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1.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043960

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The association of mild obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with important clinical outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between mild OSA and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) in the European Sleep Apnoea Database (ESADA) cohort. METHODS: In a multicentre sample of 4732 patients we analyzed the risk of mild OSA (sub-classified into two groups: mildAHI 5-<11/h (apnoea-hypopnoea frequency/hour [AHI] 5 to <11/h) and mildAHI 11-<15/hOSA (AHI ≥11 to <15/h ) compared to non-apnoeic snorers for prevalent SAH after adjustment for relevant confounding factors including gender, age, smoking, obesity, daytime sleepiness, dyslipidaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes and sleep test methodology [polygraphy (PG) or polysomnography (PSG)]. RESULTS: SAH prevalence was higher in the mildAHI 11-<15/h OSA group compared with the mildAHI 5-<11/h group and non-apnoeic snorers (52 vs 45 vs 30%, p<0.001). Corresponding adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for SAH were 1.789 (mildAHI 11-<15/h, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.15) and 1.558 (mildAHI 5-<11/h, 95%, CI 1.34-1.82), respectively; p<0.001. In sensitivity analysis, mildAHI 11-<15/h OSA remained a significant predictor for SAH both in PG (OR = 1.779, 95% CI 1.403-2.256; p<0.001) and PSG group (OR = 1.424, 95% CI 1.047-1.939; p=0.025). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a dose response relationship between mild OSA and SAH risk, starting from 5 events/hour in PG-recordings and continuing with a further risk increase in the 11 to <15 range. These findings potentially introduce a challenge to traditional thresholds of OSA severity and may help to stratify OSA patients according to cardiovascular risk.

2.
Sleep Med ; 69: 168-171, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In stable neuromuscular patients under long-term non-invasive ventilation (NIV), subjective sleep quality may be predicted by chronic hypoventilation, as assessed by base excess (BE), and %N3 sleep stage duration. In this study, we explored how other variables, closely associated with self-reported health complaints, contributed to subjective sleep quality in adult patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a quality of life study in 48 adult DMD patients under NIV therapy, with little evidence of residual hypoventilation. Subjective sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A PSQI score >5 was considered indicative of poor sleep quality. Several other symptoms were evaluated: sleepiness, by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); depression and anxiety, by the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D); autonomic symptoms, by the Composite Autonomic Symptom Score 31; pain, by the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS); and fatigue, by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). RESULTS: Mean PSQI was 6.1 ± 2.9. Abnormal scores were found for NPRS in 40, for HADS-A in 10 and for FSS in 24 subjects. The NPRS, HADS-A and FSS scores and the N3 sleep stage, independently predicted PSQI (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In adult DMD patients, pain, fatigue and anxiety may have a prominent influence on subjective sleep quality. Improvement of sleep quality may be of utmost importance in DMD, as it may ameliorate quality of life and extend its benefits to cardiovascular morbidity and life expectancy.

3.
Sleep Med Clin ; 14(4): 431-439, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640871

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness in about 50% of cases, and with increased risk of driving accidents. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure effectively decreases such risk, but compliance with continuous positive airway pressure treatment is often suboptimal. According to the European Union Directive on driving risk, retention of a driving license in patients with obstructive sleep apnea requires assessment of sleepiness and adherence to continuous positive airway pressure treatment, but there remains uncertainty on the optimal methods to assess sleepiness on a large scale.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sonolência , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/terapia , Vigília
5.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 29(8): 569-575, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395305

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate quality of life (QoL) and its possible determinants in patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in late stages of their disease, when non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is already established. Forty-eight DMD patients who were treated by NIV were enrolled. QoL was assessed by the Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life (INQoL) questionnaire. By this questionnaire, different aspects of QoL were assessed on a scale from 0 (best) to 100 (worst). In addition, motor and respiratory function tests were performed. Dysautonomia symptoms, sleep quality, sleepiness, anxiety, and depression were evaluated by validated questionnaires. The global INQoL score was 42.8 ±â€¯19, reflecting a moderately altered QoL. The physical health domain was heavily impaired while the psychosocial domain was only mildly affected. Independence had the highest scores (81.1 ±â€¯21.2), proving to be the most affected item. On multivariate analysis, maximal inspiratory pressure and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, but not daily duration of NIV therapy, predicted global INQoL score. Respiratory impairment and sleep quality were independent predictors of poor QoL in DMD patients under NIV. Sleep quality in DMD is often disregarded, while it should be carefully addressed to ensure a better QoL.

6.
Sleep Med Rev ; 47: 74-89, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376590

RESUMO

Prevalence of both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is continuously increasing. Moreover, the prevalence of OSA increases as kidney function declines and is higher among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In addition, OSA is recognized as a potential nontraditional risk factor for development and progression of CKD. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) plays a pivotal role in the management of OSA, eliminating patients' symptoms and improving their quality of life. Recent studies suggested that CPAP treatment may have beneficial effects on kidney function among patients with OSA. This narrative review summarizes the existing knowledge on the association between CKD and OSA, with emphasis on the epidemiology, the pathophysiology of the development of CKD in OSA and vice versa, as well as the effect of CPAP on renal function.

8.
J Sleep Res ; : e12895, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347213

RESUMO

In obstructive sleep apnea, patients' sleep is fragmented leading to excessive daytime sleepiness and co-morbidities like arterial hypertension. However, traditional metrics are not always directly correlated with daytime sleepiness, and the association between traditional sleep quality metrics like sleep duration and arterial hypertension is still ambiguous. In a development cohort, we analysed hypnograms from mild (n = 213), moderate (n = 235) and severe (n = 277) obstructive sleep apnea patients as well as healthy controls (n = 105) from the European Sleep Apnea Database. We assessed sleep by the analysis of two-step transitions depending on obstructive sleep apnea severity and anthropometric factors. Two-step transition patterns were examined for an association to arterial hypertension or daytime sleepiness. We also tested cumulative distributions of wake as well as sleep-states for power-laws (exponent α) and exponential distributions (decay time τ) in dependency on obstructive sleep apnea severity and potential confounders. Independent of obstructive sleep apnea severity and potential confounders, wake-state durations followed a power-law distribution, while sleep-state durations were characterized by an exponential distribution. Sleep-stage transitions are influenced by obstructive sleep apnea severity, age and gender. N2 → N3 → wake transitions were associated with high diastolic blood pressure. We observed higher frequencies of alternating (symmetric) patterns (e.g. N2 → N1 → N2, N2 → wake → N2) in sleepy patients both in the development cohort and in a validation cohort (n = 425). In conclusion, effects of obstructive sleep apnea severity and potential confounders on sleep architecture are small, but transition patterns still link sleep fragmentation directly to obstructive sleep apnea-related clinical outcomes like arterial hypertension and daytime sleepiness.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809382

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease, and is traditionally associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The role of comorbidities in OSA patients has emerged recently, and new conditions significantly associated with OSA are increasingly reported. A high comorbidity burden worsens prognosis, but some data suggest that CPAP might be protective especially in patients with comorbidities. Aim of this narrative review is to provide an update on recent studies, with special attention to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular comorbidities, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, asthma, COPD and cancer. Better phenotypic characterization of OSA patients, including comorbidities, will help to provide better individualized care. The unsatisfactory adherence to CPAP in patients without daytime sleepiness should prompt clinicians to examine the overall risk profile of each patient in order to identify subjects at high risk for worse prognosis and provide the optimal treatment not only for OSA, but also for comorbidities.

12.
Sleep Breath ; 23(2): 433-438, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043387

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study aims to evaluate the performance of autonomic activations as a tool to assess sleep fragmentation and to recognize hypopneas in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) under non-invasive mechanical ventilation and secondarily, to evaluate, in patients with the same disease, the relationship between disruption of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and the usefulness of the autonomic activations as surrogates of cortical arousals. METHODS: Sixteen ALS patients underwent simultaneous polysomnography and portable cardiorespiratory monitoring (PM). On the polysomnography, standard rules were used for scoring arousals and respiratory events. On the PM, autonomic arousals were scored as ≥ 15% heart rate (HR) increase with a ≥ 35% pulse wave amplitude (PWA) reduction, HR increase ≥ 20%, or PWA decrease ≥ 40%. Nocturnal HR variability was analyzed in the ALS patients and in 11 control subjects as an index of ANS activity. RESULTS: Synchronized epoch by epoch analysis of the polysomnography and PM recordings showed that only 31.0 (22.5-58.7)% cortical and 36.1 (20.5-47.2)% autonomic arousals were associated with one another. Among hypopneas scored at polysomnography, 71.7% were associated with a cortical arousal but not with a desaturation. On average, HR variability in ALS showed signs of depressed ANS activity that was particularly evident in the patients where the cortical arousals exceeded the autonomic ones. CONCLUSIONS: In ventilated ALS patients, autonomic activations may hardly have a role as surrogates of cortical arousals for assessment of sleep fragmentation and for respiratory scoring. Depression of ANS activity may be related to their poor performance.

