index (n=2475, 48%). Ischemia severity was interpreted by independent core laboratories (nuclear, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, exercise tolerance testing, n=5105, 99%). We compared 4-year event rates across subgroups defined by severity of ischemia and CAD. The primary end point for this analysis was all-cause mortality. Secondary end points were myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular death or MI, and the trial primary end point (cardiovascular death, MI, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest). RESULTS: Relative to mild/no ischemia, neither moderate ischemia nor severe ischemia was associated with increased mortality (moderate ischemia hazard ratio [HR], 0.89 [95% CI, 0.61­1.30]; severe ischemia HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.57­1.21]; P=0.33). Nonfatal MI rates increased with worsening ischemia severity (HR for moderate ischemia, 1.20 [95% CI, 0.86­1.69] versus mild/no ischemia; HR for severe ischemia, 1.37 [95% CI, 0.98­1.91]; P=0.04 for trend, P=NS after adjustment for CAD). Increasing CAD severity was associated with death (HR, 2.72 [95% CI, 1.06­6.98]) and MI (HR, 3.78 [95% CI, 1.63­8.78]) for the most versus least severe CAD subgroup. Ischemia severity did not identify a subgroup with treatment benefit on mortality, MI, the trial primary end point, or cardiovascular death or MI. In the most severe CAD subgroup (n=659), the 4-year rate of cardiovascular death or MI was lower in the invasive strategy group (difference, 6.3% [95% CI, 0.2%­12.4%]), but 4-year all-cause mortality was similar. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemia severity was not associated with increased risk after adjustment for CAD severity. More severe CAD was associated with increased risk. Invasive management did not lower all-cause mortality at 4 years in any ischemia or CAD subgroup.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Isquemia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Ponte de Artéria Coronária
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(2): 126-138, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhythm control strategies for atrial fibrillation (AF), including catheter ablation, are substantially underused in racial/ethnic minorities in North America. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe outcomes in the CABANA trial as a function of race/ethnicity. METHODS: CABANA randomized 2,204 symptomatic participants with AF to ablation or drug therapy including rate and/or rhythm control drugs. Only participants in North America were included in the present analysis, and participants were subgrouped as racial/ethnic minority or nonminority with the use of National Institutes of Health definitions. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, disabling stroke, serious bleeding, or cardiac arrest. RESULTS: Of 1,280 participants enrolled in CABANA in North America, 127 (9.9%) were racial and ethnic minorities. Compared with nonminorities, racial and ethnic minorities were younger with median age 65.6 versus 68.5 years, respectively, and had more symptomatic heart failure (37.0% vs 22.0%), hypertension (92.1% vs 76.8%, respectively), and ejection fraction <40% (20.8% vs 7.1%). Racial/ethnic minorities treated with ablation had a 68% relative reduction in the primary endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-0.78) and a 72% relative reduction in all-cause mortality (aHR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10-0.79). Primary event rates in racial/ethnic minority and nonminority participants were similar in the ablation arm (4-year Kaplan-Meier event rates 12.3% vs 9.9%); however, racial and ethnic minorities randomized to drug therapy had a much higher event rate than nonminority participants (27.4% vs. 9.4%). CONCLUSION: Among racial or ethnic minorities enrolled in the North American CABANA cohort, catheter ablation significantly improved major clinical outcomes compared with drug therapy. These benefits, which were not seen in nonminority participants, appear to be due to worse outcomes with drug therapy. (Catheter Ablation vs Anti-arrhythmic Drug Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation Trial [CABANA]; NCT00911508).


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia
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