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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CeTeG/NOA-09 phase-III trial demonstrated a significant survival benefit of lomustine-temozolomide chemoradiation in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients with methylated O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter. Following lomustine-temozolomide chemoradiation, late and prolonged pseudoprogression may occur. We here evaluated the value of amino acid PET using O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) for differentiating pseudoprogression from tumor progression. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients (i) who were treated off-study according to the CeTeG/NOA-09 protocol, (ii) had equivocal MRI findings after radiotherapy, and (iii) underwent additional FET-PET imaging for diagnostic evaluation (number of scans, 1-3). Maximum and mean tumor-to-brain ratios (TBRmax, TBRmean) and dynamic FET uptake parameters (e.g., time-to-peak) were calculated. In patients with more than one FET-PET scan, relative changes of TBR values were evaluated, i.e., an increase or decrease of >10% compared to the reference scan was considered as tumor progression or pseudoprogression. Diagnostic performances were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and Fisher's exact test. Diagnoses were confirmed histologically or clinicoradiologically. RESULTS: We identified 23 patients with 32 FET-PET scans. Within 5-25 weeks after radiotherapy (median time, 9 weeks), pseudoprogression occurred in 11 patients (48%). The parameter TBRmean calculated from the FET-PET performed 10{plus minus}7 days after the equivocal MRI showed the highest accuracy (87%) to identify pseudoprogression (threshold, <1.95; P=0.029). The integration of relative changes of TBRmean further improved the accuracy (91%; P<0.001). Moreover, the combination of static and dynamic parameters increased the specificity to 100% (P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that FET-PET parameters are of significant clinical value to diagnose pseudoprogression related to lomustine-temozolomide chemoradiation.

2.
Radiother Oncol ; 154: 327-353, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712263

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Guias como Assunto , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Consenso , Neoplasias do Endométrio/radioterapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Virchows Arch ; 478(2): 153-190, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604759

