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1.
Acad Med ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459677

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the interaction between practice setting (academic practice [AP], private practice [PP]) and gender in relation to physician burnout and satisfaction with work-life integration (WLI). METHOD: In 2017, the authors administered a cross-sectional survey of U.S. physicians and characterized rates of burnout and satisfaction with WLI using previously validated and/or standardized tools. They conducted multivariable logistic regression to determine the interaction between the included variables. RESULTS: Of the 3,603 participants in the final analysis, female physicians reported a higher prevalence of burnout than male physicians in both AP (50.7% vs 38.2%, P < .0001) and PP (48.1% vs 40.7%, P = .001). However, the multivariable analysis found no statistically significant gender-based differences in burnout (odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 - 1.17, P = .60). Women and men in AP were less likely to report burnout than men in PP (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52 - 0.94, P = .01 and OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53 - 0.90, P < .01, respectively); women in PP did not report different burnout rates from men in PP (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.68 - 1.16, P = .38). Women in both AP and PP were less likely to be satisfied with WLI than men in PP (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47 - 0.83, P < .01 and OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58 - 0.97, P = .03, respectively); men in AP did not report different satisfaction with WLI than men in PP (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.82 - 1.33, P = .71). CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences in rates of burnout are related to practice setting and other differences in physicians' personal and professional lives. These results highlight the complex relationships among gender, practice setting, and other personal and professional factors in their influence on burnout and satisfaction with WLI.

4.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-9, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157935

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare syndrome of pathologic immune activation in children that is increasingly being recognized in adults. Efficacy data for the HLH-04 protocol in adults is lacking. This study retrospectively analyzed 31 adult patients, median age 46 years, who received HLH-04 from 1/1/2004 to 5/1/2018. HLH etiology included malignancy (n = 9), autoimmune (n = 8), infection (n = 8), and idiopathic (n = 6). Eighteen patients were evaluable for response at week 4 with 7 having no response, 11 reaching partial response, and 0 reaching complete response (CR). Six patients eventually achieved CR at a median 195 days. The 1-year overall survival (OS) was 35% and median OS was 3.2 months. Univariate analysis showed shorter survival for hemoglobin <9 g/dL (HR 4.29, p = 0.003), platelets <100 × 109/L (HR 4.06, p = 0.027), ANC <1 × 109/L (HR 5.24, p = 0.001), and total bilirubin >1.2 mg/dL (HR 3.30, p = 0.022). Outcomes of adults treated with HLH-04 remain dismal and newer treatment modalities are needed.

5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(3): e23-e29, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138895
6.
Haemophilia ; 26(2): 257-268, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141697

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemostatic prophylaxis (HP) is recommended for patients with bleeding disorders (PWBD) before invasive procedures. However, evidence-based guidelines are needed to determine optimal HP strategies. AIM: To determine outcomes of HP for PWBD undergoing colonoscopy. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of HP and outcomes of colonoscopy procedures performed between 9 November 1993 and 13 February 2018 for PWBD who received care in the Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Hemophilia Treatment Center. RESULTS: During the study period, 73 PWBD (58 with milder phenotypes: haemophilia, von Willebrand disease [subtypes 1 and 2; II, VII and XI deficiency]) underwent 141 procedures. Preprocedural HP was given to 61%, and interventions were performed in 47%. Of the 39% without preprocedural HP, postprocedural HP was given for 11%. One major (0.7%; 6 days postprocedure despite HP) and 10 minor (7%) bleeding complications occurred, which tended to be in patients with severe disease and/or after excision of larger polyps. There was no significant difference in the rate of bleeding complications with or without preprocedural HP (8.1% vs 5.5%, respectively; P = .74, Fisher's exact test). CONCLUSION: The low bleeding rates in our cohort suggest that preprocedure HP may be withheld for patients with mild bleeding disorders who undergo colonoscopy with a low likelihood of requiring an intervention or who require only low-risk intervention. This strategy may be best used in experienced centres, provided optimal local hemostasis measures are undertaken and postprocedural HP is rapidly available if high-risk intervention is required. Further studies are needed to determine optimal evidence-based HP strategies for PWBD undergoing colonoscopy.

7.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP1900255, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gender disparity persists in academic medicine. Female faculty are underrepresented in leadership positions and have lower research output. We studied gender differences in faculty rank and departmental leadership and contributing factors among academic hematologists and oncologists in the United States. METHODS: For clinical faculty at 146 hematology or oncology fellowship programs listed in the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database, we collected data on demographics, academic rank, and research output using the Doximity and Scopus databases. We compared unadjusted characteristics of men and women by using 2-sided t tests and χ2 tests where appropriate. To predict probability of full professorship or leadership position among men versus women, we performed multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for clinical experience in years, number of publications, h-index, clinical trial investigator status, National Institutes of Health funding, and workplace ranking (top 20 v not). RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred sixty academic hematologists and oncologists were included. Women composed 21.9% (n = 142) of full professors, 35.7% (n = 169) of associate professors, and 45.4% (n = 415) of assistant professors. Thirty percent (n = 70) of departmental leaders were women. Female faculty, compared with male faculty, had a lower mean h-index (12.1 v 20.9, respectively; P < .001) and fewer years of professional experience since fellowship (10 v 16 years, respectively; P < .001). After adjusting for duration of clinical experience, academic productivity, and workplace ranking, the odds of obtaining professorship (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.57; P = .85) or divisional leadership (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.20 to 1.58; P = .28) for female physicians were not different compared with male physicians. CONCLUSION: Gender disparity exists in senior ranks of academic hematology and oncology; however, gender is not a significant predictor in achieving professorship or department leadership position.

8.
J Clin Neurosci ; 73: 136-139, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932187

RESUMO

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) can develop as consequence of prior venous sinus thrombosis. However, the prevalence of prothrombotic conditions in patients with intracranial DAVFs is unknown and there is no consensus on the indications to screen for procoagulable conditions in these patients. We performed a retrospective review of patients presenting to our institution for management of cranial DAVF. Patient and DAVF characteristics were noted, in particular the incidence of hereditary thrombophilia (HT) detected by laboratory evaluation. Respective comparisons of patients with and without HT were performed using comparative statistics. There were 165 patients presenting for management of 171 DAVFs. A large proportion of DAVF were located at a large dural sinus (42.7%), which included superior sagittal, transverse, and sigmoid sinuses. On multivariate logistic regression analysis cortical venous drainage was independently associated with hemorrhagic presentation (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.78-38.08; p = 0.007). A HT was detected in 18 of 61 patients (29.5%) who underwent a thrombophilia work-up. Location at a large dural sinus was not more common in patients with a HT (55.0% vs 54.5%; p = 0.97). There was also no difference in the presence of cortical venous drainage (56.5% vs 38.6%; p = 0.22) or hemorrhage on presentation (15.9% vs 5.0%; p = 0.22) in patients with and without a HT. In HT were found to be highly prevalent in our cohort, though our results do not suggest their presence greatly influences DAVF pathophysiology. Screening for procoagulable states is indicated in selected patients with an intracranial DAVF.

9.
Med Teach ; 42(2): 228-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599174

RESUMO

Mentorship is essential for career development, personal development, and job satisfaction for physicians in academic medicine. Women in academic medicine face unique challenges including significant gender disparities in positions of leadership as well as difficulty finding mentors. As leaders in academic medicine, we have collated several structured recommendations for physicians of both genders seeking to be better mentors to female trainees and early career physicians. We discuss each of these recommendations in detail including the following: acknowledging your own strengths and limitations as a mentor, addressing issues of work-life integration, helping your mentee set long-term career goals, and acting as a sponsor as well as a mentor. We hope these suggestions are helpful for current and aspiring mentors and provide a platform to improve career development for female physicians and reduce gender inequities in academic medicine.

