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1.
Mol Ther ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998954

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a deadly childhood cancer arising in the developing sympathetic nervous system. High-risk patients are currently treated with intensive chemotherapy, which is curative in only 50% of children and leaves some surviving patients with life-long side effects. microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of neural crest development and are deregulated during neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, making miRNA-based drugs an attractive therapeutic avenue. A functional screen of >1,200 miRNA mimics was conducted in neuroblastoma cell lines to discover miRNAs that sensitized cells to low doses (30% inhibitory concentration [IC30]) of doxorubicin and vincristine chemotherapy used in the treatment of the disease. Three miRNAs, miR-99b-5p, miR-380-3p, and miR-485-3p, had potent chemosensitizing activity with doxorubicin in multiple models of high-risk neuroblastoma. These miRNAs underwent genomic loss in a subset of neuroblastoma patients, and low expression predicted poor survival outcome. In vitro functional assays revealed each of these miRNAs enhanced the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to show that miR-99b-5p represses neuroblastoma dependency genes LIN28B and PHOX2B both in vitro and in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that PHOX2B is a direct target of miR-99b-5p. We anticipate that restoring the function of the tumor-suppressive miRNAs discovered here may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neuroblastoma patients.

2.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e14608, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927798

RESUMO

Biomarkers which better match anticancer drugs with cancer driver genes hold the promise of improved clinical responses and cure rates. We developed a precision medicine platform of rapid high-throughput drug screening (HTS) and patient-derived xenografting (PDX) of primary tumor tissue, and evaluated its potential for treatment identification among 56 consecutively enrolled high-risk pediatric cancer patients, compared with conventional molecular genomics and transcriptomics. Drug hits were seen in the majority of HTS and PDX screens, which identified therapeutic options for 10 patients for whom no targetable molecular lesions could be found. Screens also provided orthogonal proof of drug efficacy suggested by molecular analyses and negative results for some molecular findings. We identified treatment options across the whole testing platform for 70% of patients. Only molecular therapeutic recommendations were provided to treating oncologists and led to a change in therapy in 53% of patients, of whom 29% had clinical benefit. These data indicate that in vitro and in vivo drug screening of tumor cells could increase therapeutic options and improve clinical outcomes for high-risk pediatric cancer patients.

3.
Curr Protoc ; 1(11): e310, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826366

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in young children, arises from the sympathetic nervous system. Our understanding of neuroblastoma has been improved by the development of both genetically engineered and xenograft mouse models of the disease. Anatomical pathology is an essential component of the phenotyping of mouse models of cancer, characterizing the morphologic effects of genetic manipulation and drug treatment. The Th-MYCN model, the most widely used of several genetically engineered mouse models of neuroblastoma, was established by targeted expression of the human MYCN gene to murine neural crest cells under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. Neuroblastoma development in Th-MYCN mice is preceded by neuroblast hyperplasia-the persistence and proliferation of neural crest-derived neuroblasts within the sympathetic autonomic ganglia. The neuroblastomas that subsequently develop morphologically resemble human neuroblastoma and carry chromosomal gains and losses in regions syntenic with those observed in human tumors. In this overview, we describe the essential pathologic features for investigators when assessing mouse models of neuroblastoma. We outline human neuroblastoma as the foundation for understanding the murine disease, followed by details of the murine sympathetic ganglia from which neuroblastoma arises. Sympathetic ganglia, both with and without neuroblast hyperplasia, are described. The macroscopic and microscopic features of murine neuroblastoma are explained, including assessment of xenografts and tumors following drug treatment. An approach to experimental design is also detailed. Increased understanding of the pathology of murine neuroblastoma should improve reproducibility and comparability of research findings and assist investigators working with mouse models of neuroblastoma. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cost of socioeconomic inequality in health service use among Australian children with chronic health conditions is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the cost of socioeconomic inequality in health service use among Australian children with chronic health conditions. METHODS: Cohort study using a whole-of-population linked administrative data for all births in Queensland, Australia, between July 2015 and July 2018. Socioeconomic status was defined by an areas-based measure, grouping children into quintiles from most disadvantaged (Q1) to least disadvantaged (Q5) based on their postcode at birth. Study outcomes included health service utilisation (inpatient, emergency department, outpatient, general practitioner, specialist, pathology and diagnostic imaging services) and healthcare costs. RESULTS: Of the 238,600 children included in the analysis, 10.4% had at least one chronic health condition. Children with chronic health conditions in Q1 had higher rates of inpatient (6.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.4, 6.7), emergency department (7.2, 95% CI 7.0, 7.5) and outpatient (20.3, 95% CI 19.4, 21.3) service use compared to children with chronic health conditions in Q5. They also had lower rates of general practitioner (37.5, 95% CI 36.7, 38.4), specialist (8.9, 95% CI 8.5, 9.3), pathology (10.7, 95% CI 10.2, 11.3), and diagnostic imaging (4.3, 95% CI 4.2,4.5) service use. Children with any chronic health condition in Q1 incurred lower median out-of-pocket fees than children in Q5 ($0 vs $741, respectively), lower median Medicare funding ($2710, vs $3408, respectively), and higher median public hospital funding ($31, 052 vs $23, 017, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Children of most disadvantage are more likely to access public hospital provided services, which are accessible free of charge to patients. These children are less likely to access general practitioner, specialist, pathology and diagnostic imaging services; all of which are critical to the ongoing management of chronic health conditions, but often attract an out-of-pocket fee.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638267