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Oncologia/normas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia/normas , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 223-234, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined-modality treatment consisting of chemotherapy and consolidation radiotherapy is standard of care for patients with early-stage unfavourable Hodgkin lymphoma. However, the use of radiotherapy can have long-term sequelae, which is of particular concern, as Hodgkin lymphoma is frequently diagnosed in young adults with a median age of approximately 30 years. In the German Hodgkin Study Group HD17 trial, we investigated whether radiotherapy can be omitted without loss of efficacy in patients who have a complete metabolic response after receiving two cycles of escalated doses of etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin, and regular doses of bleomycin, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (eBEACOPP) plus two cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy (2 + 2). METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, patients (aged 18-60 years) with newly diagnosed early-stage unfavourable Hodgkin lymphoma (all histologies) and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less were enrolled at 224 hospitals and private practices in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and the Netherlands. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either standard combined-modality treatment, consisting of the 2 + 2 regimen (eBEACOPP consisted of 1250 mg/m2 intravenous cyclophosphamide on day 1, 35 mg/m2 intravenous doxorubicin on day 1, 200 mg/m2 intravenous etoposide on days 1-3, 100 mg/m2 oral procarbazine on days 1-7, 40 mg/m2 oral prednisone on days 1-14, 1·4 mg/m2 intravenous vincristine on day 8 [maximum dose of 2 mg per cycle], and 10 mg/m2 intravenous bleomycin on day 8; ABVD consisted of 25 mg/m2 intravenous doxorubicin, 10 mg/m2 intravenous bleomycin, 6 mg/m2 intravenous vinblastine, and 375 mg/m2 intravenous dacarbazine, all given on days 1 and 15) followed by 30 Gy involved-field radiotherapy (standard combined-modality treatment group) or PET4-guided treatment, consisting of the 2 + 2 regimen followed by 30 Gy of involved-node radiotherapy only in patients with positive PET at the end of four cycles of chemotherapy (PET4; PET4-guided treatment group). Randomisation was done centrally and used the minimisation method and seven stratification factors (centre, age, sex, clinical symptoms, disease localisation, albumin concentration, and bulky disease), and patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation until central review of the PET4 examination had been completed. With the final analysis presented here, the primary objective was to show non-inferiority of the PET4-guided strategy in a per-protocol analysis of the primary endpoint of progression-free survival. We defined non-inferiority as an absolute difference of 8% in the 5-year progression-free survival estimates between the two groups. Safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01356680. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13, 2012, and March 21, 2017, we enrolled and randomly assigned 1100 patients to the standard combined-modality treatment group (n=548) or to the PET4-guided treatment group (n=552); two patients in each group were found ineligible after randomisation. At a median follow-up of 46·2 months (IQR 32·7-61·2), 5-year progression-free survival was 97·3% (95% CI 94·5-98·7) in the standard combined-modality treatment group and 95·1% (92·0-97·0) in the PET4-guided treatment group (hazard ratio 0·523 [95% CI 0·226-1·211]). The between-group difference was 2·2% (95% CI -0·9 to 5·3) and excluded the non-inferiority margin of 8%. The most common grade 3 or 4 acute haematological adverse events were leucopenia (436 [83%] of 528 patients in the standard combined-modality treatment group vs 443 [84%] of 529 patients in the PET4-guided treatment group) and thrombocytopenia (139 [26%] vs 176 [33%]), and the most frequent acute non-haematological toxic effects were infection (32 [6%] vs 40 [8%]) and nausea or vomiting (38 [7%] vs 29 [6%]). The most common acute radiotherapy-associated adverse events were dysphagia (26 [6%] in the standard combined-modality treatment group vs three [2%] in the PET4-guided treatment group) and mucositis (nine [2%] vs none). 229 serious adverse events were reported by 161 (29%) of 546 patients in the combined-modality treatment group, and 235 serious adverse events were reported by 164 (30%) of 550 patients in the PET4-guided treatment group. One suspected unexpected serious adverse reaction (infection) leading to death was reported in the PET4-guided treatment group. INTERPRETATION: PET4-negativity after treatment with 2 + 2 chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage unfavourable Hodgkin lymphoma allows omission of consolidation radiotherapy without a clinically relevant loss of efficacy. PET4-guided therapy could thereby reduce the proportion of patients at risk of the late effects of radiotherapy. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Dacarbazina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Procarbazina/administração & dosagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cancer Imaging ; 21(1): 22, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expression of CXCR4, a chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor that plays a central role in tumor growth and metastasis of circulating tumor cells, has been described in a variety of solid tumors. A high expression of CXCR4 has a prognostic significance with regard to overall and progression-free survival and offers a starting point for targeted therapies. In this context, [68]Ga-Pentixafor-Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography (PET/CT) offers promising possibility of imaging the CXCR4 expression profile. We set out to compare a [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT and a [68Ga]Pentixafor-PET/CT in (re-)staging and radiation planning of patients with localized esophageal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, ten patients, with adeno- or squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (n = 3 and n = 7, respectively), which were scheduled for radio (chemo) therapy, were imaged using both Pentixafor and FDG PET/CT examinations. All lesions were visually rated as Pentixafor and FDG positive or negative. For both tracers, SUVmax was measured all lesions and compared to background. Additionally, immunohistochemistry of CXCR4 was obtained in patients undergoing surgery. RESULTS: FDG-positive tumor-suspicious lesions were detected in all patients and a total of 26 lesions were counted. The lesion-based analysis brought equal status in 14 lesions which were positive for both tracers while five lesions were FDG positive and Pentixafor negative and seven lesions were FDG negative, but Pentixafor positive. Histopathologic correlation was available in seven patients. The CXCR4 expression of four non-pretreated tumour lesion samples was confirmed immunohistochemically. CONCLUSION: Our data shows that additional PET/CT imaging with Pentixafor for imaging the CXCR4 chemokine receptor is feasible but heterogeneous in both newly diagnosed and pretreated recurrent esophageal cancer. In addition, the Pentixafor PET/CT may serve as complementary tool for radiation field expansion in radiooncology.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/uso terapêutico , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(1): 12-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397713

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multi-disciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33265910

RESUMO

The role of postoperative radiotherapy delivered as external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) or a combination of both, in the management of carcinosarcoma of the uterus is not clearly defined, as only limited randomized trial data are available, indicating a reduction in locoregional recurrences after EBRT. We performed a structured review of data published from 2010. Although no relevant new data from prospective trials or meta-analyses were identified, 14 analyses of cancer registry data from the United States or Europe, focusing predominantly on the endpoint for overall survival, were identified, four of them using propensity-score matching to compare subgroups treated with vs. without radiotherapy. Although stage-by-stage data are rare, the registry analyses support the idea of a beneficial effect, especially of VBT, on overall survival in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IA patients (to a lesser extent in stage IB). For stages II to III, the data sets indicate the largest effects on overall survival for the combination of EBRT and VBT. In all stages, survival effects of radiotherapy apparently persist when given in addition to chemotherapy. Whereas some studies see the strongest survival effects in patients with positive lymph nodes, propensity-score matched data indicate an overall survival effect of radiotherapy (EBRT + VBT or VBT alone) in FIGO stages I to III regardless of lymph node surgery.

10.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(12): 1855-1861, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Revised staging of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer is based on clinical examination, imaging, and potential surgical findings. A known limitation of imaging techniques is an appreciable rate of understaging. In contrast, surgical staging may provide more accurate information on lymph node involvement. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of pre-treatment surgical staging, including removal of bulky lymph nodes, on disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: Uterus-11 was a prospective international multicenter study including patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who were randomized 1:1 to surgical staging (experimental arm) or clinical staging (control arm) followed by primary platinum-based chemoradiation. Patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 stage IIB-IVA underwent gynecologic examination and pre-treatment imaging including abdominal computed tomography (CT) and/or abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients had chest imaging (any of the following: X-ray, CT, or PET-CT). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival and the secondary endpoint was overall survival. An ad hoc analysis was performed after trial completion for cancer-specific survival. Randomization was conducted from February 2009 to August 2013. RESULTS: A total of 255 patients (surgical arm, n=130; clinical arm, n=125) with locally advanced cervical cancer were randomized. Of these, 240 patients were eligible for analysis. The two groups were comparable with respect to patient characteristics. The surgical approach was transperitoneal laparoscopy in most patients (96.6%). Laparoscopic staging led to upstaging in 39 of 120 (33%) patients. After a median follow-up of 90 months (range 1-123) in both arms, there was no difference in disease-free survival between the groups (p=0.084). For patients with FIGO stage IIB, surgical staging is superior to clinical staging with respect to disease-free survival (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.86, p=0.011). In the post-hoc analysis, surgical staging was associated with better cancer-specific survival (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.93, p=0.020). CONCLUSION: Our study did not show a difference in disease-free survival between surgical and clinical staging in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. There was a significant benefit in disease-free survival for patients with FIGO stage IIB and, in a post-hoc analysis, a cancer-specific survival benefit in favor of laparoscopic staging. The high risk of distant metastases in both arms emphasizes the need for further evaluation.

11.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170066

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the performance of a narrow-scope knowledge-based RapidPlan (RP) model, for optimisation of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans applied to patients with locally advanced carcinoma in the gastroesophageal junction. METHODS: A cohort of 60 patients was retrospectively selected; 45 were used to 'train' a dose-volume histogram predictive model; the remaining 15 provided independent validation. The performance of the RP model was benchmarked against manual optimisation. Quantitative assessment was based on several dose-volume metrics. RESULTS: Manual and RP-optimised IMPT plans resulted dosimetrically similar, and the planning dose-volume objectives were met for all structures. Concerning the validation set, the comparison of the manual vs RP-based plans, respectively, showed for the target (PTV): the homogeneity index was 6.3 ± 2.2 vs 5.9 ± 1.2, and V98% was 89.3 ± 2.9 vs 91.4 ± 2.2% (this was 97.2 ± 1.9 vs 98.8 ± 1.1 for the CTV). Regarding the organs at risk, no significant differences were reported for the combined lungs, the whole heart, the left anterior descending artery, the kidneys, the spleen and the spinal canal. The D0.1 cm3 for the left ventricle resulted in 40.3 ± 3.4 vs 39.7 ± 4.3 Gy(RBE). The mean dose to the liver was 3.4 ± 1.3 vs 3.6 ± 1.5 Gy(RBE). CONCLUSION: A narrow-scope knowledge-based RP model was trained and validated for IMPT delivery in locally advanced cancer of the gastroesophageal junction. The results demonstrate that RP can create models for effective IMPT. Furthermore, the equivalence between manual interactive and unattended RP-based optimisation could be displayed. The data also showed a high correlation between predicted and achieved doses in support of the valuable predictive power of the RP method.

