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Pharmaceutics ; 13(9)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575598


Nucleocytoplasmic transport has been found dysregulated in many types of cancer and is often described as a poor prognostic factor. Specifically, Exportin-1 (XPO1) has been found overexpressed in many tumors and has become an attractive target in molecular oncology and therapeutics development. The selective inhibitor of nuclear export, Selinexor, is one of the most scientifically interesting drugs that targets XPO1 in clinical development. In this review, we summarized the most relevant preclinical and clinical results achieved for non-solid tumors, sarcomas, and other kind of solid tumors.

Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 19(5): e286-e298, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958297


INTRODUCTION: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a deadly disease. Enzalutamide is an oral second-generation anti-androgen that is active in mCRPC. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) count correlates with overall survival (OS) in mCRPC, whereas detection of the androgen-receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) in CTC predicts poor response to oral second-generation anti-androgens. Also, loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) in CTC is a biomarker of poor prognosis in mCRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this translational study, we employed flow cytometry to assess total, PTEN-, and AR-V7+ CTC count per 7.5 mL of whole blood in a prospective cohort of patients with mCRPC receiving enzalutamide. RESULTS: CTCs were assessed in a total of 45 men with mCRPC at baseline and at 12 weeks. Overall, CTC, PTEN- CTC, and AR-V7+ CTC detection rate was high, at baseline, with 84.4%, 71.1%, and 51.1% of samples showing at least 1 cell/7.5-mL blood, respectively, and after 3 months, with 93.3%, 64.4%, and 77.7% of samples showing at least 1 cell/7.5-mL blood, respectively. Median radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and OS were 6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-9) and 14.3 (95% CI, 12.8-20.3) months, respectively. Median (interquartile range) total CTC count at baseline was 5 (3; 8), whereas median (interquartile range) PTEN- CTC count was 2 (0; 4) and median (interquartile range) AR-V7+ CTC count was 1 (0; 3). At baseline, ≥ 5 versus < 5 total CTC count was associated with worse rPFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.35; 95% CI, 1.14-4.84; P= .021) and OS (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.45-6.54; P = .003), whereas ≥ 2 versus < 2 PTEN- CTC count was associated with worse rPFS (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.8-8.72; P= .001) and OS (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.12-5; P= .025). Finally, ≥ 1 versus < 1 AR-V7+ CTC count was also associated with worse rPFS (HR, 5.05; 95% CI, 2.4-10.64; P< .001) and OS (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.1-4.58; P= .026). CONCLUSIONS: Despite multiple limitations, including the small sample size, our preliminary study suggests that assessment of CTC via flow cytometry may provide potentially useful prognostic and predictive information in advanced prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted. Micro-Abstract: In this study, men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, scheduled to start enzalutamide, were assessed for circulating tumor cell count and molecular characterization (total, PTEN-, and AR-V7+ circulating tumor cell count) by the use of flow cytometry. We found that flow cytometry could be used to enumerate circulating tumor cells, but also to assess molecular biomarkers on their surface.

Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Benzamidas , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Nitrilas , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Feniltioidantoína , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Isoformas de Proteínas , Receptores Androgênicos
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060148


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the health systems worldwide. Data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients (CPs) undergoing or candidate for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. We depicted the practice and adaptations in the management of patients with solid tumors eligible or receiving ICIs during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a special focus on Campania region. METHODS: This survey (25 questions), promoted by the young section of SCITO (Società Campana di ImmunoTerapia Oncologica) Group, was circulated among Italian young oncologists practicing in regions variously affected by the pandemic: high (group 1), medium (group 2) and low (group 3) prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. For Campania region, the physician responders were split into those working in cancer centers (CC), university hospitals (UH) and general hospitals (GH). Percentages of agreement, among High (H) versus Medium (M) and versus Low (L) group for Italy and among CC, UH and GH for Campania region, were compared by using Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous answers and χ2 test for trends relative to the questions with 3 or more options. RESULTS: This is the first Italian study to investigate the COVID-19 impact on cancer immunotherapy, unique in its type and very clear in the results. The COVID-19 pandemic seemed not to affect the standard practice in the prescription and delivery of ICIs in Italy. Telemedicine was widely used. There was high consensus to interrupt immunotherapy in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and to adopt ICIs with longer schedule interval. The majority of the responders tended not to delay the start of ICIs; there were no changes in supportive treatments, but some of the physicians opted for delaying surgeries (if part of patients' planned treatment approach). The results from responders in Campania did not differ significantly from the national ones. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the efforts of Italian oncologists to maintain high standards of care for CPs treated with ICIs, regardless the regional prevalence of COVID-19, suggesting the adoption of similar solutions. Research on patients treated with ICIs and experiencing COVID-19 will clarify the safety profile to continue the treatments, thus informing on the most appropriate clinical conducts.

Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/imunologia , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento