Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 98
Filtrar
1.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601430

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk variants G1 and G2 are known to result in risk for kidney disease in patients of African ancestry. APOL1-associated nephropathy typically occurs in association with certain environmental factors or systemic diseases. As such, there has been increasing evidence of the role of interferon (IFN) pathways in the pathogenesis of APOL1-associated collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and systemic lupus erythematosus, 2 conditions that are associated with high IFN levels. Collapsing glomerulopathy has also been described in patients receiving exogenous IFN therapy administered for various medical conditions. We describe a patient with a genetic condition that results in an increased IFN state, stimulator of IFN genes (STING)-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI), who developed collapsing glomerulopathy during a flare of his disease. The patient was found to have APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants. This case supports the role of IFN in inducing APOL1-associated collapsing glomerulopathy.

2.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(10): 700, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541082

RESUMO

The pediatric immune deficiency X-linked proliferative disease-2 (XLP-2) is a unique disease, with patients presenting with either hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or intestinal bowel disease (IBD). Interestingly, XLP-2 patients display high levels of IL-18 in the serum even while in stable condition, presumably through spontaneous inflammasome activation. Recent data suggests that LPS stimulation can trigger inflammasome activation through a TNFR2/TNF/TNFR1 mediated loop in xiap-/- macrophages. Yet, the direct role TNFR2-specific activation plays in the absence of XIAP is unknown. We found TNFR2-specific activation leads to cell death in xiap-/- myeloid cells, particularly in the absence of the RING domain. RIPK1 kinase activity downstream of TNFR2 resulted in a TNF/TNFR1 cell death, independent of necroptosis. TNFR2-specific activation leads to a similar inflammatory NF-kB driven transcriptional profile as TNFR1 activation with the exception of upregulation of NLRP3 and caspase-11. Activation and upregulation of the canonical inflammasome upon loss of XIAP was mediated by RIPK1 kinase activity and ROS production. While both the inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity and ROS production reduced cell death, as well as release of IL-1ß, the release of IL-18 was not reduced to basal levels. This study supports targeting TNFR2 specifically to reduce IL-18 release in XLP-2 patients and to reduce priming of the inflammasome components.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review selected published studies related to the diagnostic evaluation of antibody deficiency. DATA SOURCES: Published literature. STUDY SELECTION: Studies related to the diagnostic evaluation of antibody deficiency and existing recommendations were selected. RESULTS: Many primary immunodeficiency diseases include humoral deficiency. Practical tests used in the clinical evaluation of patients for possible antibody deficiency include immunoglobulin measurement, specific antibody titers, and B-cell enumeration and phenotyping. CONCLUSION: Clinically available tests can be used to readily evaluate patients for antibody deficiencies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442594

RESUMO

We have previously reported that a peripheral blood absolute CD38brightCD8+ effector memory T cell (TEM) population expansion of >35 cells/µL predicts the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that these T cells are activated, proliferating, and cytotoxic trafficking cells that are not a response to viral reactivation and may be involved in acute GVHD. We characterized peripheral blood T cell populations at the time of maximum CD38brightCD8+ TEM expansion in patients from our originally reported pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipient cohort. Samples were incubated with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies directed against CD3, CD8, CD38, HLA-DR (T cell activation), Ki-67 (T cell proliferation), granzyme B (marker of cytotoxic T cells), CLA (skin trafficking), CCR5 (visceral trafficking), and CXCR6 (liver trafficking). We also incubated samples with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) peptide pools and measured IFN-γ production by flow cytometry and performed EBV and CMV tetramer staining. Higher median proportions of cell expression of HLA-DR, Ki-67, granzyme B, CLA, CCR5, and CXCR6 were observed for CD38brightCD8+ T cells compared with CD38nonbrightCD8+ T cells in patients with acute GVHD (P < .05) but not in patients without acute GVHD (P not significant). No IFN-γ production was observed after incubation with CMV and EBV peptide pools. EBV-specific tetramer populations of 6.85% and 3.17% were detected in 2 patients with acute GVHD, whereas a CMV-specific tetramer population of 3.77% was detected in 1 patient with acute GVHD. No EBV- or CMV-specific tetramer populations were detected in any patient without acute GVHD. We conclude that CD38brightCD8+ T cells associated with the development of acute GVHD are activated, proliferating, and cytotoxic trafficking cells that do not appear to respond to CMV or EBV reactivation. Further studies are needed to determine whether these cells are directly involved in acute GVHD pathogenesis.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1740, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396234

RESUMO

Advances in flow cytometry have led to greatly improved primary immunodeficiency (PID) diagnostics. This is due to the fact that patient blood cells in suspension do not require further processing for analysis by flow cytometry, and many PIDs lead to alterations in leukocyte numbers, phenotype, and function. A large portion of current PID assays can be classified as "phenotyping" assays, where absolute numbers, frequencies, and markers are investigated using specific antibodies. Inherent drawbacks of antibody technology are the main limitation to this type of testing. On the other hand, "functional" assays measure cellular responses to certain stimuli. While these latter assays are powerful tools that can be used to detect defects in entire pathways and distinguish variants of significance, it requires samples with robust viability and also skilled processing. In this review, we concentrate on hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), describing the principles and accuracies of flow cytometric assays that have been proven to assist in the screening diagnosis of primary HLH.

8.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 212(4): 755-757, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patient shielding is standard practice in diagnostic imaging, despite growing evidence that it provides negligible or no benefit and carries a substantial risk of increasing patient dose and compromising the diagnostic efficacy of an image. The historical rationale for patient shielding is described, and the folly of its continued use is discussed. CONCLUSION: Although change is difficult, it is incumbent on radiologic technologists, medical physicists, and radiologists to abandon the practice of patient shielding in radiology.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(3): 824-832, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557712

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an overwhelming clinical syndrome associated with extreme immune activation. Familial HLH is caused by autosomal-recessive inheritance of gene mutations that cripple lymphocyte cytotoxicity. X-linked lymphoproliferative diseases and mutations in Nod-like receptor caspase activation and recruitment domain containing protein 4 (NLRC4) also feature HLH as a predominant manifestation. In addition, "secondary" HLH may occur in immunocompromized patients or in individuals with previously intact immune responses in the context of strong immunologic triggers such as EBV infection, malignancy, rheumatologic disease, and drug hypersensitivity. Regardless of the etiology, HLH is often fatal unless recognized and treated aggressively. Research over the last 20 years has led to many advances in diagnosis and treatment. Rapid testing strategies designed to quickly screen for immune activation and cytotoxic lymphocyte dysfunction are now clinically available and genetic panels/testing algorithms may accelerate a genetic diagnosis. Immunosuppressive treatment protocols have been refined, and experience is gaining with alternative and salvage approaches. However, these advances improve the outcome of patients only when the diagnosis of HLH is made. Ongoing education is needed to ensure medical providers can appropriately recognize and diagnose HLH. This Grand Rounds Review will summarize the clinical and diagnostic features of HLH and highlight known genetic causes.

10.
Clin Immunol ; 197: 219-223, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368009

RESUMO

Early onset multisystem autoimmunity is commonly the defining feature of IPEX. Recurrent sinopulmonary infections and CVID-like phenotype were not previously recognized as a presentation in IPEX. Herein, we describe three extended family members with IPEX. In addition to autoimmunity, all three had a CVID-like presentation consisting of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and B-cell class switching defect. In vitro studies have shown that the B cell class switching defect is not B cell intrinsic. Additionally, a marked increase in circulating T follicular helper (cTFH) cells with high IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion on stimulation was noted in our patients. The dysregulated cTFH cells could contribute to a decreased B cell class switching. However, the exact mechanism of how expanded and dysregulated cTFH lead to B cell class switching defect and hypogammaglobulinemia in our patients is not clear. Our study could extend the clinical spectrum of IPEX to include a CVID-like presentation.

11.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 19(6): 11-25, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338913

RESUMO

The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a nonprofit professional society whose primary purposes are to advance the science, education, and professional practice of medical physics. The AAPM has more than 8000 members and is the principal organization of medical physicists in the United States. The AAPM will periodically define new practice guidelines for medical physics practice to help advance the science of medical physics and to improve the quality of service to patients throughout the United States. Existing medical physics practice guidelines will be reviewed for the purpose of revision or renewal, as appropriate, on their fifth anniversary or sooner. Each medical physics practice guideline (MPPG) represents a policy statement by the AAPM, has undergone a thorough consensus process in which it has been subjected to extensive review, and requires the approval of the Professional Council. The medical physics practice guidelines recognize that the safe and effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation requires specific training, skills, and techniques as described in each document. As the review of the previous version of AAPM Professional Policy (PP)-17 (Scope of Practice) progressed, the writing group focused on one of the main goals: to have this document accepted by regulatory and accrediting bodies. After much discussion, it was decided that this goal would be better served through a MPPG. To further advance this goal, the text was updated to reflect the rationale and processes by which the activities in the scope of practice were identified and categorized. Lastly, the AAPM Professional Council believes that this document has benefitted from public comment which is part of the MPPG process but not the AAPM Professional Policy approval process. The following terms are used in the AAPM's MPPGs: Must and Must Not: Used to indicate that adherence to the recommendation is considered necessary to conform to this practice guideline. Should and Should Not: Used to indicate a prudent practice to which exceptions may occasionally be made in appropriate circumstances.

12.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 70, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutation of the IL2RG gene results in a form of severe combined immune deficiency (SCID-X1), which has been treated successfully with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. SCID-X1 gene therapy results in reconstitution of the previously lacking T cell compartment, allowing analysis of the roles of T cell immunity in humans by comparing before and after gene correction. METHODS: Here we interrogate T cell reconstitution using four forms of high throughput analysis. (1) Estimation of the numbers of transduced progenitor cells by monitoring unique positions of integration of the therapeutic gene transfer vector. (2) Estimation of T cell population structure by sequencing of the recombined T cell receptor (TCR) beta locus. (3) Metagenomic analysis of microbial populations in oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, and gut samples. (4) Metagenomic analysis of viral populations in gut samples. RESULTS: Comparison of progenitor and mature T cell populations allowed estimation of a minimum number of cell divisions needed to generate the observed populations. Analysis of microbial populations showed the effects of immune reconstitution, including normalization of gut microbiota and clearance of viral infections. Metagenomic analysis revealed enrichment of genes for antibiotic resistance in gene-corrected subjects relative to healthy controls, likely a result of higher healthcare exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-omic approach enables the characterization of multiple effects of SCID-X1 gene therapy, including T cell repertoire reconstitution, estimation of numbers of cell divisions between progenitors and daughter T cells, normalization of the microbiome, clearance of microbial pathogens, and modulations in antibiotic resistance gene levels. Together, these results quantify several aspects of the long-term efficacy of gene therapy for SCID-X1. This study includes data from ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT01410019, NCT01175239, and NCT01129544.

14.
Blood ; 132(19): 2088-2096, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104219

RESUMO

Asymptomatic carriers (ACs) of pathogenic biallelic mutations in causative genes for primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are at high risk of developing life-threatening HLH, which requires allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to be cured. There are no guidelines on the management of these asymptomatic patients. We analyzed the outcomes of pairs of index cases (ICs) and subsequently diagnosed asymptomatic family members carrying the same genetic defect. We collected data from 22 HSCT centers worldwide. Sixty-four children were evaluable. ICs presented with HLH at a median age of 16 months. Seven of 32 ICs died during first-line therapy, and 2 are alive after chemotherapy only. In all, 23/32 underwent HSCT, and 16 of them are alive. At a median follow-up of 36 months from diagnosis, 18/32 ICs are alive. Median age of ACs at diagnosis was 5 months. Ten of 32 ACs activated HLH while being observed, and all underwent HSCT: 6/10 are alive and in complete remission (CR). 22/32 ACs remained asymptomatic, and 6/22 have received no treatment and are in CR at a median follow-up of 39 months. Sixteen of 22 underwent preemptive HSCT: 15/16 are alive and in CR. Eight-year probability of overall survival (pOS) in ACs who did not have activated HLH was significantly higher than that in ICs (95% vs 45%; P = .02), and pOS in ACs receiving HSCT before disease activation was significantly higher than in ACs receiving HSCT after HLH activation (93% vs 64%; P = .03). Preemptive HSCT in ACs proved to be safe and should be considered.

15.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 19(5): 708-717, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091189

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While the performance of displays used for the acquisition and primary interpretation of medical images has been well-characterized, notably absent are publications evaluating and discussing the performance of displays used in Interventional Radiology (IR) suites and Cardiac Catheterization (CC) laboratories. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of these displays and to consider the challenges in implementation of display quality assurance practices in this environment. METHODS: Ten large format displays used in IR and CC suites were evaluated. A visual inspection of available test patterns was performed followed by a quantitative evaluation of several performance characteristics including luminance ratio, luminance response function, and luminance uniformity. Additionally, the local ambient lighting conditions were evaluated. RESULTS: Luminance ratios ranged from 243.0 to 1182.1 with a mean value of 500.1 ± 289.2. The maximum deviation between the luminance response function and the DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function ranged from 11.2% to 38.3% with a mean value of 26.2% ± 10.9%. When evaluating luminance uniformity, the mean maximum luminance deviation was 13.2% ± 3.5%. The mean value of luminance deviation from the median was 7.8% ± 1.0%. Measured values of background illuminance ranged from 29.1 to 310.0 lux with a mean value of 107.6 lux ± 80.4 lux. While no mura or bad pixels were observed during visual inspection, damage including scrapes and scratches as well as smudges was common to most of the displays. CONCLUSION: This work provides much needed data for the characterization of the performance of the large format displays used in IR and CC laboratory suites. These data may be used as a point of comparison when implementing a display QA program.