12.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(11): 1798-1802, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lymphadenectomy is an integral part of surgical staging and treatment for patients with gynecologic malignancies. Since its introduction, laparoscopic lymphadenectomy has proved feasible, safe, and oncologically adequate compared with open surgery while morbidity is lower and hospital stay considerably shorter. The aim of this study was to examine if surgical outcomes may be improved after the initial learning curve is complete. METHODS: An analysis of 2535 laparoscopic pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomies was performed between July 1994 and March 2018 by one team of gynecologic oncology surgeons but with the consistent supervision of a consultant surgeon. Data were collected prospectively evaluating operative time, intra-operative and post-operative complications, number of lymph nodes, and body mass index (BMI). Previously published data of 650 patients treated after introduction of the method (period 1, 1994-2003) were compared with the latter 524 patients (period 2, 2014-2018). RESULTS: The median age of the 2535 patients was 43 years (IQR 34-57). The most common indication for pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy was cervical cancer (n=1893). Operative time for para-aortic lymph node dissection was shorter in period 2 (68 vs 100 min, p<0.001). The number of harvested lymph nodes was increased for pelvic (19.2 (range 2-52) vs 21.9 (range 4-87)) and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (10.8 (range 1-52) vs 14.4 (range 4-64)), p<0.001. BMI did not have a significant influence on node count or operative time, with BMI ranging from 14.6 to 54.1 kg/m2. In contrast to period 1 (n=18, 2.9%), there were no intra-operative complications in period 2 (n=0, 0.0%, p<0.001) whereas post-operative complications were similar (n=35 (5.8%) in period 1; n=38 (7.6%) in period 2; p=0.32). CONCLUSION: In this large cohort of patients who underwent laparoscopic transperitoneal lymphadenectomy, lymph node count and peri-operative complications improved after the initial learning curve.

13.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 196(12): 1080-1085, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123776

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The described work aimed to avoid cancellations of indispensable treatments by implementing active patient flow management practices and optimizing infrastructure utilization in the radiation oncology department of a large university hospital and regional COVID-19 treatment center close to the first German SARS-CoV­2 hotspot region Heinsberg in order to prevent nosocomial infections in patients and personnel during the pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study comprised year-to-date intervention analyses of in- and outpatient key procedures, machine occupancy, and no-show rates in calendar weeks 12 to 19 of 2019 and 2020 to evaluate effects of active patient flow management while monitoring nosocomial COVID-19 infections. RESULTS: Active patient flow management helped to maintain first-visit appointment compliance above 85.5%. A slight appointment reduction of 10.3% daily (p = 0.004) could still significantly increase downstream planning CT scheduling (p = 0.00001) and performance (p = 0.0001), resulting in an absolute 20.1% (p = 0.009) increment of CT performance while avoiding overbooking practices. Daily treatment start was significantly increased by an absolute value of 18.5% (p = 0.026). Hypofractionation and acceleration were significantly increased (p = 0.0043). Integrating strict testing guidelines, a distancing regimen for staff and patients, hygiene regulations, and precise appointment scheduling, no SARS-CoV­2 infection in 164 tested radiation oncology service inpatients was observed. CONCLUSION: In times of reduced medical infrastructure capacities and resources, controlling infrastructural time per patient as well as optimizing facility utilization and personnel workload during treatment evaluation, planning, and irradiation can help to improve appointment compliance and quality management. Avoiding recurrent and preventable exposure to healthcare infrastructure has potential health benefits and might avert cross infections during the pandemic. Active patient flow management in high-risk COVID-19 regions can help Radiation Oncologists to continue and initiate treatments safely, instead of cancelling and deferring indicated therapies.

