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1.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475133

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: De Bruijn graphs can be constructed from short reads efficiently and have been used for many purposes. Traditionally long read sequencing technologies have had too high error rates for de Bruijn graph-based methods. Recently, HiFi reads have provided a combination of long read length and low error rate, which enables de Bruijn graphs to be used with HiFi reads. RESULTS: We have implemented MBG, a tool for building sparse de Bruijn graphs from HiFi reads. MBG outperforms existing tools for building dense de Bruijn graphs, and can build a graph of 50x coverage whole human genome HiFi reads in four hours on a single core. MBG also assembles the bacterial E. coli genome into a single contig in 8 seconds. AVAILABILITY: Package manager: https://anaconda.org/bioconda/mbg and source code: https://github.com/maickrau/MBG. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

2.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288905

RESUMO

Haplotype-resolved or phased genome assembly provides a complete picture of genomes and their complex genetic variations. However, current algorithms for phased assembly either do not generate chromosome-scale phasing or require pedigree information, which limits their application. We present a method named diploid assembly (DipAsm) that uses long, accurate reads and long-range conformation data for single individuals to generate a chromosome-scale phased assembly within 1 day. Applied to four public human genomes, PGP1, HG002, NA12878 and HG00733, DipAsm produced haplotype-resolved assemblies with minimum contig length needed to cover 50% of the known genome (NG50) up to 25 Mb and phased ~99.5% of heterozygous sites at 98-99% accuracy, outperforming other approaches in terms of both contiguity and phasing completeness. We demonstrate the importance of chromosome-scale phased assemblies for the discovery of structural variants (SVs), including thousands of new transposon insertions, and of highly polymorphic and medically important regions such as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) regions. DipAsm will facilitate high-quality precision medicine and studies of individual haplotype variation and population diversity.

3.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288906

RESUMO

Human genomes are typically assembled as consensus sequences that lack information on parental haplotypes. Here we describe a reference-free workflow for diploid de novo genome assembly that combines the chromosome-wide phasing and scaffolding capabilities of single-cell strand sequencing1,2 with continuous long-read or high-fidelity3 sequencing data. Employing this strategy, we produced a completely phased de novo genome assembly for each haplotype of an individual of Puerto Rican descent (HG00733) in the absence of parental data. The assemblies are accurate (quality value > 40) and highly contiguous (contig N50 > 23 Mbp) with low switch error rates (0.17%), providing fully phased single-nucleotide variants, indels and structural variants. A comparison of Oxford Nanopore Technologies and Pacific Biosciences phased assemblies identified 154 regions that are preferential sites of contig breaks, irrespective of sequencing technology or phasing algorithms.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4794, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963235

RESUMO

Most human genomes are characterized by aligning individual reads to the reference genome, but accurate long reads and linked reads now enable us to construct accurate, phased de novo assemblies. We focus on a medically important, highly variable, 5 million base-pair (bp) region where diploid assembly is particularly useful - the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Here, we develop a human genome benchmark derived from a diploid assembly for the openly-consented Genome in a Bottle sample HG002. We assemble a single contig for each haplotype, align them to the reference, call phased small and structural variants, and define a small variant benchmark for the MHC, covering 94% of the MHC and 22368 variants smaller than 50 bp, 49% more variants than a mapping-based benchmark. This benchmark reliably identifies errors in mapping-based callsets, and enables performance assessment in regions with much denser, complex variation than regions covered by previous benchmarks.


Assuntos
Diploide , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Benchmarking , Linhagem Celular , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos , Humanos
5.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 252, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951599

RESUMO

Resolving genomes at haplotype level is crucial for understanding the evolutionary history of polyploid species and for designing advanced breeding strategies. Polyploid phasing still presents considerable challenges, especially in regions of collapsing haplotypes.We present WHATSHAP POLYPHASE, a novel two-stage approach that addresses these challenges by (i) clustering reads and (ii) threading the haplotypes through the clusters. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art in terms of phasing quality. Using a real tetraploid potato dataset, we demonstrate how to assemble local genomic regions of interest at the haplotype level. Our algorithm is implemented as part of the widely used open source tool WhatsHap.

6.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 253, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972461

RESUMO

Genome graphs can represent genetic variation and sequence uncertainty. Aligning sequences to genome graphs is key to many applications, including error correction, genome assembly, and genotyping of variants in a pangenome graph. Yet, so far, this step is often prohibitively slow. We present GraphAligner, a tool for aligning long reads to genome graphs. Compared to the state-of-the-art tools, GraphAligner is 13x faster and uses 3x less memory. When employing GraphAligner for error correction, we find it to be more than twice as accurate and over 12x faster than extant tools.Availability: Package manager: https://anaconda.org/bioconda/graphaligner and source code: https://github.com/maickrau/GraphAligner.

8.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(9): 1044-1053, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686750

RESUMO

De novo assembly of a human genome using nanopore long-read sequences has been reported, but it used more than 150,000 CPU hours and weeks of wall-clock time. To enable rapid human genome assembly, we present Shasta, a de novo long-read assembler, and polishing algorithms named MarginPolish and HELEN. Using a single PromethION nanopore sequencer and our toolkit, we assembled 11 highly contiguous human genomes de novo in 9 d. We achieved roughly 63× coverage, 42-kb read N50 values and 6.5× coverage in reads >100 kb using three flow cells per sample. Shasta produced a complete haploid human genome assembly in under 6 h on a single commercial compute node. MarginPolish and HELEN polished haploid assemblies to more than 99.9% identity (Phred quality score QV = 30) with nanopore reads alone. Addition of proximity-ligation sequencing enabled near chromosome-level scaffolds for all 11 genomes. We compare our assembly performance to existing methods for diploid, haploid and trio-binned human samples and report superior accuracy and speed.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Benchmarking , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Aprendizado Profundo , Genômica , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haploidia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
9.
Nat Genet ; 52(8): 849-858, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541924

RESUMO

Inversions play an important role in disease and evolution but are difficult to characterize because their breakpoints map to large repeats. We increased by sixfold the number (n = 1,069) of previously reported great ape inversions by using single-cell DNA template strand and long-read sequencing. We find that the X chromosome is most enriched (2.5-fold) for inversions, on the basis of its size and duplication content. There is an excess of differentially expressed primate genes near the breakpoints of large (>100 kilobases (kb)) inversions but not smaller events. We show that when great ape lineage-specific duplications emerge, they preferentially (approximately 75%) occur in an inverted orientation compared to that at their ancestral locus. We construct megabase-pair scale haplotypes for individual chromosomes and identify 23 genomic regions that have recurrently toggled between a direct and an inverted state over 15 million years. The direct orientation is most frequently the derived state for human polymorphisms that predispose to recurrent copy number variants associated with neurodevelopmental disease.


Assuntos
Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Genoma/genética , Hominidae/genética , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(11): 1347-1355, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541955

RESUMO

New technologies and analysis methods are enabling genomic structural variants (SVs) to be detected with ever-increasing accuracy, resolution and comprehensiveness. To help translate these methods to routine research and clinical practice, we developed a sequence-resolved benchmark set for identification of both false-negative and false-positive germline large insertions and deletions. To create this benchmark for a broadly consented son in a Personal Genome Project trio with broadly available cells and DNA, the Genome in a Bottle Consortium integrated 19 sequence-resolved variant calling methods from diverse technologies. The final benchmark set contains 12,745 isolated, sequence-resolved insertion (7,281) and deletion (5,464) calls ≥50 base pairs (bp). The Tier 1 benchmark regions, for which any extra calls are putative false positives, cover 2.51 Gbp and 5,262 insertions and 4,095 deletions supported by ≥1 diploid assembly. We demonstrate that the benchmark set reliably identifies false negatives and false positives in high-quality SV callsets from short-, linked- and long-read sequencing and optical mapping.

11.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 21: 139-162, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453966

RESUMO

Low-cost whole-genome assembly has enabled the collection of haplotype-resolved pangenomes for numerous organisms. In turn, this technological change is encouraging the development of methods that can precisely address the sequence and variation described in large collections of related genomes. These approaches often use graphical models of the pangenome to support algorithms for sequence alignment, visualization, functional genomics, and association studies. The additional information provided to these methods by the pangenome allows them to achieve superior performance on a variety of bioinformatic tasks, including read alignment, variant calling, and genotyping. Pangenome graphs stand to become a ubiquitous tool in genomics. Although it is unclear whether they will replace linearreference genomes, their ability to harmoniously relate multiple sequence and coordinate systems will make them useful irrespective of which pangenomic models become most common in the future.

13.
J Comput Biol ; 27(3): 330-341, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160036

RESUMO

Measuring nucleosome positioning in cells is crucial for the analysis of epigenetic gene regulation. Reconstruction of nucleosome profiles of individual cells or subpopulations of cells remains challenging because most genome-wide assays measure nucleosome positioning and DNA accessibility for thousands of cells using bulk sequencing. In this study we use characteristics of the NOMe (nucleosome occupancy and methylation)-sequencing assay to derive a new approach, called ChromaClique, for deconvolution of different nucleosome profiles (chromatypes) from cell subpopulations of one NOMe-seq measurement. ChromaClique uses a maximal clique enumeration algorithm on a newly defined NOMe read graph that is able to group reads according to their nucleosome profiles. We show that the edge probabilities of that graph can be efficiently computed using hidden Markov models. We demonstrate using simulated data that ChromaClique is more accurate than a related method and scales favorably, allowing genome-wide analyses of chromatypes in cell subpopulations.

14.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 31, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033589

RESUMO

The recent boom in microfluidics and combinatorial indexing strategies, combined with low sequencing costs, has empowered single-cell sequencing technology. Thousands-or even millions-of cells analyzed in a single experiment amount to a data revolution in single-cell biology and pose unique data science problems. Here, we outline eleven challenges that will be central to bringing this emerging field of single-cell data science forward. For each challenge, we highlight motivating research questions, review prior work, and formulate open problems. This compendium is for established researchers, newcomers, and students alike, highlighting interesting and rewarding problems for the coming years.

15.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(3): 343-354, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873213

RESUMO

Structural variation (SV), involving deletions, duplications, inversions and translocations of DNA segments, is a major source of genetic variability in somatic cells and can dysregulate cancer-related pathways. However, discovering somatic SVs in single cells has been challenging, with copy-number-neutral and complex variants typically escaping detection. Here we describe single-cell tri-channel processing (scTRIP), a computational framework that integrates read depth, template strand and haplotype phase to comprehensively discover SVs in individual cells. We surveyed SV landscapes of 565 single cells, including transformed epithelial cells and patient-derived leukemic samples, to discover abundant SV classes, including inversions, translocations and complex DNA rearrangements. Analysis of the leukemic samples revealed four times more somatic SVs than cytogenetic karyotyping, submicroscopic copy-number alterations, oncogenic copy-neutral rearrangements and a subclonal chromothripsis event. Advancing current methods, single-cell tri-channel processing can directly measure SV mutational processes in individual cells, such as breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, facilitating studies of clonal evolution, genetic mosaicism and SV formation mechanisms, which could improve disease classification for precision medicine.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Leucemia/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Cromotripsia , Evolução Clonal , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Inversão de Sequência , Translocação Genética
16.
Bioinformatics ; 35(14): i81-i89, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510650

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Sequence graphs are versatile data structures that are, for instance, able to represent the genetic variation found in a population and to facilitate genome assembly. Read mapping to sequence graphs constitutes an important step for many applications and is usually done by first finding exact seed matches, which are then extended by alignment. Existing methods for finding seed hits prune the graph in complex regions, leading to a loss of information especially in highly polymorphic regions of the genome. While such complex graph structures can indeed lead to a combinatorial explosion of possible alleles, the query set of reads from a diploid individual realizes only two alleles per locus-a property that is not exploited by extant methods. RESULTS: We present the Pan-genome Seed Index (PSI), a fully-sensitive hybrid method for seed finding, which takes full advantage of this property by combining an index over selected paths in the graph with an index over the query reads. This enables PSI to find all seeds while eliminating the need to prune the graph. We demonstrate its performance with different parameter settings on both simulated data and on a whole human genome graph constructed from variants in the 1000 Genome Project dataset. On this graph, PSI outperforms GCSA2 in terms of index size, query time and sensitivity. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The C++ implementation is publicly available at: https://github.com/cartoonist/psi.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Genoma Humano , Software , Alelos , Diploide , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(10): 1155-1162, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406327

