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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807404

RESUMO

Introduction: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in primary care for acute respiratory tract complaints (aRTCs), often inappropriately. Social marketing interventions could improve prescribing in such settings. We evaluate the impact of a social marketing intervention on general practitioners' (GPs') antibiotic prescribing for aRTCs in Malta. Methods: Changes in GPs' antibiotic prescribing were monitored over two surveillance periods between 2015 and 2018. Primary outcome: change in antibiotic prescription for aRTCs. Secondary outcomes: change in antibiotic prescription: (i) for immediate use, (ii) for delayed antibiotic prescription, (iii) by diagnosis, and (iv) by antibiotic class. Data were analysed using clustered analysis and interrupted time series analysis (ITSA). Results: Of 33 participating GPs, 18 successfully completed the study. Although clustered analyses showed a significant 3% decrease in overall antibiotic prescription (p = 0.024), ITSA showed no significant change overall (p = 0.264). Antibiotic prescription decreased significantly for the common cold (p < 0.001), otitis media (p = 0.044), and sinusitis (p = 0.004), but increased for pharyngitis (p = 0.015). Conclusions: The intervention resulted in modest improvements in GPs' antibiotic prescribing. A more top-down approach will likely be required for future initiatives to be successful in this setting, focusing on diagnostic and prescribing support like rapid diagnostic testing, prescribing guidelines, and standardised delayed antibiotic prescriptions.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362248

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to systematically quantify adverse events (AE) will assist in the improvement of medical care and the QoL of patients living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between self-reported side effects and other PROs, demographics and laboratory data, and further evaluate the Health Questionnaire (HQ) as a tool for following trends in patient-reported side effects over time in relation to trends in prescribed third agent in ART. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Swedish National Registry InfCareHiv includes an annual self-reported nine-item HQwhich is used in patient-centered HIV care in all Swedish HIV units. In this study, the experience of side effects was addressed. We analyzed 9,476 HQs completed by 4,186 PLWH together with details about their prescribed ART and relevant biomarkers collected during 2011-2017. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient and mixed logistic regression. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis of the HQs showed that the frequency of reported side effects decreased from 32% (2011) to 15% (2017). During the same period, there was a shift in ART prescription from efavirenz (EFV) to dolutegravir (DTG) (positive correlation coefficient r = 0.94, p = 0.0016). Further, PLWH who reported being satisfied with their physical health (OR: 0.47, p = <0.001) or psychological health (OR: 0.70, p = 0.001) were less likely to report side effects than those less satisfied. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported side effects were found to have a close relationship with the patient's ratings of their overall health situation and demonstrated a strong correlation with the sharp decline in use of EFV and rise in use of DTG, with reported side effects being halved. This study supports the feasibility of using the HQ as a tool for longitudinal follow up of trends in PROs.


Assuntos
Alquinos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Ciclopropanos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Oxazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Alquinos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Erétil/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Erétil/diagnóstico , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/diagnóstico , Náusea/fisiopatologia , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Suécia
3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(12): e1546-e1554, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low blood glucose concentrations are common in sick children who present to hospital in low-resource settings and are associated with increased mortality. The cutoff blood glucose concentration for the diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycaemia currently recommended by WHO (2·5 mmol/L) is not evidence-based. We aimed to assess whether increasing the cutoff blood glucose concentration for hypoglycaemia treatment in severely ill children at presentation to hospital improves mortality outcomes. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial at two referral hospitals in Malawi. Severely ill children aged 1 month to 5 years presenting to the emergency department with a capillary blood glucose concentration of between 2·5 mmol/L (3·0 mmol/L in severely malnourished children) and 5·0 mmol/L were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated randomisation sequence, stratified by study site and severe malnutrition, to receive either an immediate intravenous bolus of 10% dextrose at 5 mL/kg followed by a 24-h maintenance infusion of 10% dextrose at 100 mL/kg for the first 10 kg of bodyweight, 50 mL/kg for the next 10 kg, and 20 mL/kg for each subsequent kg of bodyweight (intervention group) or observation for a minimum of 60 min and standard care (control group). Participants and study personnel were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality, assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. Safety was also assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02989675. FINDINGS: Between Dec 5, 2016, and Jan 22, 2019, 10 947 children were screened, of whom 332 were randomly assigned, and 322 were included in the final analysis (n=162 in the control group and n=160 in the intervention group). The study was terminated after an interim analysis at 24% enrolment indicated futility. The median age of participants was 2·3 years (IQR 1·4-3·2), 65 (45%) were female, and the baseline characteristics of participants were similar between the two groups. The number of in-hospital deaths from any cause was 26 (16%) in the control group and 24 (15%) in the intervention group, with an absolute mortality difference of 1·0% (95% CI -6·9 to 9·0). Serious adverse events, including hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemia, convulsions, reduced consciousness, and death, were reported in 47 (29%) children in the control group and 39 (24%) children in the intervention group. INTERPRETATION: Increasing the cutoff blood glucose concentration for hypoglycaemia treatment in severely sick children in Malawi from 2·5 mmol/L to 5·0 mmol/L did not reduce all-cause in-hospital mortality. Our findings do not support changing the cutoff for dextrose administration, and further research on the optimal management of severely ill children who present to the emergency department with low blood glucose concentrations is warranted. FUNDING: Swedish Research Council and Stockholm Country Council.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth training on postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) near miss and case fatality rates in Uganda. METHODS: Training was evaluated using a cluster-randomized design between June 2016 and September 2017 in 18 typical rural districts (clusters) in Eastern and Central Uganda of which nine districts were randomly assigned to the intervention. The main outcome was PPH near miss defined using the World Health Organization's disease and management-based approach. Interrupted time series analysis was performed to estimate the difference in the change of outcomes. RESULTS: Outcomes of 58 000 and 95 455 deliveries during the 6-month baseline and 10-month endline periods, respectively, were included. A reduction of PPH near misses was observed in the intervention compared to the comparison districts (difference-in-difference of slopes 4.19, 95% CI, -7.64 to -0.74); P<0.05). There was an increase in overall reported near miss cases (difference-in-difference 1.24, 95% CI, 0.37-2.10; P<0.001) and an increase in PPH case fatality rate (difference-in-difference 2.13, 95% CI, 0.14-4.12; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: This pragmatic cluster-randomized trial conducted in typical rural districts of Uganda indicated a reduction of severe PPH cases while case fatality did not improve, suggesting that this basic training needs to be complemented by additional measures for sustained mortality reduction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR201604001582128.

5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 298, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many previous studies have reported factors that contribute to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for a single skin disease. However, little is known about generalized factors associated with HRQoL across skin diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate overall HRQoL, and to identify factors related to severely impaired HRQoL among patients with 16 different skin diseases. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 9845 patients with skin disease was conducted in 9 hospitals in China. HRQoL was assessed with the Chinese version of the Skindex-29 which measures dermatology-specific health along three domains (symptoms, emotions and functioning). With the published Skindex-29 cut-off scores for severely impaired HRQoL, logistic regression models assessed the relationship between severely impaired HRQoL and demographic/clinical characteristics, with adjustments for different skin diseases. To guarantee the models' convergence, 16 skin diseases with frequencies of at least 100 were included, and the sample size was 8789. RESULTS: Emotions was the most impaired aspect of HRQoL. Co-existing chronic diseases, 3 years or longer duration, and more severity were identified as associated factors for severely impaired HRQoL for each Skindex-29 domain, and for the aggregate. Being female, under 45 years old, and consuming alcohol were associated with a severely impaired emotion domain; Lack of exercise and smoking were associated with severely impaired symptoms and function domains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Skin diseases can affect many facets of HRQoL, but the emotional impairment deserves more attention. In addition to skin disease severity, this study shows that other chronic diseases and long duration are correlated with severely impaired HRQoL for patients with 16 clinical common skin diseases. This suggests the need for increased awareness in treating skin disease as a chronic disease. It also suggests that disease management decisions should consider HRQoL improvement, especially emotional conditions, when making management decisions.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Dermatopatias/psicologia , Adulto , China , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902179

RESUMO

AIMS: Baduanjin (eight silken movements), a traditional Chinese exercise, is an alternative to the most common cardiac rehabilitation programmes due to their scarcity and unaffordability in China. The aim of this study was to measure the intensity and energy expenditure during Baduanjin and to determine the relative oxygen consumption (VO2 ) and heart rate (HR) responses of Baduanjin compared with maximal capacity in patients with chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty participants (age: 65 ± 10 years, male: n = 17) with New York Heart Association II-III volunteered for this study. Participants were examined during two separate sessions, with 1-2 weeks between sessions. During session one, a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed on a cycle ergometer for measurement of maximal exercise capacity. Additionally, participants were taught Baduanjin exercise from a professional coach and were required to do it at home until the second session when their technique was confirmed by the coach. During session two, participants performed one 9 min round of Baduanjin with continuous measurement of VO2 and HR. Measurements obtained during the Baduanjin were compared with data obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. While performing Baduanjin, the mean VO2 and HR were 7.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/min and 86.1 ± 15.2 b.p.m., respectively. Compared with the cardiopulmonary exercise test, the VO2 was 44% of their VO2max and 67% of their HRmax , categorizing Baduanjin as a moderate-intensity exercise. The average energy expenditure during Baduanjin was 23.3 ± 4.4 kcal. Additionally, the VO2 and HR responses during Baduanjin both exhibited a bimodal pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Baduanjin is a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise that could be an effective and safe exercise modality for home-based cardiac rehabilitation.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 402, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections. MSM and transgender people in Nepal experience considerable discrimination and marginalisation, they are subject to abuse from legal authorities and suffer from mental health issues. These social and structural factors can lead to increased sexual risk behaviour, barriers to accessing health care and result in adverse health outcomes. This study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV and syphilis, and how individual and socio-structural factors influence sexual risk behaviour and health care service uptake, among MSM and transgender women in the Terai highway districts of Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in June 2016 in eight Terai highway districts of Nepal, recruiting 340 MSM and transgender women through respondent driven sampling. The primary outcome variables were HIV and syphilis prevalence. The secondary outcome variables were sexual risk behaviour and health care service uptake. Logistic regression models were used to assess the individual and socio-structural determinants of sexual risk behaviour and health care service uptake. RESULTS: The prevalence of HIV among MSM was 5%, whereas it was 13% in transgender women. The prevalence of active syphilis was 4% in MSM and 11% among transgender women. Among transgender women, 76% were involved in sex work, and 51% had experienced discrimination in one or more settings. In multivariable analysis, having visited an outreach centre was positively associated with condom use in the last sexual encounter among both MSM (AOR: 5.37, 95% CI: 2.42-11.94, p < 0.001) and transgender women (AOR: 2.37, 95% CI: 1.12-5.02, p = 0.025). Moreover, transgender women who reported being open towards family about sexual identity/behaviour were 2.4 more likely to have visited an outreach centre (AOR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.04-5.57, p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of HIV and syphilis, as well as indicators of marginalisation and discrimination among transgender women, highlights the increased burden transgender women in Nepal are facing and the need for tailored interventions. Moreover, since health care service uptake is an important factor in determining sexual risk behaviour among MSM and transgender women in Nepal, outreach services should be scaled up.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Trabalho Sexual , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232983, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to assess the effect of Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth on knowledge and skills of health workers and whether such effect varies by health workers characteristics. METHODS: Nested in a cluster-randomised trial to assess the effect of the training on health outcomes, we assessed changes in knowledge and simulated skills in 61 facilities. The assessments were done i) before, ii) immediately-after training session and iii) at 10-month follow-up for subset of health-workers of implementation facilities as defined by the trial. We used a self-administered questionnaire and Objective Structures Clinical Examinations to assess three skill sets: Active Management of Third Stage of Labour, removal of retained placenta and management of severe postpartum haemorrhage. We computed summary statistics and used the paired t-test to assess change of knowledge and skills immediately post-training and at 10-month follow-up. Linear regression was done to assess association of scores and health worker characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 636 health workers included, 606 (96.7%) and 591 (91.4%) completed the knowledge and skills assessments, respectively. Majority of the participants (68%) were nurse-midwives. Knowledge scores increased by 15 percentage-points from 77.5% to 93% (95% CI 14.3, 16.3, p-value <0.000), and skills scores by 47 percentage-points (95% CI 46.5, 49.2, p-value <0.000) from 37.5% to 83%. There was a 4.0% decline of skills at 10-month follow-up. The decline was higher in auxiliary staff (-11.8%) and least in nurse-midwives (-2.1%) p-value <0.001. Health workers who assisted less than 5 deliveries in the last month, those who never attended postpartum haemorrhage in-service training and profession experience >8 years were associated with lower mean skill change immediately post-training. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the potential of the Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth training to increase knowledge and skills of postpartum haemorrhage among all professional groups. Auxiliary staff benefited most from the training but also showed higher skill decline at 10-month. Our study highlights the importance to disaggregate knowledge and skills by health workers characteristics.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Capacitação em Serviço , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/terapia , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Tocologia/educação , Mães , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Parto , Assistência Perinatal , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 340, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is an emerging problem caused due to antibiotic use. In countries with high rates of infectious diseases, antibiotic resistance is a frequent cause of mortality. The aim was to analyse antibiotic prescribing practices between 2008 and 2017 in a teaching (TH) and a non-teaching (NTH) hospital, as typical hospitals of low- and middle-income countries, and to compare antibiotic prescribing for severe infectious indications for which empiric antibiotic treatment is recommended. METHODS: Data from adult patients registered at two Indian private-sector hospitals with one of the following indications: epiglottitis, pneumonia, peritonitis, pyelonephritis, cellulitis, erysipelas, septic arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis or sepsis; were included and analysed. Antibiotic prescription data was analyzed using the World Health Organization's (WHO) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system and the Defined Daily Doses. Chi-square and linear regression were used to compare the data between groups. Time series analyses were conducted using linear regression. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: In total, 3766 patients were included, 2504 inpatients in the NTH and 1262 in the TH, of which 92 and 89% patients, respectively, were prescribed antibiotics. Sixty-one percent of total prescriptions in the TH and 40% in the NTH comprised the access category of antibiotics (i.e. the first-choice of treatment according to the WHO). The WHO's second-choice of treatment, the watch category, comprised 29 and 40% of total prescriptions in the TH and NTH, respectively. Prescribing of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of antibiotics was significantly higher in the NTH (18%) than in the TH (8%, P < 0.05). Prescribing of watch antibiotics and FDCs increased significantly in both hospitals between 2008 and 2017 among patients with pneumonia, cellulitis and peritonitis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing of watch antibiotics and FDCs of antibiotics increased over time at both hospitals, indicating under prescribing of access antibiotics and more prescribing of second-choice antibiotics. The results can be used to highlight the areas of improvement in similar settings. Implementing diagnostic routines and local prescribing guidelines could improve the prescribing practices.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Privados , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Setor Privado , Adulto , Celulite (Flegmão)/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Índia , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of low levels of HIV RNA (low-level viremia; LLV) during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on clinical outcomes is unclear. We explored the associations between LLV and all-cause mortality, AIDS, and serious non-AIDS events (SNAE). METHODS: We grouped individuals starting cART 1996-2017 (identified from the Swedish InfCare HIV register) as virologic suppression (VS; <50 copies/mL), LLV (repeated viral load 50-999 copies/mL), and non-suppressed viremia (NSV; ≥1000 copies/mL). Separately, LLV was subdivided into 50-199 and 200-999 copies/mL (reflecting different definitions of virologic failure). Proportional-hazard models (including sex, age, pre-ART CD4 count and viral load, country of birth, injection drug use, treatment experience and interruptions, and an interaction term between viremia and time) were fitted for the study outcomes. RESULTS: 6,956 participants were followed for a median of 5.7 years. At the end of follow-up, 60% were categorized as VS, 9% as LLV, and 31% as NSV. Compared with VS, LLV was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.6). This association was also observed for LLV 50-199 copies/mL (aHR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8), but was not statistically significant for LLV 200-999 copies/mL (aHR 2.1, 95% CI 0.96-4.7). LLV 50-999 copies/mL was not linked to increased risk of AIDS or SNAE, but in subanalysis, LLV 200-999 copies/mL was associated with SNAE (aHR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.6). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based cohort, LLV during cART was associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040334, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics are essential to treat infections during pregnancy and to reduce both maternal and infant mortality. Overall use, but especially non-indicated use, and misuse of antibiotics are drivers of antibiotic resistance (ABR). High non-indicated use of antibiotics for uncomplicated vaginal deliveries is widespread in many parts of the world. Similarly, irrational use of antibiotics is reported for children. There is scarcity of evidence regarding antibiotic use and ABR in Lao PDR (Laos). The overarching aim of this project is to fill those knowledge gaps and to evaluate a quality improvement intervention. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of uncomplicated vaginal deliveries where antibiotics are used and to compare its trend before and after the intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This 3-year, prospective, quasiexperimental study without comparison group includes a formative and interventional phase. Data on antibiotic use during delivery will be collected from medical records. Knowledge, attitudes and reported practices on antibiotic use in pregnancy, during delivery and for children, will be collected from women through questionnaires. Healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes and practices of antibiotics administration for pregnant women, during delivery and for children, will be collected via adapted questionnaires. Perceptions regarding antibiotics will be explored through focus group discussions with women and individual interviews with key stakeholders. Faecal samples for culturing of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. and antibiotic susceptibility testing will be taken before, during and 6 months after delivery to determine colonisation of resistant strains. The planned intervention will comprise training workshops, educational materials and social media campaign and will be evaluated using interrupted time series analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project received ethical approval from the National Ethics Committee for Health Research, Ministry of Health, Laos. The results will be disseminated via scientific publications, conference presentations and communication with stakeholders. TRAIL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN16217522; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Laos , Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628248

RESUMO

An estimated 350 million cases of STIs occur globally each year. In Sweden, Chlamydia is the most common STI with approximately 30 000 cases annually, disproportionally affecting youth. National surveys report low condom use among youth. Smartphone coverage is high among this tech-savvy group. In collaboration with youth, we developed an interactive smartphone application comprising games, peer experiences and information snippets to promote condom use. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in a randomised controlled trial, the effectiveness of this smartphone application to improve condom use among youth in Stockholm, Sweden. METHODS: This two-arm, individually randomised controlled trial was implemented through the Youth Health Clinics (YHC) in Stockholm, Sweden. Youth aged 18-23 years, who owned a smartphone and had ≥2 sexual partners during the past 6 months were eligible. The intervention delivered the interactive elements described above over 180 days. The control group received a 'dummy' application. Both groups received standard of care at the YHC. The primary outcome was proportion of consistent (100%) self-reported condom use at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included self-reported number of partners, occurrence of STIs/pregnancy and STI tests during the study period. An intention-to-treat approach was used. RESULTS: 214 and 219 youth were randomised to the intervention and control groups, respectively. Consistent condom use was reported for 32/214 (15.0%) in the intervention group and for 35/219 (16.0%) in the control group (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.6). No significant differences in secondary outcomes were seen. CONCLUSION: We were unable to detect an effect of the intervention. Future research should focus on targeting different subgroups within the overall risk group, with tailored mHealth interventions. The potential for such interventions in settings where sexual health services are unavailable should be evaluated. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13212899.

13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 389-396, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the consistency of maternal near-miss incidence and mortality index between two definitions across 104 facilities in Tanzania and Uganda. METHODS: Based on WHO guidance, cross-sectional near-miss data were collected in Tanzania (July 2015 to October 2016) and Uganda (June 2016 to September 2017). Prepartum hemorrhage and abortion were included as additional screening events and the number of blood units transfused was recorded. Near-miss incidence and mortality index were determined by using two near-miss definitions: the WHO standard definition, and a modified definition including women receiving at least 1 unit of blood. A sensitivity analysis excluded the additional screening events. RESULTS: Near-miss incidence differed between Tanzania and Uganda (1.79 and 4.00, respectively, per 100 deliveries) when estimated by the standard definition, but was similar (5.24 and 4.94, respectively) by the modified definition. The mortality index was higher in Tanzania than in Uganda when estimated by the standard definition (8.56% vs 3.54%), but was similar by the modified definition (3.10% vs 2.89%). CONCLUSION: The modified definition provided a more consistent estimate of near-miss incidence and mortality index. Lowering the threshold for units of blood transfusion might improve comparability between settings, but more research is needed.


Assuntos
Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mortalidade Materna , Pobreza , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 113(11): 714-721, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes the patterns of antibiotic prescribing in eight village clinics in rural China and evaluates factors associated with antibiotic prescribing using quantitative and qualitative methods. METHODS: From January 2015 to July 2017, 60 prescriptions were collected monthly from selected village clinics in Shandong, China. Village clinic doctors completed a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of antibiotic prescribing. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 village doctors and 1 deputy director from the township hospital. RESULTS: Of the 14 526 prescriptions collected, 5851 (40.3%) contained at least one antibiotic, among which 18.4% had two or more antibiotics and 24.3% had parenteral antibiotics. The antibiotic prescribing rate (ß=-0.007 [95% confidence interval -0.009 to -0.004]) showed a declining trend (1.7% per month). Higher antibiotic prescribing rates were observed for patients <45 y of age and those diagnosed with upper respiratory tract infections and among village doctors who had less working experience and a lower level of knowledge on antibiotic prescribing. Qualitative analyses suggested that antibiotic prescribing was influenced by the patients' symptoms, patients' requests, policies restraining the overuse of antibiotics, subsidies for referral and routine village doctor training. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prescribing has declined in the included village clinics, which may be due to the policy of reducing antibiotic overuse in primary health care centres in China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 569, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was rolled-out in Ethiopia in 2005, but there are no reports on outcome of ART and human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (HIVDR) at national level. We described acquired drug resistance mutations in pol gene and performed a viral genome wide association study in virologic treatment failure patients who started first line ART during 2009-2011 in the first large countrywide HIV cohort in Ethiopia. METHODS: The outcome of tenofovir (TDF)- and zidovudine (ZDV)-based ART was defined in 874 ART naïve patients using the on-treatment (OT) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. Genotypic resistance testing was done in patients failing ART (> 1000 copies/ml) at month 6 and 12. Near full-length genome sequencing (NFLG) was used to assess amino acid changes in HIV-1 gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, vpu, and nef genes between paired baseline and month 6 samples. RESULTS: High failure rates were found in ITT analysis at month 6 and 12 (23.3%; 33.9% respectively). Major nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTI/NNRTI) drug resistance mutations were detected in most failure patients at month 6 (36/47; 77%) and month 12 (20/30; 67%). A high rate of K65R was identified only in TDF treated patients (35.7%; 50.0%, respectively). No significant difference was found in failure rate or extent of HIVDR between TDF- and ZDV- treated patients. All target regions of interest for HIVDR were described by NFLG in 16 patients tested before initiation of ART and at month 6. CONCLUSION: In this first Ethiopian national cohort, a high degree of HIVDR was seen among ART failure patients, independent on whether TDF- or ZDV was given. However, the major reason to ART failure was lost-to-follow-up rather than virologic failure. Our NFLG assay covered all relevant target genes for antiretrovirals and is an attractive alternative for HIVDR surveillance.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Etiópia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Integrase de HIV/genética , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Falha de Tratamento , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6682, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040380

RESUMO

The world is experiencing crisis of antibiotic resistance not only in pathogenic but also in commensal bacteria. We determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in young children in rural setting of central India and search for its correlations with demographic and behavioral factors. At seven time points during a period of 2 years we collected stool samples from 125 children; aged 1-3 in a rural area of Madhya Pradesh. We isolated six isolates of E. coli per stool sample and subjected them to antibiotic susceptibility testing. We found resistance to ampicillin, quinolones, cephalosporins, sulfamethoxazole, co-trimoxazole, in at least one isolate from 89% to 100% of children. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing E. coli were identified in all but one child and multidrug resistance was identified in isolates from all children. Female gender (p = 0.04) and higher wealth (p = 0.03) was significantly correlated with less antibiotic resistance. Thus, the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal E. coli in rural community from India needs urgent measures to control the growing antibiotic resistance crisis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , População Rural , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Vigilância da População
17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(2): e001214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997164

RESUMO

Background: Training health providers is an important strategy to improve health. We conducted a cluster-randomised two-arm trial in Tanzania to assess the effect of a 1-day competency-based training 'Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding after Birth (HMS BAB)' followed by eight weekly drills on postpartum haemorrhage (PPH)-related morbidity and mortality. Methods: Twenty districts in four purposefully selected regions in Tanzania included 61 facilities. The districts were randomly allocated using matched pairs to ensure similarity in terms of district health services in intervention and comparison districts. In the 10 intervention districts 331 health providers received the HMS BAB training. The other half continued with standard practices. We used the WHO's near miss tool to collect information on severe morbidity (near misses) of all women admitted to study facilities. We performed interrupted time series analysis to estimate differences in the change of near miss per delivery rate and case fatality rates. We also assessed implementation of evidence-based preventive and basic management practices for PPH as secondary outcomes. Results: We included 120 533 facility deliveries, 6503 near misses and 202 maternal deaths in study districts during study period (November 2014 to January 2017). A significant reduction of PPH near misses was found among women who suffered PPH in the intervention district compared with comparison districts (difference-in-differences of slopes -5.3, 95% CI -7.8 to -2.7, p<0.001) from a baseline PPH-related near miss rate of 71% (95% CI 60% to 80%). There was a significant decrease in the long-term PPH near miss case fatality (difference-in-differences of slopes -4 to 0) (95% CI -6.5 to -1.5, p<0.01) in intervention compared with the comparison districts. The intervention had a positive effect on the proportion of PPH cases treated with intravenous oxytocin (difference-in-differences of slopes 5.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 8.9) (p <0.01). Conclusion: The positive effect of the training intervention on PPH morbidity and case fatality suggests that the training addresses important deficits in knowledge and skills. Trial registration number: PACTR201604001582128.

18.
J Infect ; 78(5): 402-408, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data on the longer-term effectiveness of second line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are lacking. We sought to assess the probability and determinants of 2nd line ART failure in SSA. METHODS: A retrospective, multi-center study of 2nd line ART initiated between 2005 and 2017 at four ART centers in Ethiopia, Ghana and Uganda. Main outcome measure was virologic failure (VF) defined as VL>1000 copies/ml after >6 months on 2nd line therapy. Predictors of VF and virologic re-suppression on 2nd line were evaluated using Cox Proportional Hazards and multivariable logistic regression models, respectively. RESULTS: 2191 subjects started 2nd line therapy, 61.5% females. Switching from 1st line (56.4% NVP-based, 70.3% including thymidine-analogues) to 2nd line therapy occurred after mean of 4.1 years. 98.9% of patients started boosted PI with NRTI backbone (TDF+3TC/FTC 67.3%, AZT+3TC 18.5%, others 14.2%). There were 267 (12.0%) VF with a 5-year estimated probability of 15.0% (95% CI 13.2-16.9). Key determinants of VF were concomitant rifampicin use (aHR 2.50 [95% CI 1.54-4.05]) and clinical/immunological failure versus virologic failure as reason for switching therapy (aHR, 0.53 [0.33-0.86]). 138 of 267 (51.7%) subsequently achieved virologic re-suppression and predictors included HIV RNA levels at 2nd-line failure: +1 log higher aOR 0.59 [0.43-0.80], experiencing change within 2nd line ART before VF: aOR 0.17 [0.05-0.56], and more recent calendar year of 2nd line initiation: aOR 0.85 [0.75-0.94]. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of current 2nd line ART regimens in SSA is good but challenged by interactions with TB therapy.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Etiópia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 144(1): 37-48, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the stillbirth risk associated with intrapartum adverse events, controlling for fetal and maternal factors. METHODS: The present study was an analysis of cross-sectional patient-record and facility-file data from women with viable fetuses who experienced obstetric adverse events at 23 hospitals and 38 health centers in Tanzania (between December 2015 and October 2016), and 22 hospitals, 16 level-4 health centers, and five level-3 health centers in Uganda (between May 2016 and September 2017). Adverse events were categorized in three severity groups (postpartum, intrapartum non-near-miss, and intrapartum near-miss) to calculate stillbirth rates and adjusted prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Data from 3816 women in Tanzania and 8305 in Uganda were included. Compared with postpartum adverse events, intrapartum near-miss was associated with a 3.73- and 4.55-fold higher prevalence of stillbirth in Uganda and Tanzania, respectively. Most women who experienced near-miss had organ dysfunction on arrival or developed it soon after. The risk of stillbirth was higher among preterm deliveries compared with term deliveries, and was 42% and 59% lower in Tanzania and Uganda, respectively, for cesarean deliveries compared with vaginal deliveries after intrapartum non-near-miss adverse events. CONCLUSION: Stillbirth risk increased with severity of complications and was higher among premature deliveries. Survival was higher for cesarean deliveries in intrapartum non-near-miss complications, identifying the opportunity to prevent deterioration by timely actions.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13372, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190585

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is a major global health threat. High prevalences of colonization and infection with multi-drug resistance organisms (MDROs) have been reported in patients undergoing dialysis. It is unknown if this finding extends to patients with mild and moderate/severe kidney disease. An observational study included all adult incident patients hospitalized with a discharge diagnosis of infection in four hospitals from Guangzhou, China. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Serum creatinine measurement at admission together with microbial culture confirmed infections. Exclusion criterion: Undergoing renal replacement therapy. Four categories of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were compared: eGFR ≥ 105, 60-104 (reference), 30-59, and <30 ml/min/1.73 m2. The odds ratio of MDROs, defined as specific pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.) resistant to three or more antibiotic classes, were calculated using a multivariable logistic regression model across eGFR strata. Of 94,445 total microbial culture records, 7,288 first positive cultures matched to infection diagnosis were selected. Among them, 5,028 (68.9%) were potential MDROs. The odds of infections by MDROs was 19% and 41% higher in those with eGFR between 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR): 1.19, 95% CI:1.02-1.38, P = 0.022) and eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 (AOR: 1.41, 95% CI:1.12-1.78, P = 0.004), respectively. Patients with impaired renal function have a higher risk of infections by MDROs. Kidney dysfunction at admission may be an indicator for need of closer attention to microbial culture results requiring subsequent change of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Nefropatias , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/microbiologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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