14.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consolidation brachytherapy is a critical treatment component for cervical cancer patients undergoing primary chemoradiation. Some patients are unsuitable for brachytherapy for a variety of reasons. The use of alternatives (LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery or external beam boosts) compromise oncologic results in cervical cancer patients. Thus, we evaluated the value of brachytherapy-like doses prescriptions using robotic radiosurgery (CyberKnife®, CR, Acuuray, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). METHODS: From 06/2011 to 06/2015, 31 patients (median age 53 years; range 30-77 years) with histologically proven FIGO stages IB-IVB cervical cancer underwent primary chemoradiation. All patients were either not suitable for intracervical brachytherapy for a variety of reasons or refused the brachytherapy. To achieve an adequate dose within the tumor, a CK boost was applied after fiducial implantation. In 29 patients, a dose of either five times 6 Gy or five times 5 Gy was prescribed to the target volume. Two patients received three times 5 Gy. The target dose was prescribed to the 70% isodose. Treatment toxicity was documented once weekly regarding vaginal mucositis, bladder, and bowel irritation according to CTCAE v. 4.03. If possible 3 months after completion of treatment intracervical curettage was performed to exclude residual tumor and the patients were followed up clinically. Sparing of organs at risk (OAR) and outcome in terms of local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 31 patients, 30 have completed CK boost therapy. The median follow-up time was 40 months (range 5-84 months). General treatment tolerability was good. Except for 1 patient, who had diarrhea grade 3, no treatment related side effects above grade 2 were reported. Sparing of OAR was excellent. The 1­, 3­, and 5­year OS rates were 89, 60, and 57% respectively across all stages. Seven patients showed progression (28%), only two of them with local relapse (8%), resulting in an LC rate of 92% after 3 and 5 years. Mean PFS was 41 months (range 2-84 months). Patients with local recurrence had PFS of 5 and 8 months. Five patients developed distant metastases. Fifteen patients (48%) underwent intracervical curettage 3 months after completion of treatment of which 14 (93%) had complete pathologic response. CONCLUSION: Brachytherapy remains the standard of care for patients diagnosed with cervical cancer and indication for primary chemoradiation. In terms of local control, CyberKnife®-based boost concepts provide excellent local control. It can be an alternative for patients who cannot receive adequate brachytherapy. Distant relapse still remains a challenge in this context.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927671

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer has been histologically classified as either an estrogen-dependent cancer with a favorable outcome or an estrogen-independent cancer with a worse prognosis. These parameters, along with the clinical attributions, have been the basis for risk stratification. Recent molecular and histopathological findings have suggested a more complex approach to risk stratification. Findings from the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network established four distinctive genomic groups: ultramutated, hypermutated, copy-number low and copy-number high prognostic subtypes. Subsequently, more molecular and histopathologic classifiers were evaluated for their prognostic and predictive value. The impact of molecular classification is evident and will be recognized by the upcoming WHO classification. Further research is needed to give rise to a new era of molecular-based endometrial carcinoma patient care.

16.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887757

RESUMO

Purpose: We investigated the value of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) PET for treatment monitoring of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) or targeted therapy (TT) alone or in combination with radiotherapy in patients with brain metastases (BM) since contrast-enhanced MRI often remains inconclusive. Methods: We retrospectively identified 40 patients with 107 BM secondary to melanoma (n = 29 with 75 BM) or non-small cell lung cancer (n = 11 with 32 BM) treated with ICI or TT who had 18F-FET PET (n = 60 scans) for treatment monitoring from 2015-2019. The majority of patients (n = 37; 92.5%) had radiotherapy during the course of disease. In 27 patients, 18F-FET PET was used for the differentiation of treatment-related changes from BM relapse following ICI or TT. In 13 patients, 18F-FET PET was performed for response assessement to ICI or TT using baseline and follow-up scans (median time between scans, 4.2 months). In all lesions, static and dynamic 18F-FET PET parameters were obtained (i.e., mean tumor-to-brain ratios (TBR), time-to-peak values). Diagnostic accuracies of PET parameters were evaluated by receiver-operating-characteristic analyses using the clinical follow-up or neuropathological findings as reference. Results: A TBR threshold of 1.95 differentiated BM relapse from treatment-related changes with an accuracy of 85% (P = 0.003). Metabolic responders to ICI or TT on 18F-FET PET had a significantly longer stable follow-up (threshold of TBR reduction relative to baseline, ≥10%; accuracy, 82%; P = 0.004). Furthermore, at follow-up, time-to-peak values in metabolic responders increased significantly (P = 0.019). Conclusion: 18F-FET PET may add valuable information for treatment monitoring in BM patients treated with ICI or TT.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867046

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) has been established as successful modality in cancer treatment. Combination concepts are used to optimize treatment outcome, but may also induce higher toxicity rates than monotherapy. Several rationales support the combination of radiotherapy (RT) with ICI as radioimmunotherapy (RIT), but it is still unknown in which clinical situation RIT would be most beneficial. Therefore, we have conducted a retrospective matched-pair analysis of 201 patients with advanced-stage cancers and formed two groups treated with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors only (PD1i) or in combination with local RT (RIT) at our center between 2013 and 2017. We collected baseline characteristics, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) status, mutational status, PD-1 inhibitor and RT treatment details, and side effects according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v.5.0. Patients received pembrolizumab (n = 93) or nivolumab (n = 108), 153 with additional RT. For overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), there was no significant difference between both groups. After propensity score matching (PSM), we analyzed 96 patients, 67 with additional and 29 without RT. We matched for different covariates that could have a possible influence on the treatment outcome. The RIT group displayed a trend towards a longer OS until the PD1i group reached a survival plateau. PD-L1-positive patients, smokers, patients with a BMI ≤ 25, and patients without malignant melanoma showed a longer OS when treated with RIT. Our data show that some subgroups may benefit more from RIT than others. Suitable biomarkers as well as the optimal timing and dosage must be established in order to achieve the best effect on cancer treatment outcome.

18.
Eur J Cancer ; 137: 69-80, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SENTIX (ENGOT-CX2/CEEGOG-CX1) is an international, multicentre, prospective observational trial evaluating sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy without pelvic lymph node dissection in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. We report the final preplanned analysis of the secondary end-points: SLN mapping and outcomes of intraoperative SLN pathology. METHODS: Forty-seven sites (18 countries) with experience of SLN biopsy participated in SENTIX. We preregistered patients with stage IA1/lymphovascular space invasion-positive to IB2 (4 cm or smaller or 2 cm or smaller for fertility-sparing treatment) cervical cancer without suspicious lymph nodes on imaging before surgery. SLN frozen section assessment and pathological ultrastaging were mandatory. Patients were registered postoperatively if SLN were bilaterally detected in the pelvis, and frozen sections were negative. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02494063). RESULTS: We analysed data for 395 preregistered patients. Bilateral detection was achieved in 91% (355/395), and it was unaffected by tumour size, tumour stage or body mass index, but it was lower in older patients, in patients who underwent open surgery, and in sites with fewer cases. No SLN were found outside the seven anatomical pelvic regions. Most SLN and positive SLN were localised below the common iliac artery bifurcation. Single positive SLN above the iliac bifurcation were found in 2% of cases. Frozen sections failed to detect 54% of positive lymph nodes (pN1), including 28% of cases with macrometastases and 90% with micrometastases. INTERPRETATION: SLN biopsy can achieve high bilateral SLN detection in patients with tumours of 4 cm or smaller. At experienced centres, all SLN were found in the pelvis, and most were located below the iliac vessel bifurcation. SLN frozen section assessment is an unreliable tool for intraoperative triage because it only detects about half of N1 cases.

19.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 120, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the role of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), realised with RapidArc and RapidPlan methods (RA_RP) for neoadjuvant radiotherapy in locally advanced oesophagal cancer. METHODS: Twenty patients were retrospectively planned for IMPT (with two fields, (IMPT_2F) or with three fields (IMPT_3F)) and RA_RP and the results were compared according to dose-volume metrics. Estimates of the excess absolute risk (EAR) of secondary cancer induction were determined for the lungs. For the cardiac structures, the relative risk (RR) of coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) were estimated. RESULTS: Both the RA_RP and IMPT approached allowed to achieve the required coverage for the gross tumour volume, (GTV) and the clinical and the planning target volumes, CTV and PTV (V98% > 98 for CTV and GTV and V95% > 95 for the PTV)). The conformity index resulted in 0.88 ± 0.01, 0.89 ± 0.02 and 0.89 ± 0.02 for RA_RP, IMPT_2F and IMPT_3F respectively. With the same order, the homogeneity index for the PTV resulted in 5.6 ± 0.6%, 4.4 ± 0.9% and 4.5 ± 0.8%. Concerning the organs at risk, the IMPT plans showed a systematic and statistically significant incremental sparing when compared to RA_RP, especially for the heart. The mean dose to the combined lungs was 8.6 ± 2.9 Gy for RA_RP, 3.2 ± 1.5 Gy and 2.9 ± 1.2 Gy for IMPT_2F and IMPT_3F. The mean dose to the whole heart resulted to 9.9 ± 1.9 Gy for RA_RP compared to 3.7 ± 1.3 Gy or 4.0 ± 1.4 Gy for IMPT_2F or IMPT_3F; the mean dose to the left ventricle resulted to 6.5 ± 1.6 Gy, 1.9 ± 1.5 Gy, 1.9 ± 1.6 Gy respectively. Similar sparing effects were observed for the liver, the kidneys, the stomach, the spleen and the bowels. The EAR per 10,000 patients-years of secondary cancer induction resulted in 19.2 ± 5.7 for RA_RP and 6.1 ± 2.7 for IMPT_2F or 5.7 ± 2.4 for IMPT_3F. The RR for the left ventricle resulted in 1.5 ± 0.1 for RA_RP and 1.1 ± 0.1 for both IMPT sets. For the coronaries, the RR resulted in 1.6 ± 0.4 for RA_RP and 1.2 ± 0.3 for protons. CONCLUSION: With regard to cancer of the oesophagogastric junction type I and II, the use of intensity-modulated proton therapy seems to have a clear advantage over VMAT. In particular, the reduction of the heart and abdominal structures dose could result in an optimised side effect profile. Furthermore, reduced risk of secondary neoplasia in the lung can be expected in long-term survivors and would be a great gain for cured patients.

20.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(9): 1326-1330, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several recent studies have identified a potential interaction between the vaginal microbiota and gynecological cancers, but little is known about the cervical microbiota and its changes during cancer treatment. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes of cervical microbiota in patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and radiation treatment for locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: Cervical cytobrush samples of 15 cervical patients undergoing chemoradiation treatment were collected 1 day before starting external beam radiation therapy and on the day of the last fraction of brachytherapy. After DNA extraction, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 region was performed on the MiSeq platform, followed by data processing and statistical analyses concerning the alpha and beta diversity of 16 samples (7 samples were excluded because of incomplete sample sets). RESULTS: The amount of amplicon yield after polymerase chain reaction analysis in post-radiation samples was significantly lower compared with the baseline samples (pre 31.49±24.07 ng/µl; post 1.33±1.94 ng/µl; p=0.007). A comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment samples did not show significant differences regarding beta diversity (weighted UniFrac). There was no significant difference in alpha diversity, which is used to characterize species diversity within a particular community and takes into account both number and abundance (Shannon Diversity Index pre-treatment samples: 2.167±0.7504 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.79); post-treatment samples: 1.97±0.43 (95% CI 1.61 to 2.33); p=0.38). Interindividual differences in patients could partly explain some variation of the samples (permutational multivariate analysis of variance). CONCLUSION: There was a strong reduction in cervical bacterial loads after chemoradiation. Neither alpha nor beta diversity varied significantly when baseline samples were compared with post-treatment samples.

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