RESUMO

The DNA sequencing technologies in use today produce either highly accurate short reads or less-accurate long reads. We report the optimization of circular consensus sequencing (CCS) to improve the accuracy of single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing (PacBio) and generate highly accurate (99.8%) long high-fidelity (HiFi) reads with an average length of 13.5 kilobases (kb). We applied our approach to sequence the well-characterized human HG002/NA24385 genome and obtained precision and recall rates of at least 99.91% for single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), 95.98% for insertions and deletions <50 bp (indels) and 95.99% for structural variants. Our CCS method matches or exceeds the ability of short-read sequencing to detect small variants and structural variants. We estimate that 2,434 discordances are correctable mistakes in the 'genome in a bottle' (GIAB) benchmark set. Nearly all (99.64%) variants can be phased into haplotypes, further improving variant detection. De novo genome assembly using CCS reads alone produced a contiguous and accurate genome with a contig N50 of >15 megabases (Mb) and concordance of 99.997%, substantially outperforming assembly with less-accurate long reads.


Assuntos
DNA Circular/genética , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequência de Bases , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos
18.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 116, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159868

RESUMO

Current genotyping approaches for single-nucleotide variations rely on short, accurate reads from second-generation sequencing devices. Presently, third-generation sequencing platforms are rapidly becoming more widespread, yet approaches for leveraging their long but error-prone reads for genotyping are lacking. Here, we introduce a novel statistical framework for the joint inference of haplotypes and genotypes from noisy long reads, which we term diplotyping. Our technique takes full advantage of linkage information provided by long reads. We validate hundreds of thousands of candidate variants that have not yet been included in the high-confidence reference set of the Genome-in-a-Bottle effort.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem , Algoritmos , Genômica , Haplótipos , Modelos Estatísticos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214816, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978217

RESUMO

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variation in humans and drive phenotypic variation. Due to evolutionary conservation, SNPs and indels (insertion and deletions) are depleted in functionally important sequence elements. Recently, population-scale sequencing efforts such as the 1000 Genomes Project and the Genome of the Netherlands Project have catalogued large numbers of sequence variants. Here, we present a systematic analysis of the polymorphisms reported by these two projects in different coding and non-coding genomic elements of the human genome (intergenic regions, CpG islands, promoters, 5' UTRs, coding exons, 3' UTRs, introns, and intragenic regions). Furthermore, we were especially interested in the distribution of SNPs and indels in direct vicinity to the transcription start site (TSS) and translation start site (CSS). Thereby, we discovered an enrichment of dinucleotides CpG and CpA and an accumulation of SNPs at base position -1 relative to the TSS that involved primarily CpG and CpA dinucleotides. Genes having a CpG dinucleotide at TSS position -1 were enriched in the functional GO terms "Phosphoprotein", "Alternative splicing", and "Protein binding". Focusing on the CSS, we compared SNP patterns in the flanking regions of canonical and alternative AUG and near-cognate start sites where we considered alternative starts previously identified by experimental ribosome profiling. We observed similar conservation patterns of canonical and alternative translation start sites, which underlines the importance of alternative translation mechanisms for cellular function.


Assuntos
Mutação INDEL , Iniciação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Processamento Alternativo , Ilhas de CpG , DNA Intergênico , Éxons , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Íntrons , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
20.
Bioinformatics ; 35(19): 3599-3607, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851095

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Graphs are commonly used to represent sets of sequences. Either edges or nodes can be labeled by sequences, so that each path in the graph spells a concatenated sequence. Examples include graphs to represent genome assemblies, such as string graphs and de Bruijn graphs, and graphs to represent a pan-genome and hence the genetic variation present in a population. Being able to align sequencing reads to such graphs is a key step for many analyses and its applications include genome assembly, read error correction and variant calling with respect to a variation graph. RESULTS: We generalize two linear sequence-to-sequence algorithms to graphs: the Shift-And algorithm for exact matching and Myers' bitvector algorithm for semi-global alignment. These linear algorithms are both based on processing w sequence characters with a constant number of operations, where w is the word size of the machine (commonly 64), and achieve a speedup of up to w over naive algorithms. For a graph with |V| nodes and |E| edges and a sequence of length m, our bitvector-based graph alignment algorithm reaches a worst case runtime of O(|V|+⌈mw⌉|E| log w) for acyclic graphs and O(|V|+m|E| log w) for arbitrary cyclic graphs. We apply it to five different types of graphs and observe a speedup between 3-fold and 20-fold compared with a previous (asymptotically optimal) alignment algorithm. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://github.com/maickrau/GraphAligner. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Genoma , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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