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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 1048-1056, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668703

RESUMO

NTNG2 encodes netrin-G2, a membrane-anchored protein implicated in the molecular organization of neuronal circuitry and synaptic organization and diversification in vertebrates. In this study, through a combination of exome sequencing and autozygosity mapping, we have identified 16 individuals (from seven unrelated families) with ultra-rare homozygous missense variants in NTNG2; these individuals present with shared features of a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of global developmental delay, severe to profound intellectual disability, muscle weakness and abnormal tone, autistic features, behavioral abnormalities, and variable dysmorphisms. The variants disrupt highly conserved residues across the protein. Functional experiments, including in silico analysis of the protein structure, in vitro assessment of cell surface expression, and in vitro knockdown, revealed potential mechanisms of pathogenicity of the variants, including loss of protein function and decreased neurite outgrowth. Our data indicate that appropriate expression of NTNG2 plays an important role in neurotypical development.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 844-853, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585108

RESUMO

Lissencephaly is a severe brain malformation in which failure of neuronal migration results in agyria or pachygyria and in which the brain surface appears unusually smooth. It is often associated with microcephaly, profound intellectual disability, epilepsy, and impaired motor abilities. Twenty-two genes are associated with lissencephaly, accounting for approximately 80% of disease. Here we report on 12 individuals with a unique form of lissencephaly; these individuals come from eight unrelated families and have bi-allelic mutations in APC2, encoding adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2. Brain imaging studies demonstrate extensive posterior predominant lissencephaly, similar to PAFAH1B1-associated lissencephaly, as well as co-occurrence of subcortical heterotopia posterior to the caudate nuclei, "ribbon-like" heterotopia in the posterior frontal region, and dysplastic in-folding of the mesial occipital cortex. The established role of APC2 in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to mediate cellular morphological changes suggests shared function with other lissencephaly-encoded cytoskeletal proteins such as α-N-catenin (CTNNA2) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b regulatory subunit 1 (PAFAH1B1, also known as LIS1). Our findings identify APC2 as a radiographically distinguishable recessive form of lissencephaly.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4790, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636353

RESUMO

Alterations of Ca2+ homeostasis have been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Ca2+ efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm is controlled by binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to its receptor. Activated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are then rapidly degraded by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Mutations in genes encoding the neuronal isoform of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR1) and genes involved in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor degradation (ERLIN1, ERLIN2) are known to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and cerebellar ataxia. We provide evidence that mutations in the ubiquitin E3 ligase gene RNF170, which targets inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors for degradation, are the likely cause of autosomal recessive HSP in four unrelated families and functionally evaluate the consequences of mutations in patient fibroblasts, mutant SH-SY5Y cells and by gene knockdown in zebrafish. Our findings highlight inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling as a candidate key pathway for hereditary spastic paraplegias and cerebellar ataxias and thus prioritize this pathway for therapeutic interventions.