16.
Blood ; 132(13): 1438-1451, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997222

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with myeloablative conditioning for disorders associated with excessive inflammation such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is associated with early mortality. A multicenter prospective phase 2 trial of reduced-intensity conditioning with melphalan, fludarabine, and intermediate-timing alemtuzumab was conducted for HLA matched or single HLA locus mismatched related or unrelated donor HCT in a largely pediatric cohort. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine with methylprednisolone. The primary end point was 1-year overall survival (OS). Thirty-four patients with HLH and 12 with other primary immune deficiencies were transplanted. With a median follow-up of 20 months, the 1-year OS for transplanted patients was 80.4% (90% confidence interval [CI], 68.6%-88.2%). Five additional deaths by 16 months yielded an 18-month OS probability of 66.7% (90% CI, 52.9%-77.3%). Two patients experienced primary graft failure, and 18 patients either experienced a secondary graft failure or required a second intervention (mostly donor lymphocyte infusion [DLI]). At 1 year, the proportion of patients alive with sustained engraftment without DLI or second HCT was 39.1% (95% CI, 25.2%-54.6%), and that of being alive and engrafted (with or without DLI) was 60.9% (95% CI, 45.4 %-74.9%). The day 100 incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD was 17.4% (95% CI, 8.1%-29.7%), and 1-year incidence of chronic GVHD was 26.7% (95% CI, 14.6%-40.4%). Although the trial demonstrated low early mortality, the majority of surviving patients required DLI or second HCT. These results demonstrate a need for future approaches that maintain low early mortality with improved sustained engraftment. The trial was registered at Clinical Trials.gov (NCT 01998633).

17.
J Clin Invest ; 128(7): 3071-3087, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889099

RESUMO

Ikaros/IKZF1 is an essential transcription factor expressed throughout hematopoiesis. IKZF1 is implicated in lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation and negative regulation of cell proliferation. In humans, somatic mutations in IKZF1 have been linked to the development of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adults. Recently, heterozygous germline IKZF1 mutations have been identified in patients with a B cell immune deficiency mimicking common variable immunodeficiency. These mutations demonstrated incomplete penetrance and led to haploinsufficiency. Herein, we report 7 unrelated patients with a novel early-onset combined immunodeficiency associated with de novo germline IKZF1 heterozygous mutations affecting amino acid N159 located in the DNA-binding domain of IKZF1. Different bacterial and viral infections were diagnosed, but Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was reported in all patients. One patient developed a T cell ALL. This immunodeficiency was characterized by innate and adaptive immune defects, including low numbers of B cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and myeloid dendritic cells, as well as T cell and monocyte dysfunctions. Notably, most T cells exhibited a naive phenotype and were unable to evolve into effector memory cells. Functional studies indicated these mutations act as dominant negative. This defect expands the clinical spectrum of human IKZF1-associated diseases from somatic to germline, from haploinsufficient to dominant negative.

19.
Int J Hematol ; 108(3): 319-328, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777376

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several life-threatening diseases, such as lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Some categories of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) including X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), are characterized by susceptibility and vulnerability to EBV infection. The number of genetically defined PIDs is rapidly increasing, and clinical genetic testing plays an important role in establishing a definitive diagnosis. Whole-exome sequencing is performed for diagnosing rare genetic diseases, but is both expensive and time-consuming. Low-cost, high-throughput gene analysis systems are thus necessary. We developed a comprehensive molecular diagnostic method using a two-step tailed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform to detect mutations in 23 candidate genes responsible for XLP or XLP-like diseases. Samples from 19 patients suspected of having EBV-associated LPD were used in this comprehensive molecular diagnosis. Causative gene mutations (involving PRF1 and SH2D1A) were detected in two of the 19 patients studied. This comprehensive diagnosis method effectively detected mutations in all coding exons of 23 genes with sufficient read numbers for each amplicon. This comprehensive molecular diagnostic method using PCR and NGS provides a rapid, accurate, low-cost diagnosis for patients with XLP or XLP-like diseases.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Lactente , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Perforina/genética , Proteína Associada à Molécula de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 540-541, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781065

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes in some of the author names and affiliations. The correct list of author names and affiliations is below, with the corrections in bold.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA