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1.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(2): 1563-1572, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006665

RESUMO

Biofouling negatively impacts modern society on a daily basis, especially with regard to the important industries of medicine, oil, and shipping. This manuscript describes the preparation and study of model antifouling coatings generated from the adsorption of unsymmetrical partially fluorinated spiroalkanedithiols on gold. The antifouling properties of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) derived from the spiroalkanedithiols were compared to SAMs derived from analogous monodentate partially fluorinated and nonfluorinated alkanethiols. The antifouling properties were evaluated using in situ surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), ex situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, and ex situ ellipsometric thickness measurements. The resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption of the SAMs was evaluated with proteins having a wide range of properties and applications including protamine, lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, and fibrinogen. The results from the SPR and the QCM measurements demonstrated that in most cases, the SAM coatings derived from the partially fluorinated spiroalkanedithiols having mixed hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon tail groups exhibited better antifouling performance when compared to the SAMs derived from their single-component monodentate counterparts. The studies also revealed that while the SPR and the QCM measurements in most cases were able to distinguish the adsorption trends for the SAMs and proteins examined, the ellipsometric thickness measurements were markedly less discriminating. On the whole, these studies validate the use of unsymmetrical partially fluorinated spiroalkanedithiols for generating effective antifouling coatings on metal substrates.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Compostos de Sulfidrila/uso terapêutico , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície
2.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(21)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158286

RESUMO

This article details the preparation of hollow gold-silver nanoshells (GS-NSs) coated with tunably thin silica shells for use in plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic applications. Hollow GS-NSs were synthesized via the galvanic replacement of silver nanoparticles. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks of the GS-NSs were tuned over the range of visible light to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths by adjusting the ratio of silver nanoparticles to gold salt solution to obtain three distinct types of GS-NSs with LSPR peaks centered near 500, 700, and 900 nm. Varying concentrations of (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane and sodium silicate solution afforded silica shell coatings of controllable thicknesses on the GS-NS cores. For each type of GS-NS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images verified our ability to grow thin silica shells having three different thicknesses of silica shell (~2, ~10, and ~15 nm) on the GS-NS cores. Additionally, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra confirmed the successful coating of the GS-NSs with SiO2 shells having controlled thicknesses. Extinction spectra of the as-prepared nanoparticles indicated that the silica shell has a minimal effect on the LSPR peak of the gold-silver nanoshells.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(42): 47368-47376, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930564

RESUMO

Lithium-sulfur batteries have shown great promise as next-generation high energy density power sources, but their commercial applications are hindered by short battery cycle life arising from the dissolution and shuttling of polysulfides. To address this shortcoming, we prepared two types of semihollow core-shell nanoparticles in which (1) elemental sulfur is encapsulated within a porous silica shell (S@SiO2) and (2) elemental sulfur is encapsulated within a porous silica shell where the inner surface of the shell is decorated with small Au nanoparticles (S@Au@SiO2). These core-shell nanoparticles, both ∼300 nm in diameter, were generated from analogous zinc sulfide-based core-shell nanoparticles (ZnS@SiO2 and ZnS@Au@SiO2, respectively) by converting the ZnS cores to elemental sulfur upon treatment with Fe(NO3)3. With a high surface area and strong host-polysulfide interaction, the SiO2 shells effectively trap the polysulfides; moreover, the internal void space of these nanostructures accommodates the volume expansion of the sulfur core upon lithiation. By decorating ∼5-7 nm Au nanoparticles evenly on the inner surface of the porous SiO2 shells (i.e., S@Au@SiO2), electron transport is enhanced, with consequently enhanced sulfur conversion kinetics at high current rates. Studies of battery performance showed that the S@SiO2 cathode can deliver an initial capacity of 1153 mA h g-1 under 0.2 C and retain 816 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles. More importantly, the Au-decorated S@Au@SiO2 cathode can deliver a high capacity of 500 mA h g-1 under 5 C.

4.
Langmuir ; 36(36): 10699-10707, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803985

RESUMO

A series of custom-designed olefin-bridged bidentate adsorbates composed of an olefin group linking symmetrical hydrocarbon moieties of varying chain lengths was synthesized and used for the preparation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold. The structures of the adsorbates are in the form Z-[CH3(CH2)m]2(C═C)[CH2SH]2 (OBCnSH) where m = 12-15 and n = m + 3 (OBC15SH, OBC16SH, OBC17SH, and OBC18SH). The influence of the olefin linker on the structural and interfacial properties of the SAMs was investigated and compared to SAMs formed from analogous n-alkanethiols. Characterization techniques included ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), polarization modulation-infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and contact angle measurements. The OBCnSH SAMs exhibited ellipsometric thicknesses that were similar to their monodentate counterparts, suggesting that the new olefin-bridged adsorbates pack similarly to the monodentate analogs. Characterization by PM-IRRAS revealed that the OBCnSH SAMs were as conformationally ordered as those derived from the reference n-alkanethiols with the exception of the adsorbate with the shortest chain length OBC15SH, which exhibited low coverage and a liquid-like structure. Unlike the SAMs derived from the n-alkanethiols, the OBCnSH SAMs failed to exhibit "odd-even" effects. However, the OBCnSH SAMs displayed similar hexadecane contact angles as their n-alkanethiol counterparts with the exception of OBC15SH, which exhibited markedly diminished hexadecane contact angles. The similar structural and interfacial properties of the OBCnSH SAMs, when compared to analogous n-alkanethiol SAMs, render the molecular architecture of the olefin-bridged dithiol as a robust platform for the synthesis of adsorbates with two chemically distinct tailgroups for use in the preparation and study of phase-incompatible "conflicted" interfaces.

5.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 10: 1973-1982, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667045

RESUMO

This paper describes the preparation and characterization of a new type of core-shell nanoparticle in which the structure consists of a hydrogel core encapsulated within a porous silver shell. The thermo-responsive hydrogel cores were prepared by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization of a selected mixture of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and acrylic acid (AAc). The hydrogel cores were then encased within either a porous or complete silver shell for which the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extends from visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (i.e., λmax varies from 550 to 1050 nm, depending on the porosity), allowing for reversible contraction and swelling of the hydrogel via photothermal heating of the surrounding silver shell. Given that NIR light can pass through tissue, and the silver shell is porous, this system can serve as a platform for the smart delivery of payloads stored within the hydrogel core. The morphology and composition of the composite nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, and FTIR, respectively. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to characterize the optical properties.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336823

RESUMO

A "smart" core@shell composite nanoparticle (NP) having dual-response mechanisms (i.e., temperature and light) was synthesized, and its efficacy in the loading and release of small molecules was explored. These core@shell NPs are composed of an optically active gold nanoshell (GNS) core and a mesoporous (m-) silica layer (m-SiO2). The GNS@m-SiO2 nanoparticles are further encapsulated within a thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogel (PNIPAM-co-AA). The multi-responsive composite NPs were designed to create thermally and optically modulated drug-delivery vehicles with a m-SiO2 layer providing additional non-collapsible space for drug storage. The influence of the m-SiO2 layer on the efficacy of loading and release of methylene blue, which serves as a model for a small-molecule therapeutic drug, was evaluated. The "smart" core@shell composite NPs having a m-SiO2 layer demonstrated an improved capacity to load and release small molecules compared to the corresponding NPs with no m-SiO2 shell. Additionally, an efficient response by the composite NPs was successfully induced by the thermal energy generated from the gold nanoshell core upon exposure to near infrared (NIR) stimulation.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ouro/química , Hidrogéis/química , Nanoconchas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Nanoconchas/ultraestrutura , Porosidade
7.
ACS Omega ; 4(27): 22332-22344, 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909316

RESUMO

New ether-substituted poly(1,4-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives were synthesized via Horner-Emmons coupling. The structures of the monomers and the resultant oligomers were confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The molecular weights of the oligomers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, giving the number-average and weight-average molecular weights and the corresponding polydispersity indices. Measurements of UV-vis absorption and fluorescence were used to characterize the optical properties of the oligomers. Estimation of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels and other electrochemical characteristics of the oligomers were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Dialkyl and dialkoxy PPV oligomers were also prepared and characterized following the same instrumental methods used for the ether-substituted oligomers, providing a known reference system to judge the performance of the new conjugated oligomers. Devices were fabricated to analyze the electroluminescent characteristics of the oligomers in organic light-emitting diodes.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(47): 40890-40900, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335936

RESUMO

The exposure of quaternary ammonium groups on surfaces allows self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to serve as architectural platforms for immobilizing oligonucleotides. The current study describes the preparation of SAMs derived from four unique bidentate adsorbates containing two different ammonium termini (i.e., trimethyl- and triethyl-) and comparison to their monodentate analogs. Our studies found that SAMs derived from the bidentate adsorbates offered considerable enhancements in oligonucleotide binding when compared to SAMs derived from their monodentate analogs. The generated SAMs were analyzed using ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance. These analyses showed that the immobilization of oligonucleotides was affected by changes in the terminal functionalities and the relative packing densities of the monolayers. In efforts to enhance further the immobilization of oligonucleotides on these SAM surfaces, we explored the use of adsorbates having aliphatic linkers with systematically varying chain lengths to form binary SAMs on gold. Mixed monolayers with 50:50 ratios of adsorbates showed the greatest oligonucleotide binding. These studies lay the groundwork for oligonucleotide delivery using gold-based nanoparticles and nanoshells.