4.
Brain ; 142(10): 2948-2964, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501903

RESUMO

Axon pathfinding and synapse formation are essential processes for nervous system development and function. The assembly of myelinated fibres and nodes of Ranvier is mediated by a number of cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily including neurofascin, encoded by the NFASC gene, and its alternative isoforms Nfasc186 and Nfasc140 (located in the axonal membrane at the node of Ranvier) and Nfasc155 (a glial component of the paranodal axoglial junction). We identified 10 individuals from six unrelated families, exhibiting a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized with a spectrum of central (intellectual disability, developmental delay, motor impairment, speech difficulties) and peripheral (early onset demyelinating neuropathy) neurological involvement, who were found by exome or genome sequencing to carry one frameshift and four different homozygous non-synonymous variants in NFASC. Expression studies using immunostaining-based techniques identified absent expression of the Nfasc155 isoform as a consequence of the frameshift variant and a significant reduction of expression was also observed in association with two non-synonymous variants affecting the fibronectin type III domain. Cell aggregation studies revealed a severely impaired Nfasc155-CNTN1/CASPR1 complex interaction as a result of the identified variants. Immunofluorescence staining of myelinated fibres from two affected individuals showed a severe loss of myelinated fibres and abnormalities in the paranodal junction morphology. Our results establish that recessive variants affecting the Nfasc155 isoform can affect the formation of paranodal axoglial junctions at the nodes of Ranvier. The genetic disease caused by biallelic NFASC variants includes neurodevelopmental impairment and a spectrum of central and peripheral demyelination as part of its core clinical phenotype. Our findings support possible overlapping molecular mechanisms of paranodal damage at peripheral nerves in both the immune-mediated and the genetic disease, but the observation of prominent central neurological involvement in NFASC biallelic variant carriers highlights the importance of this gene in human brain development and function.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 83, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vast majority of cases with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are caused by a molecular defect in the imprinted chromosome region 11p15.5. The underlying mechanisms include epimutations, uniparental disomy, copy number variations, and structural rearrangements. In addition, maternal loss-of-function mutations in CDKN1C are found. Despite growing knowledge on BWS pathogenesis, up to 20% of patients with BWS phenotype remain without molecular diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report an Iranian family with two females affected with BWS in different generations. Bisulfite pyrosequencing revealed hypermethylation of the H19/IGF2: intergenic differentially methylated region (IG DMR), also known as imprinting center 1 (IC1) and hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1: transcriptional start site (TSS) DMR (IC2). Array CGH demonstrated an 8 Mb duplication on chromosome 11p15.5p15.4 (205,827-8,150,933) and a 1 Mb deletion on chromosome 9p24.3 (209,020-1,288,114). Chromosome painting revealed that this duplication-deficiency in both patients is due to unbalanced segregation of a paternal reciprocal t(9;11)(p24.3;p15.4) translocation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a paternally inherited unbalanced translocation between the chromosome 9 and 11 short arms underlying familial BWS. Copy number variations involving the 11p15.5 region are detected by the consensus diagnostic algorithm. However, in complex cases which do not only affect the BWS region itself, characterization of submicroscopic chromosome rearrangements can assist to estimate the recurrence risk and possible phenotypic outcomes.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9038, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227780

RESUMO

Junctophilin-2 (JPH2) is a part of the junctional membrane complex that facilitates calcium-handling in the cardiomyocyte. Previously, missense variants in JPH2 have been linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; however, pathogenic "loss of function" (LOF) variants have not been described. Family-based genetic analysis of GME individuals with cardiomyopathic disease identified an Iranian patient with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as a carrier of a novel, homozygous single nucleotide insertion in JPH2 resulting in a stop codon (JPH2-p.E641*). A second Iranian family with consanguineous parents hosting an identical heterozygous variant had 2 children die in childhood from cardiac failure. To characterize ethnicity-dependent genetic variability in JPH2 and to identify homozygous JPH2 variants associated with cardiac disease, we identified variants in JPH2 in a worldwide control cohort (gnomAD) and 2 similar cohorts from the Greater Middle East (GME Variome, Iranome). These were compared against ethnicity-matched clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) referral tests and a case cohort of individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) based on comprehensive review of the literature. Worldwide, 1.45% of healthy individuals hosted a rare JPH2 variant with a significantly higher proportion among GME individuals (4.45%); LOF variants were rare overall (0.04%) yet were most prevalent in GME (0.21%). The increased prevalence of LOF variants in GME individuals was corroborated among region-specific, clinical WES cohorts. In conclusion, we report ethnic-specific differences in JPH2 rare variants, with GME individuals being at higher risk of hosting homozygous LOF variants. This conclusion is supported by the identification of a novel JPH2 LOF variant confirmed by segregation analysis resulting in autosomal recessive pediatric DCM due to presumptive JPH2 truncation.

8.
Genome Res ; 29(7): 1057-1066, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160375

RESUMO

Germline mutations in fundamental epigenetic regulatory molecules including DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) are commonly associated with growth disorders, whereas somatic mutations are often associated with malignancy. We profiled genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in DNMT3A c.2312G > A; p.(Arg771Gln) carriers in a large Amish sibship with Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS), their mosaic father, and 15 TBRS patients with distinct pathogenic de novo DNMT3A variants. This defined widespread DNA hypomethylation at specific genomic sites enriched at locations annotated as genes involved in morphogenesis, development, differentiation, and malignancy predisposition pathways. TBRS patients also displayed highly accelerated DNA methylation aging. These findings were most marked in a carrier of the AML-associated driver mutation p.Arg882Cys. Our studies additionally defined phenotype-related accelerated and decelerated epigenetic aging in two histone methyltransferase disorders: NSD1 Sotos syndrome overgrowth disorder and KMT2D Kabuki syndrome growth impairment. Together, our findings provide fundamental new insights into aberrant epigenetic mechanisms, the role of epigenetic machinery maintenance, and determinants of biological aging in these growth disorders.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 936-947, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982608

RESUMO

Microglia are CNS-resident macrophages that scavenge debris and regulate immune responses. Proliferation and development of macrophages, including microglia, requires Colony Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor (CSF1R), a gene previously associated with a dominant adult-onset neurological condition (adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia). Here, we report two unrelated individuals with homozygous CSF1R mutations whose presentation was distinct from ALSP. Post-mortem examination of an individual with a homozygous splice mutation (c.1754-1G>C) demonstrated several structural brain anomalies, including agenesis of corpus callosum. Immunostaining demonstrated almost complete absence of microglia within this brain, suggesting that it developed in the absence of microglia. The second individual had a homozygous missense mutation (c.1929C>A [p.His643Gln]) and presented with developmental delay and epilepsy in childhood. We analyzed a zebrafish model (csf1rDM) lacking Csf1r function and found that their brains also lacked microglia and had reduced levels of CUX1, a neuronal transcription factor. CUX1+ neurons were also reduced in sections of homozygous CSF1R mutant human brain, identifying an evolutionarily conserved role for CSF1R signaling in production or maintenance of CUX1+ neurons. Since a large fraction of CUX1+ neurons project callosal axons, we speculate that microglia deficiency may contribute to agenesis of the corpus callosum via reduction in CUX1+ neurons. Our results suggest that CSF1R is required for human brain development and establish the csf1rDM fish as a model for microgliopathies. In addition, our results exemplify an under-recognized form of phenotypic expansion, in which genes associated with well-recognized, dominant conditions produce different phenotypes when biallelically mutated.

10.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2059-2069, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923367

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of different DEAF1 variants on the phenotype of patients with autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns and on DEAF1 activity in vitro. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 23 patients with de novo and biallelic DEAF1 variants, described the genotype-phenotype correlation, and investigated the differential effect of de novo and recessive variants on transcription assays using DEAF1 and Eif4g3 promoter luciferase constructs. RESULTS: The proportion of the most prevalent phenotypic features, including intellectual disability, speech delay, motor delay, autism, sleep disturbances, and a high pain threshold, were not significantly different in patients with biallelic and pathogenic de novo DEAF1 variants. However, microcephaly was exclusively observed in patients with recessive variants (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: We propose that different variants in the DEAF1 gene result in a phenotypic spectrum centered around neurodevelopmental delay. While a pathogenic de novo dominant variant would also incapacitate the product of the wild-type allele and result in a dominant-negative effect, a combination of two recessive variants would result in a partial loss of function. Because the clinical picture can be nonspecific, detailed phenotype information, segregation, and functional analysis are fundamental to determine the pathogenicity of novel variants and to improve the care of these patients.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(11): 1919-1929, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715372

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disorder, yet the genetic cause of up to 50% of cases remains unknown. Here, we show that mutations in KLHL24 cause HCM in humans. Using genome-wide linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we identified homozygous mutations in KLHL24 in two consanguineous families with HCM. Of the 11 young affected adults identified, 3 died suddenly and 1 had a cardiac transplant due to heart failure. KLHL24 is a member of the Kelch-like protein family, which acts as substrate-specific adaptors to Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases. Endomyocardial and skeletal muscle biopsies from affected individuals of both families demonstrated characteristic alterations, including accumulation of desmin intermediate filaments. Knock-down of the zebrafish homologue klhl24a results in heart defects similar to that described for other HCM-linked genes providing additional support for KLHL24 as a HCM-associated gene. Our findings reveal a crucial role for KLHL24 in cardiac development and function.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 129(3): 1240-1256, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620337

RESUMO

Sphingolipid imbalance is the culprit in a variety of neurological diseases, some affecting the myelin sheath. We have used whole-exome sequencing in patients with undetermined leukoencephalopathies to uncover the endoplasmic reticulum lipid desaturase DEGS1 as the causative gene in 19 patients from 13 unrelated families. Shared features among the cases include severe motor arrest, early nystagmus, dystonia, spasticity, and profound failure to thrive. MRI showed hypomyelination, thinning of the corpus callosum, and progressive thalamic and cerebellar atrophy, suggesting a critical role of DEGS1 in myelin development and maintenance. This enzyme converts dihydroceramide (DhCer) into ceramide (Cer) in the final step of the de novo biosynthesis pathway. We detected a marked increase of the substrate DhCer and DhCer/Cer ratios in patients' fibroblasts and muscle. Further, we used a knockdown approach for disease modeling in Danio rerio, followed by a preclinical test with the first-line treatment for multiple sclerosis, fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya). The enzymatic inhibition of Cer synthase by fingolimod, 1 step prior to DEGS1 in the pathway, reduced the critical DhCer/Cer imbalance and the severe locomotor disability, increasing the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes in a zebrafish model. These proof-of-concept results pave the way to clinical translation.

14.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520571

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has been instrumental in solving the genetic basis of rare inherited diseases, especially neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, functional workup is essential for precise phenotype definition and to understand the underlying disease mechanisms. Using whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 4 independent families with hypotonia, neurodevelopmental delay, facial dysmorphism, loss of white matter and thinning of the corpus callosum, we identified 4 previously unreported homozygous truncating PPP1R21 alleles: c.347delT p.(Ile116Lysfs*25), c.2170_2171insGGTA p.(Ile724Argfs*8), c.1607dupT p.(Leu536Phefs*7), c.2063delA p.(Lys688Serfs*26) and found that PPP1R21 was absent in fibroblasts of an affected individual, supporting the allele's loss of function effect. PPP1R21 function had not been studied except that a large scale affinity proteomics approach suggested an interaction with PIBF1 defective in Joubert syndrome. Our co-Immunoprecipitation studies did not confirm this but in contrast defined the localization of PPP1R21 to the early endosome. Consistent with the subcellular expression pattern and the clinical phenotype exhibiting features of storage diseases, we found patient fibroblasts exhibited a delay in clearance of transferrin-488 while uptake was normal. In summary, we delineate a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome caused by bi-allelic PPP1R21 loss of function variants, and suggest a role of PPP1R21 within the endosomal sorting process or endosome maturation pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Putative nucleotidyltransferase MAB21L1 is a member of an evolutionarily well-conserved family of the male abnormal 21 (MAB21)-like proteins. Little is known about the biochemical function of the protein; however, prior studies have shown essential roles for several aspects of embryonic development including the eye, midbrain, neural tube and reproductive organs. OBJECTIVE: A homozygous truncating variant in MAB21L1 has recently been described in a male affected by intellectual disability, scrotal agenesis, ophthalmological anomalies, cerebellar hypoplasia and facial dysmorphism. We employed a combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping to identify the underlying genetic cause in subjects with similar phenotypic features descending from five unrelated consanguineous families. RESULTS: We identified four homozygous MAB21L1 loss of function variants (p.Glu281fs*20, p.Arg287Glufs*14 p.Tyr280* and p.Ser93Serfs*48) and one missense variant (p.Gln233Pro) in 10 affected individuals from 5 consanguineous families with a distinctive autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome. Cardinal features of this syndrome include a characteristic facial gestalt, corneal dystrophy, hairy nipples, underdeveloped labioscrotal folds and scrotum/scrotal agenesis as well as cerebellar hypoplasia with ataxia and variable microcephaly. CONCLUSION: This report defines an ultrarare but clinically recognisable Cerebello-Oculo-Facio-Genital syndrome associated with recessive MAB21L1 variants. Additionally, our findings further support the critical role of MAB21L1 in cerebellum, lens, genitalia and as craniofacial morphogenesis.

17.
Kidney Int Rep ; 3(6): 1454-1463, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450471

RESUMO

Introduction: Monogenetic renal diseases, including recessively inherited nephrotic syndromes, represent a significant health burden despite being rare conditions. Precise diagnosis, including identification of the underlying molecular cause, is especially difficult in low-income countries and/or if affected individuals are unavailable for biochemical testing. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has opened up novel diagnostic perspectives for these settings. However, sometimes the DNA of affected individuals is not suitable for WES due to low amounts or degradation. Methods: We report on the use of parental WES with implementation of specific stepwise variant filtering to identify the underlying molecular cause of the childhood-onset nephrotic syndrome as nephrosialidosis resulting from a mutation in NEU1. Results: Sequencing both parents enabled a nephrosialidosis diagnosis in the deceased child. To date, only 16 other cases of nephrosialidosis have been reported in the literature, with only 1 genetically confirmed case. After we reviewed the clinical information of all reported cases, we found that most patients presented with proteinuria, which started at between 2 and 3 years of age. Renal pathology showed mainly focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)with vacuolated cells, and steroid treatment was always unsuccessful. Hepatomegaly was present in nearly all cases, whereas corneal clouding and a cherry red spot on the macula was observed in only approximately 50% of cases. Fourteen of 16 previously reported cases were no longer alive at the time of reporting. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the power of parental WES to diagnose rare genetic diseases, such as childhood-onset nephrotic syndrome. We further provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical course of nephrosialidosis and raise awareness of this ultra-rare condition as an underlying cause of FSGS.

