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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587014

RESUMO

In this paper, we report on a study of visual representations for cyclical data and the effect of interactively wrapping a bar chart `around its boundaries'. Compared to linear bar chart, polar (or radial) visualisations have the advantage that cyclical data can be presented continuously without mentally bridging the visual `cut' across the left-and-right boundaries. To investigate this hypothesis and to assess the effect the cut has on analysis performance, this paper presents results from a crowdsourced, controlled experiment with 72 participants comparing new continuous panning technique to linear bar charts (interactive wrapping). Our results show that bar charts with interactive wrapping lead to less errors compared to standard bar charts or polar charts. Inspired by these results, we generalise the concept of interactive wrapping to other visualisations for cyclical or relational data. We describe a design space based on the concept of one-dimensional wrapping and two-dimensional wrapping, linked to two common 3D topologies; cylinder and torus that can be used to metaphorically explain one- and two-dimensional wrapping. This design space suggests that interactive wrapping is widely applicable to many different data types.

2.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 41(2): 8-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729921

RESUMO

We argue that visualization research has overwhelmingly focused on users from the economically developed world. However, billions of people around the world are rapidly emerging as new users of information technology. Most of the next billion users of visualization technologies will come from parts of the world that are extremely populous but historically ignored by the visualization research community. Their needs may be different to the types of users that researchers have targeted in the past, but, at the same time, they may have even more to gain in terms of access to data potentially affecting their quality of life. We propose a call to action for the visualization community to identify opportunities and use cases where users can benefit from visualization; develop universal design principles; extend evaluations by including the general population; and engage with a wider global population.

3.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1214-1224, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048730

RESUMO

data has no natural scale and so interactive data visualizations must provide techniques to allow the user to choose their viewpoint and scale. Such techniques are well established in desktop visualization tools. The two most common techniques are zoom+pan and overview+detail. However, how best to enable the analyst to navigate and view abstract data at different levels of scale in immersive environments has not previously been studied. We report the findings of the first systematic study of immersive navigation techniques for 3D scatterplots. We tested four conditions that represent our best attempt to adapt standard 2D navigation techniques to data visualization in an immersive environment while still providing standard immersive navigation techniques through physical movement and teleportation. We compared room-sized visualization versus a zooming interface, each with and without an overview. We find significant differences in participants' response times and accuracy for a number of standard visual analysis tasks. Both zoom and overview provide benefits over standard locomotion support alone (i.e., physical movement and pointer teleportation). However, which variation is superior, depends on the task. We obtain a more nuanced understanding of the results by analyzing them in terms of a time-cost model for the different components of navigation: way-finding, travel, number of travel steps, and context switching.

4.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1764-1774, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112748

RESUMO

Efficient optimisation algorithms have become important tools for finding high-quality solutions to hard, real-world problems such as production scheduling, timetabling, or vehicle routing. These algorithms are typically "black boxes" that work on mathematical models of the problem to solve. However, many problems are difficult to fully specify, and require a "human in the loop" who collaborates with the algorithm by refining the model and guiding the search to produce acceptable solutions. Recently, the Problem-Solving Loop was introduced as a high-level model of such interactive optimisation. Here, we present and evaluate nine recommendations for the design of interactive visualisation tools supporting the Problem-Solving Loop. They range from the choice of visual representation for solutions and constraints to the use of a solution gallery to support exploration of alternate solutions. We first examined the applicability of the recommendations by investigating how well they had been supported in previous interactive optimisation tools. We then evaluated the recommendations in the context of the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW). To do so we built a sophisticated interactive visual system for solving VRPTW that was informed by the recommendations. Ten participants then used this system to solve a variety of routing problems. We report on participant comments and interaction patterns with the tool. These showed the tool was regarded as highly usable and the results generally supported the usefulness of the underlying recommendations.

5.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1677-1687, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301404

RESUMO

Node-link diagrams are widely used to visualise networks. However, even the best network layout algorithms ultimately result in 'hairball' visualisations when the graph reaches a certain degree of complexity, requiring simplification through aggregation or interaction (such as filtering) to remain usable. Until now, there has been little data to indicate at what level of complexity node-link diagrams become ineffective or how visual complexity affects cognitive load. To this end, we conducted a controlled study to understand workload limits for a task that requires a detailed understanding of the network topology-finding the shortest path between two nodes. We tested performance on graphs with 25 to 175 nodes with varying density. We collected performance measures (accuracy and response time), subjective feedback, and physiological measures (EEG, pupil dilation, and heart rate variability). To the best of our knowledge this is the first network visualisation study to include physiological measures. Our results show that people have significant difficulty finding the shortest path in high density node-link diagrams with more than 50 nodes and even low density graphs with more than 100 nodes. From our collected EEG data we observe functional differences in brain activity between hard and easy tasks. We found that cognitive load increased up to certain level of difficulty after which it decreased, likely because participants had given up. We also explored the effects of global network layout features such as size or number of crossings, and features of the shortest path such as length or straightness on task difficulty. We found that global features generally had a greater impact than those of the shortest path.

6.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 40(2): 82-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149613

RESUMO

The visualization research community can and should reach broader audiences beyond data-savvy groups of people, because these audiences could also greatly benefit from visual access to data. In this article, we discuss four research topics-personal data visualization, data visualization on mobile devices, inclusive data visualization, and multimodal interaction for data visualization-that, individually and collaboratively, would help us reach broader audiences with data visualization, making data more accessible.

7.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 536-546, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484124

RESUMO

Immersive analytics turns the very space surrounding the user into a canvas for data analysis, supporting human cognitive abilities in myriad ways. We present the results of a design study, contextual inquiry, and longitudinal evaluation involving professional economists using a Virtual Reality (VR) system for multidimensional visualization to explore actual economic data. Results from our preregistered evaluation highlight the varied use of space depending on context (exploration vs. presentation), the organization of space to support work, and the impact of immersion on navigation and orientation in the 3D analysis space.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136995

RESUMO

Immersive virtual- and augmented-reality headsets can overlay a flat image against any surface or hang virtual objects in the space around the user. The technology is rapidly improving and may, in the long term, replace traditional flat panel displays in many situations. When displays are no longer intrinsically flat, how should we use the space around the user for abstract data visualisation? In this paper, we ask this question with respect to origin-destination flow data in a global geographic context. We report on the findings of three studies exploring different spatial encodings for flow maps. The first experiment focuses on different 2D and 3D encodings for flows on flat maps. We find that participants are significantly more accurate with raised flow paths whose height is proportional to flow distance but fastest with traditional straight line 2D flows. In our second and third experiment we compared flat maps, 3D globes and a novel interactive design we call MapsLink, involving a pair of linked flat maps. We find that participants took significantly more time with MapsLink than other flow maps while the 3D globe with raised flows was the fastest, most accurate, and most preferred method. Our work suggests that careful use of the third spatial dimension can resolve visual clutter in complex flow maps.

9.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(12): 3081-3095, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993949

RESUMO

We propose Graph Thumbnails, small icon-like visualisations of the high-level structure of network data. Graph Thumbnails are designed to be legible in small multiples to support rapid browsing within large graph corpora. Compared to existing graph-visualisation techniques our representation has several advantages: (1) the visualisation can be computed in linear time; (2) it is canonical in the sense that isomorphic graphs will always have identical thumbnails; and (3) it provides precise information about the graph structure. We report the results of two user studies. The first study compares Graph Thumbnails to node-link and matrix views for identifying similar graphs. The second study investigates the comprehensibility of the different representations. We demonstrate the usefulness of this representation for summarising the evolution of protein-protein interaction networks across a range of species.

10.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 24(1): 319-329, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866546

RESUMO

The fields of operations research and computer science have long sought to find automatic solver techniques that can find high-quality solutions to difficult real-world optimisation problems. The traditional workflow is to exactly model the problem and then enter this model into a general-purpose "black-box" solver. In practice, however, many problems cannot be solved completely automatically, but require a "human-in-the-loop" to iteratively refine the model and give hints to the solver. In this paper, we explore the parallels between this interactive optimisation workflow and the visual analytics sense-making loop. We assert that interactive optimisation is essentially a visual analytics task and propose a problem-solving loop analogous to the sense-making loop. We explore these ideas through an in-depth analysis of a use-case in prostate brachytherapy, an application where interactive optimisation may be able to provide significant assistance to practitioners in creating prostate cancer treatment plans customised to each patient's tumour characteristics. However, current brachytherapy treatment planning is usually a careful, mostly manual process involving multiple professionals. We developed a prototype interactive optimisation tool for brachytherapy that goes beyond current practice in supporting focal therapy - targeting tumour cells directly rather than simply seeking coverage of the whole prostate gland. We conducted semi-structured interviews, in two stages, with seven radiation oncology professionals in order to establish whether they would prefer to use interactive optimisation for treatment planning and whether such a tool could improve their trust in the novel focal therapy approach and in machine generated solutions to the problem.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(1): 411-420, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875157

RESUMO

Showing flows of people and resources between multiple geographic locations is a challenging visualisation problem. We conducted two quantitative user studies to evaluate different visual representations for such dense many-to-many flows. In our first study we compared a bundled node-link flow map representation and OD Maps [37] with a new visualisation we call MapTrix. Like OD Maps, MapTrix overcomes the clutter associated with a traditional flow map while providing geographic embedding that is missing in standard OD matrix representations. We found that OD Maps and MapTrix had similar performance while bundled node-link flow map representations did not scale at all well. Our second study compared participant performance with OD Maps and MapTrix on larger data sets. Again performance was remarkably similar.

12.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(1): 441-450, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875160

RESUMO

High-quality immersive display technologies are becoming mainstream with the release of head-mounted displays (HMDs) such as the Oculus Rift. These devices potentially represent an affordable alternative to the more traditional, centralised CAVE-style immersive environments. One driver for the development of CAVE-style immersive environments has been collaborative sense-making. Despite this, there has been little research on the effectiveness of collaborative visualisation in CAVE-style facilities, especially with respect to abstract data visualisation tasks. Indeed, very few studies have focused on the use of these displays to explore and analyse abstract data such as networks and there have been no formal user studies investigating collaborative visualisation of abstract data in immersive environments. In this paper we present the results of the first such study. It explores the relative merits of HMD and CAVE-style immersive environments for collaborative analysis of network connectivity, a common and important task involving abstract data. We find significant differences between the two conditions in task completion time and the physical movements of the participants within the space: participants using the HMD were faster while the CAVE2 condition introduced an asymmetry in movement between collaborators. Otherwise, affordances for collaborative data analysis offered by the low-cost HMD condition were not found to be different for accuracy and communication with the CAVE2. These results are notable, given that the latest HMDs will soon be accessible (in terms of cost and potentially ubiquity) to a massive audience.

13.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 23(1): 541-550, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875170

RESUMO

In this paper, we investigate Confluent Drawings (CD), a technique for bundling edges in node-link diagrams based on network connectivity. Edge-bundling techniques are designed to reduce edge clutter in node-link diagrams by coalescing lines into common paths or bundles. Unfortunately, traditional bundling techniques introduce ambiguity since edges are only bundled by spatial proximity, rather than network connectivity; following an edge from its source to its target can lead to the perception of incorrect connectivity if edges are not clearly separated within the bundles. Contrary, CDs bundle edges based on common sources or targets. Thus, a smooth path along a confluent bundle indicates precise connectivity. While CDs have been described in theory, practical investigation and application to real-world networks (i.e., networks beyond those with certain planarity restrictions) is currently lacking. Here, we provide the first algorithm for constructing CDs from arbitrary directed and undirected networks and present a simple layout method, embedded in a sand box environment providing techniques for interactive exploration. We then investigate patterns and artifacts in CDs, which we compare to other common edge-bundling techniques. Finally, we present the first user study that compares edge-compression techniques, including CD, power graphs, metro-style, and common edge bundling. We found that users without particular expertise in visualization or network analysis are able to read small CDs without difficulty. Compared to existing bundling techniques, CDs are more likely to allow people to correctly perceive connectivity.

14.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 22(1): 339-48, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26390477

RESUMO

Prior research into network layout has focused on fast heuristic techniques for layout of large networks, or complex multi-stage pipelines for higher quality layout of small graphs. Improvements to these pipeline techniques, especially for orthogonal-style layout, are difficult and practical results have been slight in recent years. Yet, as discussed in this paper, there remain significant issues in the quality of the layouts produced by these techniques, even for quite small networks. This is especially true when layout with additional grouping constraints is required. The first contribution of this paper is to investigate an ultra-compact, grid-like network layout aesthetic that is motivated by the grid arrangements that are used almost universally by designers in typographical layout. Since the time when these heuristic and pipeline-based graph-layout methods were conceived, generic technologies (MIP, CP and SAT) for solving combinatorial and mixed-integer optimization problems have improved massively. The second contribution of this paper is to reassess whether these techniques can be used for high-quality layout of small graphs. While they are fast enough for graphs of up to 50 nodes we found these methods do not scale up. Our third contribution is a large-neighborhood search meta-heuristic approach that is scalable to larger networks.

15.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 22(1): 349-58, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26390483

RESUMO

Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multi-stage frameworks for higher-quality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new "human-centred" methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a follow-up study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Gráficos por Computador , Interface Usuário-Computador , Biologia Computacional , Humanos
16.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 19(12): 2596-605, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24051826

RESUMO

We explore the effectiveness of visualizing dense directed graphs by replacing individual edges with edges connected to 'modules'-or groups of nodes-such that the new edges imply aggregate connectivity. We only consider techniques that offer a lossless compression: that is, where the entire graph can still be read from the compressed version. The techniques considered are: a simple grouping of nodes with identical neighbor sets; Modular Decomposition which permits internal structure in modules and allows them to be nested; and Power Graph Analysis which further allows edges to cross module boundaries. These techniques all have the same goal--to compress the set of edges that need to be rendered to fully convey connectivity--but each successive relaxation of the module definition permits fewer edges to be drawn in the rendered graph. Each successive technique also, we hypothesize, requires a higher degree of mental effort to interpret. We test this hypothetical trade-off with two studies involving human participants. For Power Graph Analysis we propose a novel optimal technique based on constraint programming. This enables us to explore the parameter space for the technique more precisely than could be achieved with a heuristic. Although applicable to many domains, we are motivated by--and discuss in particular--the application to software dependency analysis.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Gráficos por Computador , Compressão de Dados/métodos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 14: 250, 2013 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23953132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biologists make frequent use of databases containing large and complex biological networks. One popular database is the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) which uses its own graphical representation and manual layout for pathways. While some general drawing conventions exist for biological networks, arbitrary graphical representations are very common. Recently, a new standard has been established for displaying biological processes, the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), which aims to unify the look of such maps. Ideally, online repositories such as KEGG would automatically provide networks in a variety of notations including SBGN. Unfortunately, this is non-trivial, since converting between notations may add, remove or otherwise alter map elements so that the existing layout cannot be simply reused. RESULTS: Here we describe a methodology for automatic translation of KEGG metabolic pathways into the SBGN format. We infer important properties of the KEGG layout and treat these as layout constraints that are maintained during the conversion to SBGN maps. CONCLUSIONS: This allows for the drawing and layout conventions of SBGN to be followed while creating maps that are still recognizably the original KEGG pathways. This article details the steps in this process and provides examples of the final result.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Humanos , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos
18.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(3): 290-304, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21233514

RESUMO

We introduce hi-trees, a new visual representation for hierarchical data in which, depending on the kind of parent node, the child relationship is represented using either containment or links. We give a drawing convention for hi-trees based on the standard layered drawing convention for rooted trees, then show how to extend standard bottom-up tree layout algorithms to draw hi-trees in this convention. We also explore a number of other more compact layout styles for layout of larger hi-trees and give algorithms for computing these. Finally, we describe two applications of hi-trees: argument mapping and business decision support.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Árvores de Decisões
19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 10: 375, 2009 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19909528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological networks are widely used to represent processes in biological systems and to capture interactions and dependencies between biological entities. Their size and complexity is steadily increasing due to the ongoing growth of knowledge in the life sciences. To aid understanding of biological networks several algorithms for laying out and graphically representing networks and network analysis results have been developed. However, current algorithms are specialized to particular layout styles and therefore different algorithms are required for each kind of network and/or style of layout. This increases implementation effort and means that new algorithms must be developed for new layout styles. Furthermore, additional effort is necessary to compose different layout conventions in the same diagram. Also the user cannot usually customize the placement of nodes to tailor the layout to their particular need or task and there is little support for interactive network exploration. RESULTS: We present a novel algorithm to visualize different biological networks and network analysis results in meaningful ways depending on network types and analysis outcome. Our method is based on constrained graph layout and we demonstrate how it can handle the drawing conventions used in biological networks. CONCLUSION: The presented algorithm offers the ability to produce many of the fundamental popular drawing styles while allowing the exibility of constraints to further tailor these layouts.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos
20.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 14(6): 1293-300, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18988976

RESUMO

A standard approach to large network visualization is to provide an overview of the network and a detailed view of a small component of the graph centred around a focal node. The user explores the network by changing the focal node in the detailed view or by changing the level of detail of a node or cluster. For scalability, fast force-based layout algorithms are used for the overview and the detailed view. However, using the same layout algorithm in both views is problematic since layout for the detailed view has different requirements to that in the overview. Here we present a model in which constrained graph layout algorithms are used for layout in the detailed view. This means the detailed view has high-quality layout including sophisticated edge routing and is customisable by the user who can add placement constraints on the layout. Scalability is still ensured since the slower layout techniques are only applied to the small subgraph shown in the detailed view. The main technical innovations are techniques to ensure that the overview and detailed view remain synchronized, and modifying constrained graph layout algorithms to support smooth, stable layout. The key innovation supporting stability are new dynamic graph layout algorithms that preserve the topology or structure of the network when the user changes the focus node or the level of detail by in situ semantic zooming. We have built a prototype tool and demonstrate its use in two application domains, UML class diagrams and biological networks.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Gráficos por Computador , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Apoio Social , Interface Usuário-Computador , Simulação por Computador
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