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1.
Ital J Food Saf ; 8(3): 8100, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632927

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a long ageing period on the microbiological, rheological and physicalchemical characteristics of bovine beef. For the trial n. 3 Marchigiana bovine breed (live weight of 760 kg approximately), slaughtered at 34 months were chosen and the loin muscles were undergone to a prolonged ageing process. The analytical determinations performed were: pH and aw values, texture profile analysis, Warner-Bratzler shear force, colour (CIE L*a*b*), centesimal analysis, total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, yeasts and moulds. The results indicate that extended ageing has a negative effect on weight loss but, by the means of the standardization of dry aging parameters, reduce lipid oxidation and improve tenderness.

2.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261856

RESUMO

Octopus vulgaris constitute an important part of most suitable marine resources for human consumption, however, they can represent a source in chemical contaminants intake such as heavy metals. In this scenario, the aim of the study was the evaluation of the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in the muscle and digestive gland of octopus caught from two different locations along Campania coast (Castellammare di Stabia and Napoli) and the estimation of their weekly human intake derived from the ingestion of octopus. Analysing 38 samples showed a higher concentration of Pb in the muscle of octopus in Castellammare di Stabia than in Napoli. No statistical differences were reported for Cd, Pb and Hg concentrations in the digestive gland of octopus between two sampling sites. Differences were observed between the two tissue types, with a higher level of Cd and Pb observed in the digestive gland compared with the muscle. Noteworthy, the consumption of muscle from Castellammare di Stabia could increase Pb intake in heavy consumers of local octopus. In conclusion, the present work determines that it is important to improve strategies to minimize environmental pollution sources in these areas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Octopodiformes/química , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Sistema Digestório/química , Itália , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Músculos/química
3.
Chemosphere ; 225: 342-351, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884295

RESUMO

Fast Detection Strategy for Cyanobacterial blooms and associated Cyanotoxins (FDSCC) is a multidisciplinary strategy that allows early detection, in 24 man-hours, of cyanobacteria and related cyanotoxins in water and bivalve samples. This approach combines the advantages of remote/proximal sensing with those of analytical/bioinformatics analyses, namely, LC-HRMS-based molecular networking. The detection of Lyngbyatoxin A, a lipophilic cyanotoxin, in all analyzed water samples and in bivalves, commonly used as food, was the proof of the reliability of the new method.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Toxinas da Lyngbya/análise , Microcistinas/análise , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Bivalves/química , Bivalves/microbiologia , Itália , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709021

RESUMO

The distribution of pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin (DLM) in goat milk and cheese (caciotta) following pour-on administration at the sheep dosage (DLMS-10 mL/60 kg body weight) and double dosage (DLMD-20 mL/60 kg body weight) was studied. DLM concentrations were measured in milk collected from study animals (No.14) before treatment and at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 30, 36, 48, 56, until 168 h (7 days) post treatment and in caciotta cheese at 12 and 24 h post treatment. At both dosages, the maximum level of DLM residues in goat milk and cheese was below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 20 µg kg-1 established for bovine milk (EU No 37/2010) at all time points. However, in terms of public health, higher DLM residues in cheese show that further specific studies should be performed on double dosage efficacy and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of ectoparasites in lactating goats.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Cabras , Lactação , Leite/química , Nitrilos/análise , Nitrilos/química , Piretrinas/análise , Piretrinas/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 279: 33-42, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727856

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides have received great attention for their potential benefits to extend the shelf-life of food-products. Innate defense regulator peptide-1018 (IDR-1018) represents a promising candidate for such applications, due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, although food-isolated pathogens have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe the design and the structural-functional characterization of a new 1018-derivative peptide named 1018-K6, in which the alanine in position 6 was replaced with a lysine. Spectroscopic analysis revealed a noticeable switch from ß-sheet to helical conformations of 1018-K6 respect to IDR-1018, with a faster folding kinetic and increased structural stability. Moreover, 1018-K6 evidenced a significant antibiofilm/bactericidal efficiency specifically against Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food-products and food-processing environments, belonging to serotype 4b involved in the majority of human-listeriosis cases, with EC50 values two- five-fold lower than those measured for IDR-1018. Therefore, a single amino-acid substitution in IDR-1018 sequence produced severe changes in peptide conformation and antimicrobial performances.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeriose/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/síntese química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química
7.
Ital J Food Saf ; 6(1): 6373, 2017 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28462206

RESUMO

Consumer is very careful about healthiness; in this context nutritionists often highlight the importance of fish for human nutrition because of their protein and fatty acid composition. In order to stimulate utilisation and consumption of fish species by unusual target groups such as children, the aim of this research was to formulate and to evaluate shelf-life and nutritional values of fish preparations stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Fish species used for trail were Trachurus trachurus and Oncorhynchus mykiss fished and farmed in Basilicata region respectively. Fish burgers were made with different ingredients of plant and animal origin and packed in air (control) and in MAP and stored at refrigeration atemperature. Sensory, physical-chemical analysis as pH, aw, total volatile nitrogen (TVN), trimetilammine (TMA), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), free fatty acids (FFA) and microbiological analysis like aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., sulphite-reducing clostridia, Staphylococci, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were performed at intervals of 0°, 1°, 2°, 5°, 8°, 15°, 22°, day from production. Results showed that fish burgers stored in MAP had a longer shelf-life; protein degradation indexes and spoilage bacterial species showed lower values in the samples packaged in MAP compared with the control. The formulation of the fish burger meets the approval of the target consumers. The mixing of natural ingredients has made possible both the enhancement of the organoleptic characteristics with an excellent balance of nutritional values. The diversification of fish preparations, besides enhancing the fish production of marginal areas would add value to a product with potential and remarkable profit margins.

8.
Ital J Food Saf ; 6(4): 6964, 2017 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564240

RESUMO

The European Food Safety Authority stated that many traditional marinating and cold smoking methods are not sufficient to kill A. simplex and asked to evaluate alternative treatments for killing viable parasites in fishery. Baccalà is a well-liked traditional product. The aim of study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the salting process on the inactivation of nematodes of the genus Anisakis in naturally infected Baccalà fillets. N. 19 fillets, subjected to a dual salting process (brine and dry salting) were analyzed. Visual inspection and chloropeptic digestion were performed. Larvae viability was evaluated, and parameters such as NaCl (%), moisture (%), WPS and aw were determined. In n. 17 samples parasites were found 123 parasites with a mean intensity of 7.23±4.78 and an mean abundance of 6.47±5.05. Visual examination has revealed 109 parasites. 61.8% of larvae were found in the ventral portions. The results show that salting process with a salt concentration of 18.6%, aw values of 0.7514 and 24.15% WPS in all parts of baccalà fillets, devitalise Anisakidae larvae in a 15-day period.

9.
Theriogenology ; 88: 236-243, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27769574

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carnitine supplementation of semen extender on fertility parameters of frozen-thawed buffalo sperm. Buffalo semen was cryopreserved in BioXcell containing 0 (control group), 2.5 and 7.5-mM carnitine. After thawing, viability, motility, membrane integrity and capacitation status (assessed by localization of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins and chlortetracycline, chlortetracycline assay) were evaluated. Furthermore, total antioxidant capacity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and phospholipids concentration were assessed. Finally, in vitro-fertilizing ability was evaluated after heterologous IVF. An increased post-thawing sperm motility and membrane integrity were recorded in both treated groups compared with the control (44.4 ± 3.5, 53.1 ± 3.9, and 52.5 ± 3.6%; P < 0.05 and 48.44 ± 0.69, 55.19 ± 0.54, 59.63 ± 0.30%; P < 0.01 with 0, 2.5-mM, and 7.5-mM carnitine, respectively). Supplementation of carnitine to the freezing extender decreased (P < 0.01) the percentage of sperm displaying fluorescence at both equatorial and anterior acrosomal regions (pattern EA), corresponding to high capacitation level, compared with the control (30.3 ± 3.8, 18.8 ± 2.8, and 7.2 ± 2.9%, respectively, with 0, 2.5-mM, and 7.5-mM carnitine). In agreement with this, carnitine also decreased (P < 0.01) the percentage of sperm displaying chlortetracycline pattern B (capacitated sperm) (63.8 ± 1.8, 46.8 ± 2.2, and 37.2 ± 1.8%, respectively with 0, 2.5-, and 7.5-mM carnitine). Interestingly, carnitine increased total antioxidant capacity and ATP content of buffalo frozen-thawed sperm (1.32 ± 0.02, 1.34 ± 0.01, 1.37 ± 0.01 mM/L and 4.1 ± 0.1, 5.3 ± 0.1 and 8.2 ± 0.4 nM × 108 sperm; P < 0.01, respectively, with 0, 2.5- and 7.5-mM carnitine). Intracellular ROS decreased in carnitine-treated sperm compared with the control, as indicated by dihydroethidium (DHE) values (0.22 ± 0.01, 0.18 ± 0.01, and 0.14 ± 0.0 µM/100 µL dihydroethidium, respectively, with 0, 2.5-, and 7.5-mM carnitine; P < 0.01), whereas lipid peroxidation levels (on average 30.5 ± 0.3 nmol/mL MDA) and phospholipids concentration (on average 0.14 ± 0.00 µg/120 × 106 sperm) were unaffected. Despite the improved sperm quality, the percentage of normospermic penetration after IVF was not influenced (on average 53.5 ± 1.8). In conclusion, enrichment of extender with carnitine improved buffalo sperm quality by increasing ATP generation and modulating ROS production, without affecting in vitro fertilizing ability.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Carnitina/farmacologia , Congelamento , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Capacitação Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Criopreservação/veterinária , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
10.
Data Brief ; 8: 562-9, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27508217

RESUMO

Here we report details on the design and conformational analysis of two novel peptides showing antimicrobial properties, as reported in the research article, "New antimicrobial peptides against foodborne pathogens: from in silico design to experimental evidence" G. Palmieri, M. Balestrieri, Y.T.R. Proroga, L. Falcigno, A. Facchiano, A. Riccio, F. Capuano, R. Marrone, G. Campanile, A. Anastasio (2016) [1]. NMR data, such as chemical shifts in two different solvents as well as aCH protons deviations from random coil values and NOE patterns, are shown together with the statistics of structural calculations. Strategy and particulars of molecular design are presented.

11.
Food Chem ; 211: 546-54, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27283665

RESUMO

Recently there has been growing interest in the discovery of new antimicrobial agents to increase safety and shelf-life of food products. Here, we developed an innovative approach by introducing the concept that mitochondrial targeting peptides (MTP) can interact and disrupt bacterial membranes, acting as antimicrobial agents. As proof-of-principle, we used a multidisciplinary strategy by combining in silico predictions, docking simulations and antimicrobial assays, to identify two peptides, MTP1 and MTP2, which were structurally and functionally characterized. Both compounds appeared effective against Listeria monocytogenes, one of the most important foodborne pathogens. Specifically, a significant bactericidal activity was evidenced with EC50 values of 16.8±1.2µM for MTP1 and 109±7.0µM for MTP2. Finally, NMR structure determinations suggested that MTP1 would be oriented into the membrane bilayer, while the molecular shape of MTP2 could indicate porin-mediated antimicrobial mechanisms, as predicted using molecular docking analysis. Therefore, MTPs represent alternative sources to design new potential bio-preservatives.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia
12.
Virus Res ; 211: 89-95, 2016 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26415753

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in piglets sampled in two farms in southern Italy. The virus was detected in 11 out of 15 animals tested. Based on sequence analysis, the 6 Italian strains examined belonged to two clusters containing both swine and human strains of either genotype 3 subtype e or f from Europe and Japan. The two Italian strain clusters shared nucleotide identity of 81.8% and 87.5% in the ORF2 (capsid protein) and ORF1 (RdRp) diagnostic fragments, respectively, confirming the heterogeneity of genotype 3 viruses circulating in pigs in Italy. The complete genome of one genotype 3 subtype e strain and the full ORF2 and ORF3 coding regions of one of the genotype 3f strains, obtained in this study, were compared to other HEV sequences available on line (NCBI database). The results of analysis showed that porcine strains clustered together with human and swine strains detected in Europe. Most changes in the coding region corresponded to synonymous mutations, and only the ORF3 showed a positive selection. Further, analyses are needed to understand the clinical significance of HEV genotypes and subtypes.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Itália , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos
13.
Ital J Food Saf ; 4(3): 4528, 2015 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800404

RESUMO

The use of carbon monoxide (CO) in fresh fish has generated considerable debate. Carbon monoxide is used to treat fresh fish in order to retain its fresh red appearance for a longer period. It reacts with the oxy-myoglobin to form a fairly stable cherry red carboxy-myoglobin complex that may mask spoilage, because the CO-complex can be stable beyond the microbiological shelf life of the meat. The presence of CO in tuna fish (Thunnus Albacares) has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. Formation of the CO adduct can be easily detected by the combined analysis of electronic absorption spectra in their normal and second derivative modes, monitoring the intense Soret band at 420 nm. Samples were judged as CO treated when their levels were higher than 200 ng/g. Only two positive samples out of 29 analyzed were detected. The high level of uncertainty (0.30) of the method requires the use of more specific and sensitive methods for confirmatory analysis.

14.
Ital J Food Saf ; 4(3): 4534, 2015 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800405

RESUMO

In this study, four protein extraction protocols from Mytilus galloprovincialis were evaluated with the aim to identify the most practical, efficient and reproducible method. Four extraction protocols frequently used for mussels and organic matrices were selected and compared. The methods were based on the use of: i) TRIzol reagent; ii) Lysis buffer; iii) phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride; iv) trichloroacetic acid-acetone. Protein concentration was measured by the Bradford method. Three specimens of mussels were studied and the analysis was conducted in triplicate for each of the four protocols. Results indicated that the four methods could extract significantly different protein profiles. The highest number of protein spots resolved in 2DE gels and the best reproducibility was obtained using trichloroacetic acid-acetone protocol. Results afforded the selection of a suitable extraction protocol to be used for ecotoxicoproteomics studies from mussels and for other proteomic studies conducted by particularly complex tissues such as Mytilus galloprovincialis.

15.
BMC Vet Res ; 10: 161, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25027759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals is a public health concern: drugs administered to humans and animals are excreted with urine or faeces and attend the sewage treatment. The main consequences of use and abuse of antibiotics is the development and diffusion of antibiotic resistance that has become a serious global problem. Aim of the study is to evaluate the presence of antimicrobial residues and to assess the antimicrobial resistance in bacteria species isolated from different wild caught seawater fish and fishery products. RESULTS: Three antibiotic substances (Oxytetracicline, Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim) were detected (by screening and confirmatory methods) in Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis and Thais haemastoma. All Vibrio strains isolated from fish were resistant to Vancomycin (VA) and Penicillin (P). In Vibrio alginolyticus, isolated in Octopus vulgaris, a resistance against 9 antibiotics was noted. CONCLUSIONS: Wild caught seawater fish collected in Gulf of Salerno (Campania Region), especially in marine areas including mouths of streams, were contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains and that they might play an important role in the spread of antibiotic-resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Peixes/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Itália , Mar Mediterrâneo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24806743

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to measure the persistence of residues of the pyrethroid insecticide α-cypermethrin (ACYP) in the milk of lactating donkeys following pour-on treatment. Milk was collected from animals (n = 7) before the treatment and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 h post-treatment. The last sampling was taken 7 days post-treatment (168 h). Milk samples were analysed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The analytical method was validated following requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. All samples showed levels of ACYP below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 20 µg kg(-1) established for bovine milk (Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010). The results demonstrate that there is minimal partitioning of ACYP into milk in lactating donkeys from pour-on treatment.


Assuntos
Equidae/metabolismo , Leite/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/metabolismo , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Equidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Concentração Máxima Permitida , Leite/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Drogas Veterinárias/administração & dosagem , Drogas Veterinárias/toxicidade
17.
Ital J Food Saf ; 3(2): 1681, 2014 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27800340

RESUMO

Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy). It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum) and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 21(9): 6252-7, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24453016

RESUMO

Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/toxicidade , Foeniculum/fisiologia , Nitratos/toxicidade , Envenenamento/veterinária , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Agricultura , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fertilizantes/análise , Foeniculum/química , Itália , Masculino , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/envenenamento , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/envenenamento
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