18.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 196, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IARS2 encodes a mitochondrial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, a highly conserved nuclear-encoded enzyme required for the charging of tRNAs with their cognate amino acid for translation. Recently, pathogenic IARS2 variants have been identified in a number of patients presenting broad clinical phenotypes with autosomal recessive inheritance. These phenotypes range from Leigh and West syndrome to a new syndrome abbreviated CAGSSS that is characterised by cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, as well as cataract with no additional anomalies. METHODS: Genomic DNA from Iranian probands from two families with consanguineous parental background and overlapping CAGSSS features were subjected to exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. RESULTS: Exome sequencing and data analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense variant (c.2625C > T, p.Pro909Ser, NM_018060.3) within a 14.3 Mb run of homozygosity in proband 1 and a novel homozygous missense variant (c.2282A > G, p.His761Arg) residing in an ~ 8 Mb region of homozygosity in a proband of the second family. Patient-derived fibroblasts from proband 1 showed normal respiratory chain enzyme activity, as well as unchanged oxidative phosphorylation protein subunits and IARS2 levels. Homology modelling of the known and novel amino acid residue substitutions in IARS2 provided insight into the possible consequence of these variants on function and structure of the protein. CONCLUSIONS: This study further expands the phenotypic spectrum of IARS2 pathogenic variants to include two patients (patients 2 and 3) with cataract and skeletal dysplasia and no other features of CAGSSS to the possible presentation of the defects in IARS2. Additionally, this study suggests that adult patients with CAGSSS may manifest central adrenal insufficiency and type II esophageal achalasia and proposes that a variable sensorineural hearing loss onset, proportionate short stature, polyneuropathy, and mild dysmorphic features are possible, as seen in patient 1. Our findings support that even though biallelic IARS2 pathogenic variants can result in a distinctive, clinically recognisable phenotype in humans, it can also show a wide range of clinical presentation from severe pediatric neurological disorders of Leigh and West syndrome to both non-syndromic cataract and cataract accompanied by skeletal dysplasia.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3087, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082715

RESUMO

Skeletal dysplasia with multiple dislocations are severe disorders characterized by dislocations of large joints and short stature. The majority of them have been linked to pathogenic variants in genes encoding glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases or epimerases required for glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Using exome sequencing, we identify homozygous mutations in SLC10A7 in six individuals with skeletal dysplasia with multiple dislocations and amelogenesis imperfecta. SLC10A7 encodes a 10-transmembrane-domain transporter located at the plasma membrane. Functional studies in vitro demonstrate that SLC10A7 mutations reduce SLC10A7 protein expression. We generate a Slc10a7-/- mouse model, which displays shortened long bones, growth plate disorganization and tooth enamel anomalies, recapitulating the human phenotype. Furthermore, we identify decreased heparan sulfate levels in Slc10a7-/- mouse cartilage and patient fibroblasts. Finally, we find an abnormal N-glycoprotein electrophoretic profile in patient blood samples. Together, our findings support the involvement of SLC10A7 in glycosaminoglycan synthesis and specifically in skeletal development.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(3): 431-439, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100084

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation, the addition of poly-ADP ribose (PAR) onto proteins, is a response signal to cellular challenges, such as excitotoxicity or oxidative stress. This process is catalyzed by a group of enzymes referred to as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Because the accumulation of proteins with this modification results in cell death, its negative regulation restores cellular homeostasis: a process mediated by poly-ADP ribose glycohydrolases (PARGs) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase proteins (ARHs). Using linkage analysis and exome or genome sequencing, we identified recessive inactivating mutations in ADPRHL2 in six families. Affected individuals exhibited a pediatric-onset neurodegenerative disorder with progressive brain atrophy, developmental regression, and seizures in association with periods of stress, such as infections. Loss of the Drosophila paralog Parg showed lethality in response to oxidative challenge that was rescued by human ADPRHL2, suggesting functional conservation. Pharmacological inhibition of PARP also rescued the phenotype, suggesting the possibility of postnatal treatment for this genetic condition.

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