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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574037

RESUMO

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) made from metal halide perovskites have demonstrated external electroluminescent quantum efficiencies (EQEEL) in excess of 20%. However, their poor operational stability, resulting in lifetimes of only tens to hundreds of hours, needs to be dramatically improved prior to commercial use. There is little consensus in the community upon which factors limit the stability of these devices. Here, we investigate the role played by ammonium cations on the operational stability. We vary the amount of phenylethylammonium bromide, a widely used alkylammonium salt, that we add to a precursor solution of CsPbBr3 and track changes in stability and EQEEL. We find that while phenylethylammonium bromide is beneficial in achieving high efficiency, it is highly detrimental to operational stability. We investigate material properties and electronic characteristics before and after degradation and find that both a reduction in the radiative efficiency of the emitter and significant changes in current-voltage characteristics explain the orders of magnitude drop in the EQEEL, which we attribute to increased ionic mobility. Our results suggest that engineering new contacts and further investigation into materials with lower ionic mobility should yield much improved stability of perovskite LEDs.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131595

RESUMO

The ligand shell around colloidal quantum dots mediates the electron and energy transfer processes that underpin their use in optoelectronic and photocatalytic applications. Here, we show that the surface chemistry of carboxylate anchoring groups of oleate ligands passivating PbS quantum dots undergo significant changes when the quantum dots are excited to their excitonic states. We directly probe the changes of surface chemistry using time-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy that records the evolution of the vibrational frequencies of carboxylate groups following excitation of the electronic states. The data reveal a reduction of the Pb-O coordination of carboxylate anchoring groups to lead atoms at the quantum dot surfaces. The dynamic surface chemistry of the ligands may increase their surface mobility in the excited state and enhance the ability of molecular species to penetrate the ligand shell to undergo energy and charge transfer processes that depend sensitively on distance.

3.
ACS Nano ; 12(10): 10327-10337, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251834

RESUMO

We present a cation-exchange approach for tunable A-site alloys of cesium (Cs+) and formamidinium (FA+) lead triiodide perovskite nanocrystals that enables the formation of compositions spanning the complete range of Cs1- xFA xPbI3, unlike thin-film alloys or the direct synthesis of alloyed perovskite nanocrystals. These materials show bright and finely tunable emission in the red and near-infrared range between 650 and 800 nm. The activation energy for the miscibility between Cs+ and FA+ is measured (∼0.65 eV) and is shown to be higher than reported for X-site exchange in lead halide perovskites. We use these alloyed colloidal perovskite quantum dots to fabricate photovoltaic devices. In addition to the expanded compositional range for Cs1- xFA xPbI3 materials, the quantum dot solar cells exhibit high open-circuit voltage ( VOC) with a lower loss than the thin-film perovskite devices of similar compositions.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(33): 10504-10513, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044630

RESUMO

The ability to manipulate quantum dot (QD) surfaces is foundational to their technological deployment. Surface manipulation of metal halide perovskite (MHP) QDs has proven particularly challenging in comparison to that of more established inorganic materials due to dynamic surface species and low material formation energy; most conventional methods of chemical manipulation targeted at the MHP QD surface will result in transformation or dissolution of the MHP crystal. In previous work, we have demonstrated record-efficiency QD solar cells (QDSCs) based on ligand-exchange procedures that electronically couple MHP QDs yet maintain their nanocrystalline size, which stabilizes the corner-sharing structure of the constituent PbI64- octahedra with optoelectronic properties optimal for solar energy conversion. In this work, we employ a variety of spectroscopic techniques to develop a molecular-level understanding of the MHP QD surface chemistry in this system. We individually target both the anionic (oleate) and cationic (oleylammonium) ligands. We find that atmospheric moisture aids the process by hydrolysis of methyl acetate to generate acetic acid and methanol. Acetic acid then replaces native oleate ligands to yield QD surface-bound acetate and free oleic acid. The native oleylammonium ligands remain throughout this film deposition process and are exchanged during a final treatment step employing smaller cations-namely, formamidinium. This final treatment has a narrow processing window; initial treatment at this stage leads to a more strongly coupled QD regime followed by transformation into a bulk MHP film after longer treatment. These insights provide chemical understanding to the deposition of high-quality, electronically coupled MHP QD films that maintain both quantum confinement and their crystalline phase and attain high photovoltaic performance.

5.
ACS Nano ; 12(6): 6263-6272, 2018 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792675

RESUMO

Observations of the hot-phonon bottleneck, which is predicted to slow the rate of hot carrier cooling in quantum confined nanocrystals, have been limited to date for reasons that are not fully understood. We used time-resolved infrared spectroscopy to directly measure higher energy intraband transitions in PbS colloidal quantum dots. Direct measurements of these intraband transitions permitted detailed analysis of the electronic overlap of the quantum confined states that may influence their relaxation processes. In smaller PbS nanocrystals, where the hot-phonon bottleneck is expected to be most pronounced, we found that relaxation of parity selection rules combined with stronger electron-phonon coupling led to greater spectral overlap of transitions among the quantum confined states. This created pathways for fast energy transfer and relaxation that may bypass the predicted hot-phonon bottleneck. In contrast, larger, but still quantum confined nanocrystals did not exhibit such relaxation of the parity selection rules and possessed narrower intraband states. These observations were consistent with slower relaxation dynamics that have been measured in larger quantum confined systems. These findings indicated that, at small radii, electron-phonon interactions overcome the advantageous increase in energetic separation of the electronic states for PbS quantum dots. Selection of appropriately sized quantum dots, which minimize spectral broadening due to electron-phonon interactions while maximizing electronic state separation, is necessary to observe the hot-phonon bottleneck. Such optimization may provide a framework for achieving efficient hot carrier collection and multiple exciton generation.

6.
Sci Adv ; 3(10): eaao4204, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098184

RESUMO

We developed lead halide perovskite quantum dot (QD) films with tuned surface chemistry based on A-site cation halide salt (AX) treatments. QD perovskites offer colloidal synthesis and processing using industrially friendly solvents, which decouples grain growth from film deposition, and at present produce larger open-circuit voltages (VOC's) than thin-film perovskites. CsPbI3 QDs, with a tunable bandgap between 1.75 and 2.13 eV, are an ideal top cell candidate for all-perovskite multijunction solar cells because of their demonstrated small VOC deficit. We show that charge carrier mobility within perovskite QD films is dictated by the chemical conditions at the QD-QD junctions. The AX treatments provide a method for tuning the coupling between perovskite QDs, which is exploited for improved charge transport for fabricating high-quality QD films and devices. The AX treatments presented here double the film mobility, enabling increased photocurrent, and lead to a record certified QD solar cell efficiency of 13.43%.

7.
Science ; 354(6308): 92-95, 2016 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846497

RESUMO

We show nanoscale phase stabilization of CsPbI3 quantum dots (QDs) to low temperatures that can be used as the active component of efficient optoelectronic devices. CsPbI3 is an all-inorganic analog to the hybrid organic cation halide perovskites, but the cubic phase of bulk CsPbI3 (α-CsPbI3)-the variant with desirable band gap-is only stable at high temperatures. We describe the formation of α-CsPbI3 QD films that are phase-stable for months in ambient air. The films exhibit long-range electronic transport and were used to fabricate colloidal perovskite QD photovoltaic cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.23 volts and efficiency of 10.77%. These devices also function as light-emitting diodes with low turn-on voltage and tunable emission.

8.
ACS Nano ; 10(3): 3302-11, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895310

RESUMO

We use a high signal-to-noise X-ray photoelectron spectrum of bulk PbS, GW calculations, and a model assuming parabolic bands to unravel the various X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectral features of bulk PbS as well as determine how to best analyze the valence band region of PbS quantum dot (QD) films. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) are commonly used to probe the difference between the Fermi level and valence band maximum (VBM) for crystalline and thin-film semiconductors. However, we find that when the standard XPS/UPS analysis is used for PbS, the results are often unrealistic due to the low density of states at the VBM. Instead, a parabolic band model is used to determine the VBM for the PbS QD films, which is based on the bulk PbS experimental spectrum and bulk GW calculations. Our analysis highlights the breakdown of the Brillioun zone representation of the band diagram for large band gap, highly quantum confined PbS QDs. We have also determined that in 1,2-ethanedithiol-treated PbS QD films the Fermi level position is dependent on the QD size; specifically, the smallest band gap QD films have the Fermi level near the conduction band minimum and the Fermi level moves away from the conduction band for larger band gap PbS QD films. This change in the Fermi level within the QD band gap could be due to changes in the Pb:S ratio. In addition, we use inverse photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the conduction band region, which has similar challenges in the analysis of PbS QD films due to a low density of states near the conduction band minimum.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(15): 2892-9, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267176

RESUMO

We explored the uptake of metal chloride salts with +1 to +3 metals of Na(+), K(+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Sn(2+), Cu(2+), and In(3+) by PbSe QD solar cells. We also compared CdCl2 to Cd acetate and Cd nitrate treatments. PbSe QD solar cells fabricated with a CdCl2 treatment are stable for more than 270 days stored in air. We studied how temperature and immersion times affect optoelectronic properties and photovoltaic cell performance. Uptake of Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) increase open circuit voltage, whereas In(3+) and K(+) increase the photocurrent without influencing the spectral response or first exciton peak position. Using the most beneficial treatments we varied the bandgap of PbSe QD solar cells from 0.78 to 1.3 eV and find the improved VOC is more prevalent for lower bandgap QD solar cells.

10.
ACS Nano ; 9(8): 8157-64, 2015 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222812

RESUMO

We developed a single step, cation-exchange reaction that produces air-stable PbSe quantum dots (QDs) from ZnSe QDs and PbX2 (X = Cl, Br, or I) precursors. The resulting PbSe QDs are terminated with halide anions and contain residual Zn cations. We characterized the PbSe QDs using UV-vis-NIR absorption, photoluminescence quantum yield spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Solar cells fabricated from these PbSe QDs obtained an overall best power conversion efficiency of 6.47% at one sun illumination. The solar cell performance without encapsulation remains unchanged for over 50 days in ambient conditions; and after 50 days, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory certification team certified the device at 5.9%.

11.
Sci Rep ; 5: 9945, 2015 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25910183

RESUMO

We developed a layer-by-layer method of preparing PbE (E = S or Se) quantum dot (QD) solar cells using metal halide (PbI2, PbCl2, CdI2, or CdCl2) salts dissolved in dimethylformamide to displace oleate surface ligands and form conductive QD solids. The resulting QD solids have a significant reduction in the carbon content compared to films treated with thiols and organic halides. We find that the PbI2 treatment is the most successful in removing alkyl surface ligands and also replaces most surface bound Cl(-) with I(-). The treatment protocol results in PbS QD films exhibiting a deeper work function and band positions than other ligand exchanges reported previously. The method developed here produces solar cells that perform well even at film thicknesses approaching a micron, indicating improved carrier transport in the QD films. We demonstrate QD solar cells based on PbI2 with power conversion efficiencies above 7%.

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