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Metab Eng ; 56: 60-68, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470116


Acetyl-CoA is the central metabolic node connecting glycolysis, Krebs cycle and fatty acids synthase. Plant-derived polyketides, are assembled from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, represent a large family of biological compounds with diversified bioactivity. Harnessing microbial bioconversion is considered as a feasible approach to large-scale production of polyketides from renewable feedstocks. Most of the current polyketide production platform relied on the lengthy glycolytic steps to provide acetyl-CoA, which inherently suffers from complex regulation with metabolically-costly cofactor/ATP requirements. Using the simplest polyketide triacetic acid lactone (TAL) as a testbed molecule, we demonstrate that acetate uptake pathway in oleaginous yeast (Yarrowia lipolytica) could function as an acetyl-CoA shortcut to achieve metabolic optimality in producing polyketides. We identified the metabolic bottlenecks to rewire acetate utilization for efficient TAL production in Y. lipolytica, including generation of the driving force for acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. The engineered strain, with the overexpression of endogenous acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), malic enzyme (MAE1) and a bacteria-derived cytosolic pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), affords robust TAL production with titer up to 4.76 g/L from industrial glacier acetic acid in shake flasks, representing 8.5-times improvement over the parental strain. The acetate-to-TAL conversion ratio (0.149 g/g) reaches 31.9% of the theoretical maximum yield. The carbon flux through this acetyl-CoA metabolic shortcut exceeds the carbon flux afforded by the native glycolytic pathways. Potentially, acetic acid could be manufactured in large-quantity at low-cost from Syngas fermentation or heterogenous catalysis (methanol carbonylation). This alternative carbon sources present a metabolic advantage over glucose to unleash intrinsic pathway limitations and achieve high carbon conversion efficiency and cost-efficiency. This work also highlights that low-cost acetic acid could be sustainably upgraded to high-value polyketides by oleaginous yeast species in an eco-friendly and cost-efficient manner.

Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 61, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914048


Nature has evolved exquisite sensing mechanisms to detect cellular and environmental signals surrounding living organisms. These biosensors have been widely used to sense small molecules, detect environmental cues and diagnose disease markers. Metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists have been able to exploit metabolites-responsive transcriptional factors (MRTFs) as basic tools to rewire cell metabolism, reprogram cellular activity as well as boost cell's productivity. This is commonly achieved by integrating sensor-actuator systems with biocatalytic functions and dynamically allocating cellular resources to drive carbon flux toward the target pathway. Up to date, most of identified MRTFs are derived from bacteria. As an endeavor to advance intelligent biomanufacturing in yeast cell factory, we will summarize the opportunities and challenges to transfer the bacteria-derived MRTFs to expand the small-molecule sensing capability in eukaryotic cells. We will discuss the design principles underlying MRTF-based biosensors in eukaryotic cells, including the choice of reliable reporters and the characterization tools to minimize background noise, strategies to tune the sensor dynamic range, sensitivity and specificity, as well as the criteria to engineer activator and repressor-based biosensors. Due to the physical separation of transcription and protein expression in eukaryotes, we argue that nuclear import/export mechanism of MRTFs across the nuclear membrane plays a critical role in regulating the MRTF sensor dynamics. Precisely-controlled MRTF response will allow us to repurpose the vast majority of transcriptional factors as molecular switches to achieve temporal or spatial gene expression in eukaryotes. Uncovering this knowledge will inform us fundamental design principles to deliver robust cell factories and enable the design of reprogrammable and predictable biological systems for intelligent biomanufacturing, smart therapeutics or precision medicine in the foreseeable future.

Técnicas Biossensoriais , Eucariotos/genética , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Expressão Gênica , Biologia Sintética
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(7): 3167-3179, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734122


Lipogenesis is a complicated process involving global transcriptional reprogramming of lipogenic pathways. It is commonly believed that nitrogen starvation triggers a metabolic shift that reroutes carbon flux from Krebs cycles to lipogenesis. In this study, we systematically surveyed and dynamically profiled the transcriptional activity of 22 lipogenic promoters aiming to delineate a picture how nitrogen starvation regulates lipogenesis in Y. lipolytica. These lipogenic promoters drive the expression of critical pathways that are responsible for the generation of reducing equivalents (NADPH), carbon backbones (acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, DHAP, etc.), synthesis and degradation of fatty acids. Specifically, our investigated promoters span across an array of metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, mannitol cycle, glutamine-GABA cycle, fatty acid and lipid synthesis, glyoxylate, ß-oxidation, and POM (pyruvate-oxaloacetate-malate) cycle. Our work provides evidences that mannitol cycle, glutamine-GABA cycle and amino acid degradation, pyruvate oxidation, and acetate assimilation pathways are lipogenesis-related steps involved in generating cytosolic NADPH and acetyl-CoA precursors. This systematic investigation and dynamic profiling of lipogenic promoters may help us better understand lipogenesis, facilitate the formulation of structure-based kinetic models, as well as develop efficient cell factories for fuels and chemical production in oleaginous species.

Lipogênese , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcrição Genética , Yarrowia/genética , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Oxirredução , Via de Pentose Fosfato/genética