10.
Blood Adv ; 3(21): 3278-3286, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698456

RESUMO

As the adult hematology and oncology fellowship training pathways have merged in the United States and concerns have arisen about the aging of practicing hematologists, the American Society of Hematology and hematology education leaders are looking to improve their understanding of the factors that contribute to fellows' plans to enter hematology-only careers. With the support of the American Society of Hematology, we collected and analyzed data from a survey of hematology/oncology fellows (n = 626) to examine the relationship between training and mentorship experiences and fellows' plans to enter hematology-only careers. Fellows who planned to enter hematology-only careers were significantly more likely to report having clinical training and mentorship experiences in hematology throughout their training relative to fellows with oncology-only or combined hematology/oncology career plans. After controlling for prior interest in hematology and demographic characteristics, exposure to hematology patients in medical school and fellowship, hematology research experiences, and hematology mentorship (research collaboration and career coaching) were positively and significantly associated with hematology-only career plans. These findings suggest that increasing opportunities for exposure to hematology patients, research opportunities and mentors throughout training could be helpful in building a strong pipeline of potential hematologists.

11.
Acad Med ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738214

RESUMO

Infertility is more prevalent in female physicians than in the U.S. general population. While pregnancy and its potential medical and career development consequences among physicians have been explored in the literature, infertility and its consequences remain understudied and unaddressed. Fertility issues are important for all physicians hoping to start families, including male physicians, transgender physicians, single physicians, and physicians with same-sex partners.Infertility has numerous physical, emotional, and financial consequences and may have a negative impact on physician well-being. Options to preserve fertility (such as egg, embryo, and sperm cryopreservation) are available, yet physicians may not be aware of or have the financial ability to make use of such resources. Physician reproductive health, including the ability to build a family if and when a physician chooses, is a vital aspect of well-being. The risks and consequences of infertility and the management of fertility should be studied and addressed from policy and advocacy standpoints.The authors, who have experienced and sought treatment for infertility, bring attention to the challenges around both physician infertility and preservation of fertility. They propose three strategies to address physician infertility: increasing fertility education and awareness starting at the undergraduate medical education level and continuing throughout training and practice; providing insurance coverage for and access to fertility assessment and management; and offering support for those undergoing fertility treatments. The authors believe that implementing these suggestions would make a significant positive impact on trainees and practicing physicians and help build a health care workforce that is healthy and well physically, emotionally, and financially.

12.
Blood Adv ; 3(22): 3550-3561, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738829

RESUMO

The current demand for adult hematologists in the United States is projected to exceed the existing supply. However, no national study has systematically evaluated factors affecting the adult hematology workforce. In collaboration with the American Society of Hematology (ASH), we performed a mixed methods study consisting of surveys from the annual ASH In-Service Exam for adult hematology/oncology fellows from 2010 to 2016 (8789 participants); interviews with graduating or recently graduated adult hematology/oncology fellows in a single training program (8 participants); and 3 separate focus groups for hematology/oncology fellowship program directors (12 participants), fellows (12 participants), and clinicians (10 participants) at the 2016 ASH annual meeting. In surveys, the majority of fellows favored careers combining hematology and oncology, with more fellows identifying oncology, rather than hematology, as their primary focus. In interviews with advanced-year fellows, mentorship emerged as the single most important career determinant, with mentorship opportunities arising serendipitously, and oncology faculty perceived as having greater availability for mentorship than hematology faculty. In focus group discussions, hematology, particularly benign hematology, was viewed as having poorer income potential, research funding, job availability, and job security than oncology. Focus group participants invariably agreed that the demand for clinical care in hematology, particularly benign hematology, exceeded the current workforce supply. Single-subspecialty fellowship training in hematology and the creation of new clinical care models were offered as potential solutions to these workforce problems. As a next step, ASH is conducting a national, longitudinal study of the adult hematology workforce to improve recruitment and retention in the field.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(36): 3538-3545, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603705

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In a professional setting, the introduction of female speakers without their professional title may have an impact on the public's perception of the female speaker. We examined how professional titles were used during speakers' introductions at the ASCO Annual Meeting. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of video-archived speaker introductions at the 2017 and 2018 ASCO Annual Meetings. A "professional address" was defined as the professional title followed by the speaker's full name or last name. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with the form of address. RESULTS: Of 2,511 videos reviewed, 781 met inclusion criteria. Female speakers were addressed less often by their professional title compared with male speakers (62% v 81%; P < .001). Males were less likely to use a professional address when introducing female speakers compared with females when introducing male speakers (53% v 80%; P < .01). When women performed speaker introductions, no gender differences in professional address were observed (75% v 82%; P = .13). Female speakers were more likely to be introduced by first name only (17% v 3%; P < .001). Male introducers were more likely to address female speakers by first name only compared with female introducers (24% v 7%; P < .01). In a multivariable regression including gender, degree, academic rank, and geographic location of the speaker's institution, male speakers were more likely to receive a professional address compared with female speakers (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.71 to 3.47; P < .01). CONCLUSION: When introduced by men, female speakers were less likely to receive a professional address and more likely to be introduced by first name only compared with their male peers.

14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(8): 1542-1550, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the multifactorial etiologies of extreme thrombocytosis (EXT) in different care settings and the frequency of finding an occult malignancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review at Mayo Clinic from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2016. Adult patients who had at least 2 readings of platelet counts greater than 1000×109/L within 30 days of each other were included. We determined the causes of EXT on the basis of preset definitions of precipitating factors and identified the dominant causes on the basis of the trend of platelet counts. RESULTS: A total of 44,490 patients had thrombocytosis, and 305 patients (0.7%) had EXT. In 242 patients (79.3%), EXT was multifactorial. Surgical complications (54.1%) and hematologic malignancies (27.9%) were the 2 most dominant causes. Thirty-eight patients (12.5%) had new diagnoses of malignancies, mostly myeloproliferative neoplasms. In inpatients, surgical complications (71.9%), concurrent/previous splenectomy (50.5%), and infections (44.9%) were the most common causes, whereas hematologic malignancies (56.9%), iron deficiency (36.7%), and previous splenectomy (28.4%) were the most common causes in outpatients. Hematologic malignancy was 3.4 times more likely to be the cause of EXT in outpatients than in inpatients (56.9% vs 16.8%), and a new diagnosis of hematologic malignancy was 1.9 times more likely to be made in outpatients (15.6% vs 8.2%). Eighty-four percent of patients had resolution of EXT within 30 days. One patient died during the period of EXT. Nonsurgical patients with hematologic malignancies had the most prolonged period of EXT. CONCLUSION: Extreme thrombocytosis is a multifactorial hematologic condition, and its etiology differs substantially between inpatients and outpatients. Occult hematologic malignancies are uncommon in EXT when other major causes are present.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombocitose/etiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esplenectomia/métodos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trombocitose/mortalidade , Trombocitose/terapia
15.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(4): 619-625, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316701

RESUMO

Introduction: Warfarin is a potent anticoagulant used for the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thrombosis. Occasionally, patients require emergent warfarin reversal due to active bleeding, supratherapeutic international normalized ratio, or emergent diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. Various agents can be used for emergent warfarin reversal, including fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC). Both FFP and 4F-PCC are generally considered safe; however, both agents contain coagulation factors and have the potential to provoke a thromboembolic event. Although clinical trials have compared the efficacy and safety of FFP and 4F-PCC, data are limited comparing the risk of thromboembolism between the two agents. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed at a single, urban, academic medical center comparing the incidence of thromboembolism with FFP or 4F-PCC for warfarin reversal during a three-year period in the emergency department (ED) at Massachusetts General Hospital. Patients were included in the study if they were at least 18 years of age and were on warfarin per electronic health records. Patients were excluded if they had received both FFP and 4F-PCC during the same visit. The primary outcome was the frequency of thromboembolism within 30 days of 4F-PCC or FFP. Secondary outcomes included time to thromboembolic event and in-hospital mortality. Results: Three hundred and thirty-six patients met the inclusion criteria. Thromboembolic events within 30 days of therapy occurred in seven patients (2.7%) in the FFP group and 14 patients (17.7%) in the 4F-PCC group (p=<0.001). Death occurred in 39 patients (15.2%) who received FFP and 18 patients (22.8%) who received 4F-PCC (p=0.115). Since the 4F-PCC group was treated disproportionately for central nervous system (CNS) bleeding, a subgroup analysis was performed including patients requiring reversal due to CNS bleeds that received vitamin K. The primary outcome remained statistically significant, occurring in four patients (4.1%) in the FFP group and nine patients (14.1%) in the 4F-PCC group (p=0.02). Conclusion: Our study found a significantly higher risk of thromboembolic events in patients receiving 4F-PCC compared to FFP for urgent warfarin reversal. This difference remained statistically significant when controlled for CNS bleeds and administration of vitamin K.


Assuntos
Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos adversos , Plasma , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/administração & dosagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
16.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(7): e593-e599, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Subspecialty training programs rarely are available for advanced practice providers (APPs). New curricula are needed to prepare APPs with the skills and knowledge required to deliver high-quality care in hematology and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT). METHODS: A Web-based needs assessment survey was distributed to APPs currently working in hematology and BMT at three Mayo Clinic sites (Rochester, MN; Scottsdale, AZ; and Jacksonville, FL). The survey assessed participants' perceptions of readiness to practice in hematology after completion of their APP education and identified APP learning needs. RESULTS: Of 68 APPs, 49 (72%; 34 nurse practitioners, 15 physician assistants) completed the survey. Twenty-eight APPs (57%) were new graduates, and 17 (35%) had no prior experience in hematology/BMT. All APPs held a master's degree or higher (doctorate, 31%). Thirty-nine (80%) reported that less than 5% of their APP school curriculum was hematology focused. More than 90% felt unprepared to practice in hematology or BMT after their APP education and believed that hematology-specific training could improve their competency as providers and positively affect job satisfaction. APPs reported that they would like more formal training in the following areas of clinical focus: malignant and benign hematologic disorders, hematopathology, palliative care, transfusion medicine, infectious disease, and hematology-related pharmacology. They also preferred the following learning strategies: active learning from patient care, case-based teaching, and experience during hospital rounds. CONCLUSION: This needs-based assessment project confirmed the necessity to develop a hematology-specific fellowship for APPs and helped to optimize the curriculum.

20.
J Cancer Educ ; 34(6): 1219-1224, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267295

RESUMO

Factors affecting hematology-oncology trainees' academic success and career choices have not been well characterized. We performed a retrospective study of 57 hematology-oncology fellows trained at Mayo Clinic between 2008 and 2017 in an attempt to identify factors associated with success during fellowship and with career choice (academic versus private). Sex, age, residency quality, and letters of recommendation indicating a "top" applicant were not associated with hematology or oncology in-training examination (ITE) scores, research productivity (abstracts/publications during fellowship), or career choice (academic versus private). Fellows with higher United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores were more likely to perform well on ITE, but examination scores did not predict academic productivity or academic versus private career choice. More academically productive fellows were more likely to choose academic careers. Both ITE scores and productivity were associated with receipt of national and/or institutional awards. Finally, fellows who were non-US citizens and/or international medical graduates (IMG) had higher academic productivity both pre-fellowship and during fellowship and as per the observations above were more likely to choose academic careers. In conclusion, predictors of superior knowledge differ from predictors of academic productivity/career choice, and it is important to take multiple factors into account when selecting candidates most likely to succeed during fellowship.

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