14.
Sleep Med ; 59: 56-65, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI) reflects the clinician's assessment of the disease impact on patient's global functioning. We assessed predictors of CGI scale rating in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). PATIENTS/METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected OSA (n = 7581) were identified in the European Sleep Apnea Database (ESADA). Anthropometrics, comorbidities, apnea severity obtained by polygraphy or polysomnography, and daytime sleepiness [Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] were assessed. The CGI 7-point scale was completed at the end of the diagnostic process (CGI-severity, ie, CGI-S) and, in a subpopulation, at treatment follow-up (CGI-Improvement). RESULTS: CGI-S was rated mild to moderate in 44% of patients. CGI rating at any given apnea intensity was worse in women than in men (p < 0.01). Patients undergoing polygraphy (n = 5075) were more frequently rated as severely ill compared to those studied with polysomnography (19.0% vs 13.0%, p < 0.001). In patients aged ≤65 years, CGI scoring was generally better than in the elderly despite a similar degree of OSA (eg, 'normal, not ill' 24.2% vs 15.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). Independent predictors of CGI rating included age, BMI, AHI, ESS, cardio-metabolic comorbidities, and diagnosis based on polygraphy. CGI-improvement rating (Beta = -0.406, p < 0.01) was superior to sleep apnea severity or ESS-score (Beta = 0.052 and -0.021, p = 0.154 and 0.538 respectively) at baseline for prediction of good CPAP compliance at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: CGI rating is confounded by gender, age class and the type of sleep diagnostic method. As OSA phenotypes differ, CGI may contribute as a clinical tool to reflect the significance of clinical disease.

15.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 10: 229-242, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174467

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often associated with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Blood pressure (BP) variability is part of the assessment of cardiovascular risk. In OSA, BP variability has been studied mainly as very short-term (beat-by-beat) and short-term (24-hour BP profile) variability. BP measured on consecutive heartbeats has been demonstrated to be highly variable, due to repeated peaks during sleep, so that an accurate assessment of nocturnal BP levels in OSA may require peculiar methodologies. In 24-hour recordings, BP frequently features a "nondipping" profile, ie, <10% fall from day to night, which may increase cardiovascular risk and occurrence of major cardiovascular events in the nocturnal hours. Also, BP tends to show a large "morning BP surge", a still controversial negative prognostic sign. Increased very short-term BP variability, high morning BP, and nondipping BP profile appear related to the severity of OSA. Treatment of OSA slightly reduces mean 24-hour BP levels and nocturnal beat-by-beat BP variability by abolishing nocturnal BP peaks. In some patients OSA treatment turns a nondipping into a dipping BP profile. Treatment of arterial hypertension in OSA usually requires both antihypertensive pharmacological therapy and treatment of apnea. Addressing BP variability could help improve the management of OSA and reduce cardiovascular risk. Possibly, drug administration at an appropriate time would ensure a dipping-BP profile.

16.
J Sleep Res ; 27(6): e12729, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998568

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and asthma are often associated and several studies suggest a bidirectional relationship between asthma and OSA. This study analyzed the characteristics of patients with suspected OSA from the European Sleep Apnea Database according to presence/absence of physician-diagnosed asthma. Cross-sectional data in 16,236 patients (29.1% female) referred for suspected OSA were analyzed according to occurrence of physician-diagnosed asthma for anthropometrics, OSA severity and sleepiness. Sleep structure was assessed in patients studied by polysomnography (i.e. 48% of the sample). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma in the entire cohort was 4.8% (7.9% in women, 3.7% in men, p < 0.0001), and decreased from subjects without OSA to patients with mild-moderate and severe OSA (p = 0.02). Obesity was highly prevalent in asthmatic women, whereas BMI distribution was similar in men with and without physician-diagnosed asthma. Distribution of OSA severity was similar in patients with and without physician-diagnosed asthma, and unaffected by treatment for asthma or gastroesophageal reflux. Asthma was associated with poor sleep quality and sleepiness. Physician-diagnosed asthma was less common in a sleep clinic population than expected from the results of studies in the general population. Obesity appears as the major factor raising suspicion of OSA in asthmatic women, whereas complaints of poor sleep quality were the likely reason for referral in asthmatic men.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Papel do Médico , Autorrelato , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
17.
Chest ; 154(2): 326-334, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of treating OSA on renal function decline is controversial. Previous studies usually included small samples and did not consider specific effects of different CPAP modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the respective influence of fixed and autoadjusting CPAP modes on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a large sample of patients derived from the prospective European Sleep Apnea Database cohort. METHODS: In patients of the European Sleep Apnea Database, eGFR prior to and after follow-up was calculated by using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Three study groups were investigated: untreated patients (n = 144), patients receiving fixed CPAP (fCPAP) (n = 1,178), and patients on autoadjusting CPAP (APAP) (n = 485). RESULTS: In the whole sample, eGFR decreased over time. The rate of eGFR decline was significantly higher in the subgroup with eGFR above median (91.42 mL/min/1.73 m2) at baseline (P < .0001 for effect of baseline eGFR). This decline was attenuated or absent (P < .0001 for effect of treatment) in the subgroup of patients with OSA treated by using fCPAP. A follow-up duration exceeding the median (541 days) was associated with eGFR decline in the untreated and APAP groups but not in the fCPAP group (P < .0001 by two-way ANOVA for interaction between treatment and follow-up length). In multiple regression analysis, eGFR decline was accentuated by advanced age, female sex, cardiac failure, higher baseline eGFR, and longer follow-up duration, whereas there was a protective effect of fCPAP. CONCLUSIONS: fCPAP but not APAP may prevent eGFR decline in OSA.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Sleep Res ; 27(6): e12680, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527742

RESUMO

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-choice treatment for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing. Automatic bilevel ventilation can be used to treat obstructive sleep-disordered breathing when CPAP is ineffective, but clinical experience is still limited. To assess the outcome of titration with CPAP and automatic bilevel ventilation, the charts of 356 outpatients (obstructive sleep apnea, n = 242; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease + obstructive sleep apnea overlap, n = 80; obesity hypoventilation syndrome [OHS], n = 34; 103 females) treated for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing from January 2014 to April 2017 were reviewed. Positive airway pressure titration was considered successful in the case of sleep-disordered breathing resolution (apnea-hypopnea index <10/hr) with cumulative time at SaO2  < 90% (CT90%) <10% and/or improved daytime arterial blood gases at the end of titration. CPAP was effective in 268 patients (75.0%). CPAP treatment failure (n = 88) occurred in 13.6% of obstructive sleep apnea, 32.5% of overlap, and 85.3% of OHS patients. Compared with successful CPAP cases, patients undergoing the automatic bilevel ventilation trial showed higher body mass index (39.3 ± 10.5 kg/m2 versus 34.8 ± 6.9 kg/m2 , p < 0.0001), worse mean nocturnal SaO2 (89.2 ± 4.0% versus 91.3 ± 4.0%, p < 0.003) and CT90% (40.6 ± 28.6% versus 24.0 ± 23.3%), but similar age (62.8 ± 11.9 years versus 60.5 ± 12.0 years, p = 0.11), apnea-hypopnea index (39.4 ± 23.2/hr versus 41.0 ± 21.2/hr, p = 0.55) and oxygen desaturation index (37.8 ± 23.5/hr versus 39.2 ± 21.1/hr, p = 0.61) at diagnosis. Automatic bilevel ventilation was successful in 79.5% of CPAP treatment failures (n = 70). Automatic bilevel ventilation failure was independently associated with baseline body mass index >40 kg/m2 (odds ratio 6.16, confidence interval 1.50-25.17, p = 0.011) and CT90% >42% (odds ratio 5.87, confidence interval 1.39-24.83, p = 0.016). During follow-up, automatic bilevel ventilation treatment failed in seven patients (10%), and compliance was similar in CPAP (4.5 ± 2.2 hr) and automatic bilevel ventilation (5.2 ± 2.3 hr, p = 0.09) groups. Automatic bilevel ventilation was useful to treat sleep-disordered breathing, but failed in patients with severe OHS.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
20.
Eur Respir Rev ; 26(146)2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070581

RESUMO

In all fields of medicine, major efforts are currently dedicated to improve the clinical, physiological and therapeutic understanding of disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is no exception. The personalised medicine approach is relevant for OSA, given its complex pathophysiology and variable clinical presentation, the interactions with comorbid conditions and its possible contribution to poor outcomes. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective, but CPAP is poorly tolerated or not accepted in a considerable proportion of OSA patients. This review summarises the available studies on the physiological phenotypes of upper airway response to obstruction during sleep, and the clinical presentations of OSA (phenotypes and clusters) with a special focus on our changing attitudes towards approaches to treatment. Such major efforts are likely to change and expand treatment options for OSA beyond the most common current choices (i.e CPAP, mandibular advancement devices, positional treatment, lifestyle changes or upper airway surgery). More importantly, treatment for OSA may become more effective, being tailored to each patient's need.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Respiração , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Sono , Comorbidade , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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