Assuntos
Oligonucleotídeos/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Adsorção , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Técnicas de Microbalança de Cristal de Quartzo , Enxofre/química , Molhabilidade
9.
Molecules ; 23(10)2018 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322175

RESUMO

A custom-designed series of unsymmetrical spiroalkanedithiols having tailgroups comprised of a terminally fluorinated chain and a hydrocarbon chain of varying lengths were synthesized and used to prepare self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold substrates. The specific structure of the adsorbates was of the form [CH3(CH2)n][CF3(CF2)7(CH2)8]C[CH2SH]2, where n = 7, 9, and 15 (designated as F8H10-C10, F8H10-C12, and F8H10-C18, respectively). The influence of the length of the hydrocarbon chain in the bidentate dithiol on the structure and interfacial properties of the monolayer was explored. A structurally analogous partially fluorinated monodentate alkanethiol and the corresponding normal alkanethiols were used to generate appropriate SAMs as reference systems. Measurements of ellipsometric thickness showed an unexpectedly low film thickness for the SAMs derived from the bidentate adsorbates, possibly due to disruptions in interchain packing caused by the fluorocarbon chains (i.e., phase-incompatible fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon interactions), ultimately giving rise to loosely packed and disordered films. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were also consistent with a model in which the films were loosely packed; additionally, the XPS spectra confirmed the attachment of the sulfur headgroups of the bidentate adsorbates onto the gold substrates. Studies of the SAMs by polarization modulation-infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) suggested that as the length of the hydrocarbon chain in the adsorbates was extended, a more ordered surface was achieved by reducing the tilt of the fluorocarbon segment. The wettability data indicated that the adsorbates with longer alkyl chains were less wettable than those with shorter alkyl chains, likely due to an increase in interchain van der Waals forces in the former.


Assuntos
Alcanos/síntese química , Ouro/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/síntese química , Alcanos/química , Halogenação , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade
10.
Langmuir ; 34(23): 6645-6652, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739193

RESUMO

The bidentate aromatic adsorbate, 5-(octadecyloxy)-1,3-benzenedimethanethiol (R1ArmDT), with a specific design of extended S-S distance and a geometric constraint to resist cyclic disulfide formation was synthesized. The film formation and thermal stability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) derived from R1ArmDT were investigated and compared to those of SAMs derived from an analogous bidentate dithiol 2-(4-(octadecyloxy)-phenyl)propane-1,3-dithiol (R1ArDT), in which the two sulfur atoms can readily form a cyclic disulfide upon reductive elimination from the surface. Although the SAMs derived from R1ArmDT were less densely packed than those derived from R1ArDT, as judged by the data obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, the SAMs derived from R1ArmDT were markedly more thermally stable than those derived from R1ArDT. The greater thermal stability of the R1ArmDT SAMs can be rationalized on the basis of the structure of the bidentate R1ArmDT headgroup, in which the two pendant sulfur atoms cannot access each other intramolecularly to form a cyclic disulfide upon reductive elimination from the surface.

11.
Gels ; 4(2)2018 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674804

RESUMO

Gold nanoshells (~160 nm in diameter) were encapsulated within a shell of temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(NIPAM-co-AA)) using a surface-bound rationally-designed free radical initiator in water for the development of a photothermally-induced drug-delivery system. The morphologies of the resultant hydrogel-coated nanoshells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the temperature-responsive behavior of the nanoparticles was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The diameter of the P(NIPAM-co-AA) encapsulated nanoshells decreased as the solution temperature was increased, indicating a collapse of the hydrogel layer with increasing temperatures. In addition, the optical properties of the composite nanoshells were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of the hydrogel-coated nanoshells appeared at ~800 nm, which lies within the tissue-transparent range that is important for biomedical applications. Furthermore, the periphery of the particles was conjugated with the model protein avidin to modify the hydrogel-coated nanoshells with a fluorescent-tagged biotin, biotin-4-fluorescein (biotin-4-FITC), for colorimetric imaging/monitoring.

12.
Langmuir ; 33(36): 8839-8855, 2017 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562051

RESUMO

The ability to manipulate interfaces at the nanoscale via a variety of thin-film technologies offers a plethora of avenues for advancing surface applications. These include surfaces with remarkable antibiofouling properties as well as those with tunable physical and electronic properties. Molecular self-assembly is one notably attractive method used to decorate and modify surfaces. Of particular interest to surface scientists has been the thiolate-gold system, which serves as a reliable method for generating model thin-film monolayers that transform the interfacial properties of gold surfaces. Despite widespread interest, efforts to tune the interfacial properties using mixed adsorbate systems have frequently led to phase-separated domains of molecules on the surface with random sizes and shapes depending on the structure and chemical composition of the adsorbates. This feature article highlights newly emerging methods for generating mixed thin-film interfaces, not only to enhance the aforementioned properties of organic thin films, but also to give rise to interfacial compositions never before observed in nature. An example would be the development of monolayers formed from bidentate adsorbates and other unique headgroup architectures that provide the surface bonding stability necessary to allow the assembly of interfaces that expose mixtures of chains that are fundamentally different in character (i.e., either phase-incompatible or structurally dissimilar), producing compositionally "conflicted" interfaces. By also exploring the prior efforts to produce such homogeneously blended interfaces, this feature article seeks to convey the relationships between the methods of film formation and the overall properties of the resulting interfaces.

13.
Langmuir ; 33(8): 1751-1762, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107018

RESUMO

Organic thin-films on gold were prepared from a set of new, custom-designed bidentate alkanethiols possessing a mixture of normal alkane and methoxy-terminated tri(ethylene glycol) chains. The new unsymmetrical spiroalkanedithiol adsorbates were of the form [CH3O(CH2CH2O)3(CH2)5]-[CH3(CH2)n+1]C[CH2SH]2 where n = 3 and 14; designated EG3C7-C7 and EG3C7-C18, respectively. Their corresponding self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold were characterized and compared with monothiol SAMs derived from an analogous normal alkanethiol (C18SH) and an alkanethiol terminated with an oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) moiety (i.e., EG3C7SH). Ellipsometric data revealed reduced film thicknesses for the double-chained dithiolate SAMs, which perhaps arose from the phase-incompatible merger of a hydrocarbon chain with an OEG moiety, contributing to disorder in the films and/or an increase in chain tilt. The comparable wettabilities of the SAMs derived from EG3C7SH and EG3C7-C7, using water as the contacting liquid, are consistent with exposure of the OEG moieties at both interfaces, whereas the lower wettability of the SAM derived from EG3C7-C18 is consistent with exposure of hydrocarbon chains at the interface. The data collected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the new OEG-terminated dithiolate SAMs, and also revealed them as less densely packed monolayers due in part to the large molecular cross section of the OEG moieties and to their double-chained structure with dual surface bonds. Mixed SAMs formed from pairs of monothiols having chain compositions analogous to those of the chains of the new dithiols showed that an EG3C7SH/heptanethiol-mixed SAM and the EG3C7-C7 SAM produced almost identical characterization data, revealing the favorable film formation dynamics for adsorbate structures where the alkyl chains can assemble beneath the phase-incompatible OEG termini. For the mixed SAM formed from EG3C7SH/C18SH, the data indicate that the EG3C7SH component failed to incorporate in the film, demonstrating that the blending of phase-incompatible chains is sometimes best accomplished when both chains exist on a single adsorbate structure. Furthermore, the results of solution-phase thermal desorption tests revealed that the OEG-terminated films generated from the bidentate EG3C7-C7 and EG3C7-C18 adsorbates exhibit enhanced thermal stability when compared to the film generated from monodentate EG3C7SH. In a brief study of protein adsorption, the multicomponent SAMs showed a greater ability to resist the adsorption of fibrinogen on their surfaces when compared to the SAM derived from C18SH, but not better than the monolayer derived from EG3C7SH.

14.
Soft Matter ; 12(29): 6196-205, 2016 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27383924

RESUMO

Fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to characterize the kinetics of guest exchange in diblock copolymer micelles composed of poly(ethylene oxide-b-ε-caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) diblock copolymers in water/tetrahydrofuran (THF) mixtures which encapsulated fluorophores. The solvent composition (THF content) of the micelle solution was varied as a means of modulating the strength of interactions between the fluorophore and solvent as well as between the micelle core and solvent. A donor-acceptor fluorophore pair was employed consisting of 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO, the donor) and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI, the acceptor). Through the process of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), energy was transferred from the donor to acceptor when the fluorophores were in close proximity. A micelle solution containing DiO was mixed with a micelle solution containing DiI at t = 0, and the emission spectra of the mixed solution were monitored over time (at an excitation wavelength optimized for the donor). In micelle solutions containing 5 and 10 vol% THF in the bulk solvent, an increase in the acceptor peak intensity maximum occurred over time in the post-mixed solution, accompanied by a decrease in the donor peak intensity maximum, indicating the presence of energy transfer from the donor to the acceptor. At long times, the FRET ratios (acceptor peak intensity divided by the sum of the acceptor and donor peak intensities) were indistinguishable from that determined from pre-mixed micelle solutions of the same THF content (in pre-mixed solutions, DiO and DiI were encapsulated within the same micelle cores). In the micelle solution containing 20 vol% THF, the fluorophore exchange process occurred too quickly to be observed (the FRET ratios measured from the solutions mixed at t = 0 were commensurate to that measured from the pre-mixed solution). A time constant describing the guest exchange process was extracted from the time-dependence of the FRET ratio through fit of an exponential decay. An increase in the THF content in the micelle solution resulted in a decrease in the time constant, and the time constant varied over five orders of magnitude as the THF content was varied from 5-20 vol%.

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