RESUMO

Roughly half of all high-risk neuroblastoma patients present with MYCN amplification. The molecular consequences of MYCN overexpression in this aggressive pediatric tumor have been studied for decades, but thus far, our understanding of the early initiating steps of MYCN-driven tumor formation is still enigmatic. We performed a detailed transcriptome landscaping during murine TH-MYCN-driven neuroblastoma tumor formation at different time points. The neuroblastoma dependency factor MEIS2, together with ASCL1, was identified as a candidate tumor-initiating factor and shown to be a novel core regulatory circuit member in adrenergic neuroblastomas. Of further interest, we found a KEOPS complex member (gm6890), implicated in homologous double-strand break repair and telomere maintenance, to be strongly upregulated during tumor formation, as well as the checkpoint adaptor Claspin (CLSPN) and three chromosome 17q loci CBX2, GJC1 and LIMD2. Finally, cross-species master regulator analysis identified FOXM1, together with additional hubs controlling transcriptome profiles of MYCN-driven neuroblastoma. In conclusion, time-resolved transcriptome analysis of early hyperplastic lesions and full-blown MYCN-driven neuroblastomas yielded novel components implicated in both tumor initiation and maintenance, providing putative novel drug targets for MYCN-driven neuroblastoma.

6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641289

RESUMO

The dihydropyranoindole structures were previously identified as promising scaffolds for improving the anti-cancer activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors. This work describes the synthesis of related furoindoles and their ability to synergize with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) against neuroblastoma and breast cancer cells. The nucleophilic substitution of hydroxyindole methyl esters with α-haloketones yielded the corresponding arylether ketones, which were subsequently cyclized to tricyclic and tetracyclic furoindoles. The furoindoles showed promising individual cytotoxic efficiency against breast cancer cells, as well as decent SAHA enhancement against cancer cells in select cases. Interestingly, the best IC50 value was obtained with the non-cyclized intermediate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Cetonas/síntese química , Neuroblastoma/enzimologia , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Cetonas/química , Cetonas/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Arch Dis Child ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine academic outcomes among children hospitalised with a chronic health condition. DESIGN: Population-level birth cohort. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 397 169 children born 2000-2006 followed up to 2014. INTERVENTION/EXPOSURE: Hospitalisations with a chronic condition. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Academic underperformance was identified as 'below the national minimum standard' (BNMS) in five literacy/numeracy domains using the national assessment (National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy) data. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the adjusted ORs (aORs) of children performing BNMS in each domain at each grade (grades 3, 5 and 7, respectively). RESULTS: Of children hospitalised with a chronic condition prior to National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) (16%-18%), 9%-12% missed ≥1 test, with a maximum of 37% of those hospitalised ≥7 times, compared with 4%-5% of children not hospitalised. Excluding children who missed a NAPLAN test, more children hospitalised with a chronic condition performed BNMS across all domains and grades, compared with children not hospitalised (eg, for BNMS in reading at grade 3: n=2588, aOR 1.35 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.42); for BNMS in numeracy at grade 3: n=2619, aOR 1.51 (95% CI 1.43 to 1.59)). Increasing frequency and bed-days of hospitalisation were associated with 2-3 fold increased odds of performing BNMS across all domains and grades. Children hospitalised with mental health/behavioural conditions had the highest odds of performing BNMS across all domains at each grade. CONCLUSIONS: Children hospitalised with a chronic condition underperform academically across literacy/numeracy domains at each school grade. Health and educational supports are needed to improve these children's academic outcomes.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimal residual disease (MRD) measurement is a cornerstone of contemporary acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment. The presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene recombinations in leukaemic clones allows widespread use of patient-specific, DNA-based MRD assays. In contrast, paediatric solid tumour MRD remains experimental and has focussed on generic assays targeting tumour-specific messenger RNA, methylated DNA or microRNA. METHODS: We examined the feasibility of using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data to design tumour-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based MRD tests (WGS-MRD) in 18 children with high-risk relapsed cancer, including ALL, high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) and Ewing sarcoma (EWS) (n = 6 each). RESULTS: Sensitive WGS-MRD assays were generated for each patient and allowed quantitation of 1 tumour cell per 10-4 (0.01%)-10-5 (0.001%) mononuclear cells. In ALL, WGS-MRD and Ig/TCR-MRD were highly concordant. WGS-MRD assays also showed good concordance between quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR formats. In serial clinical samples, WGS-MRD correlated with disease course. In solid tumours, WGS-MRD assays were more sensitive than RNA-MRD assays. CONCLUSIONS: WGS facilitated the development of patient-specific MRD tests in ALL, HR-NB and EWS with potential clinical utility in monitoring treatment response. WGS data could be used to design patient-specific MRD assays in a broad range of tumours.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297633

RESUMO

Purpose: Involvement of adolescent and young adult (AYAs) cancer survivors as consumers in research is increasingly encouraged, yet few studies have identified the feasibility and acceptability of methods used to involve them. We aimed to identify: (1) How feasible and acceptable is a consumer-driven, workshop-based research priority-setting approach? And (2) what research priorities do Australian AYA consumers endorse? Methods: AYA cancer survivors diagnosed 15-30 years old and currently younger than 35 years were invited to participate. The AYAs completed a pre-workshop survey to rank their top three priorities from the United Kingdom-based James Lind Alliance list, participated in a 90-minute focus group, and completed a post-workshop evaluation survey. We assessed the workshop feasibility by reviewing considerations, challenges, and enablers of success in the planning and conduct processes. Acceptability was assessed through participants' evaluation surveys and facilitators' informal reflections. The top three priorities were determined from pre-workshop surveys and focus group data. Results: Six survivors participated (M age = 24.2 years, M = 5 years post-treatment, 83% female). All reported that the workshop was an acceptable way to engage with researchers. Costs and recruitment challenges limited the workshop's feasibility. The AYAs' top priority was: What psychological support package improves psychological well-being, social functioning, and mental health during and after treatment? Discussion: The AYA survivors found our workshop to be an acceptable way to engage in research priority-setting. However, the feasibility of this approach depends on the resources available to researchers. Future research is needed to define the optimal method of engagement: What is most acceptable for AYAs and feasible for researchers?

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4164, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230493

RESUMO

Spi-1 Proto-Oncogene (SPI1) fusion genes are recurrently found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases but are insufficient to drive leukemogenesis. Here we show that SPI1 fusions in combination with activating NRAS mutations drive an immature T-ALL in vivo using a conditional bone marrow transplant mouse model. Addition of the oncogenic fusion to the NRAS mutation also results in a higher leukemic stem cell frequency. Mechanistically, genetic deletion of the ß-catenin binding domain within Transcription factor 7 (TCF7)-SPI1 or use of a TCF/ß-catenin interaction antagonist abolishes the oncogenic activity of the fusion. Targeting the TCF7-SPI1 fusion in vivo with a doxycycline-inducible knockdown results in increased differentiation. Moreover, both pharmacological and genetic inhibition lead to down-regulation of SPI1 targets. Together, our results reveal an example where TCF7-SPI1 leukemia is vulnerable to pharmacological targeting of the TCF/ß-catenin interaction.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Carcinogênese/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Oncogenes , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/genética , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Transcriptoma , beta Catenina/genética
11.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 129(10): 805-818, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of high-throughput drug screening (HTS) using primary cultures provides a promising, clinically translatable approach to tailoring treatment strategies for patients with cancer. However, this has been challenging for solid tumors because of often limited amounts of tissue available. In most cases, in vitro expansion is required before HTS, which may lead to overgrowth and contamination by non-neoplastic cells. METHODS: In this study, hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were performed on 129 cytopathology cases from 95 patients. These cytopathology cases comprised cell block preparations derived from primary tumor specimens or patient-derived xenografts as part of a pediatric precision oncology trial. Cytopathology cases were compared with the morphology and immunohistochemical staining profile of the original tumor. Cases were reported as tumor cells present, equivocal, or tumor cells absent. The HTS results from cytopathologically validated cultures were incorporated into a multidisciplinary tumor board report issued to the treating clinician to guide clinical decision making. RESULTS: On cytopathologic examination, tumor cells were present in 77 of 129 cases (60%) and were absent in 38 of 129 cases (29%), whereas 14 of 129 cases (11%) were equivocal. Cultures that contained tumor cells resembled the tumors from which they were derived. CONCLUSIONS: Cytopathologic examination of tumor cell block preparations is feasible and provides detailed morphologic characterization. Cytopathologic examination is essential for ensuring that samples submitted for HTS contain representative tumor cells and that in vitro drug sensitivity data are clinically translatable.

12.
Leukemia ; 35(11): 3101-3112, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895784

RESUMO

Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is a high-risk ALL subtype with high rates of relapse and poor patient outcome. Activating mutations affecting components of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway occur in the majority of Ph-like ALL cases. The use of JAK inhibitors represents a potential treatment option for Ph-like ALL, although we and others have shown that CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL responds poorly to single-agent JAK inhibitors in the preclinical setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify effective combination treatments against CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of synergy. We carried out a series of high-throughput combination drug screenings and found that ruxolitinib exerted synergy with standard-of-care drugs used in the treatment of ALL. In addition, we investigated the molecular effects of ruxolitinib on Ph-like ALL by combining mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics with gene expression analysis. Based on these findings, we conducted preclinical in vivo drug testing and demonstrated that ruxolitinib enhanced the in vivo efficacy of an induction-type regimen consisting of vincristine, dexamethasone, and L-asparaginase in 2/3 CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL xenografts. Overall, our findings support evaluating the addition of ruxolitinib to conventional induction regimens for the treatment of CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918978

RESUMO

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1), a critical regulatory enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is a direct transcriptional target of MYCN, amplification of which is a powerful marker of aggressive neuroblastoma. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), G316A, within the first intron of ODC1, results in genotypes wildtype GG, and variants AG/AA. CRISPR-cas9 technology was used to investigate the effects of AG clones from wildtype MYCN-amplified SK-N-BE(2)-C cells and the effect of the SNP on MYCN binding, and promoter activity was investigated using EMSA and luciferase assays. AG clones exhibited decreased ODC1 expression, growth rates, and histone acetylation and increased sensitivity to ODC1 inhibition. MYCN was a stronger transcriptional regulator of the ODC1 promoter containing the G allele, and preferentially bound the G allele over the A. Two neuroblastoma cohorts were used to investigate the clinical impact of the SNP. In the study cohort, the minor AA genotype was associated with improved survival, while poor prognosis was associated with the GG genotype and AG/GG genotypes in MYCN-amplified and non-amplified patients, respectively. These effects were lost in the GWAS cohort. We have demonstrated that the ODC1 G316A polymorphism has functional significance in neuroblastoma and is subject to allele-specific regulation by the MYCN oncoprotein.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1881, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767157

RESUMO

To achieve the very high oncoprotein levels required to drive the malignant state cancer cells utilise the ubiquitin proteasome system to upregulate transcription factor levels. Here our analyses identify ALYREF, expressed from the most common genetic copy number variation in neuroblastoma, chromosome 17q21-ter gain as a key regulator of MYCN protein turnover. We show strong co-operativity between ALYREF and MYCN from transgenic models of neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo. The two proteins form a nuclear coactivator complex which stimulates transcription of the ubiquitin specific peptidase 3, USP3. We show that increased USP3 levels reduce K-48- and K-63-linked ubiquitination of MYCN, thus driving up MYCN protein stability. In the MYCN-ALYREF-USP3 signal, ALYREF is required for MYCN effects on the malignant phenotype and that of USP3 on MYCN stability. This data defines a MYCN oncoprotein dependency state which provides a rationale for future pharmacological studies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia
15.
Oncogene ; 40(13): 2367-2381, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658627

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are effective in MYCN-driven cancers, because of a unique need for HDAC recruitment by the MYCN oncogenic signal. However, HDAC inhibitors are much more effective in combination with other anti-cancer agents. To identify novel compounds which act synergistically with HDAC inhibitor, such as suberanoyl hydroxamic acid (SAHA), we performed a cell-based, high-throughput drug screen of 10,560 small molecule compounds from a drug-like diversity library and identified a small molecule compound (SE486-11) which synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effects of SAHA. Effects of drug combinations on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and colony forming were assessed in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines. Treatment with SAHA and SE486-11 increased MYCN ubiquitination and degradation, and markedly inhibited tumorigenesis in neuroblastoma xenografts, and, MYCN transgenic zebrafish and mice. The combination reduced ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5) levels and increased unanchored polyubiquitin chains. Overexpression of USP5 rescued neuroblastoma cells from the cytopathic effects of the combination and reduced unanchored polyubiquitin, suggesting USP5 is a therapeutic target of the combination. SAHA and SE486-11 directly bound to USP5 and the drug combination exhibited a 100-fold higher binding to USP5 than individual drugs alone in microscale thermophoresis assays. MYCN bound to the USP5 promoter and induced USP5 gene expression suggesting that USP5 and MYCN expression created a forward positive feedback loop in neuroblastoma cells. Thus, USP5 acts as an oncogenic cofactor with MYCN in neuroblastoma and the novel combination of HDAC inhibitor with SE486-11 represents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of MYCN-driven neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
16.
Haematologica ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567813

RESUMO

Symptomatic methotrexate-related central neurotoxicity, 'MTX neurotoxicity', is a severe toxicity experienced during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy with potential long-term neurologic complications. Risk factors and long-term outcomes require further study. We conducted a systematic, retrospective review of 1251 consecutive Australian children enrolled on BFM or COG-based protocols between 1998-2013. Clinical risk predictors for MTX neurotoxicity were analyzed using regression. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 48 cases and 537 controls. The incidence of MTX neurotoxicity was 7.6% (n=95/1251), at a median of 4 months from ALL diagnosis and 8 days after intravenous or intrathecal MTX. Grade 3 elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.005, OR 2.31 (1.28-4.16)) in induction/consolidation was associated with MTX neurotoxicity, after accounting for the only established risk factor, age a10 years. Cumulative incidence of CNS relapse was increased in children where intrathecal MTX was omitted following symptomatic MTX neurotoxicity (n=48) compared to where intrathecal MTX was continued throughout therapy (n=1174) (P=0.047). Five-year CNS relapsefree survival was 89.2%±4.6% when intrathecal MTX was ceased compared to 95.4%±0.6% when intrathecal MTX was continued. Recurrence of MTX neurotoxicity was low (12.9%) for patients whose intrathecal MTX was continued after their first episode. The GWAS identified SNPs associated with MTX neurotoxicity near genes regulating neuronal growth, neuronal differentiation and cytoskeletal organization (P>1E-06). In conclusion, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and age a10 years at diagnosis were independent risk factors for MTX neurotoxicity. Our data do not support cessation of intrathecal MTX after a first MTX neurotoxicity event.

17.
Br J Haematol ; 193(1): 171-175, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620089

RESUMO

Disease relapse is the greatest cause of treatment failure in paediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). Current risk stratifications fail to capture all patients at risk of relapse. Herein, we used a machine-learning approach to identify B-ALL blast-secreted factors that are associated with poor survival outcomes. Using this approach, we identified a two-gene expression signature (CKLF and IL1B) that allowed identification of high-risk patients at diagnosis. This two-gene expression signature enhances the predictive value of current at diagnosis or end-of-induction risk stratification suggesting the model can be applied continuously to help guide implementation of risk-adapted therapies.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Proteínas com Domínio MARVEL/genética , Aprendizado de Máquina/estatística & dados numéricos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Medição de Risco/normas , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcriptoma/genética , Falha de Tratamento
18.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 5(1): 9, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580196

RESUMO

The prognosis of recurrent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) is dismal, with surgical resection being the only definitive salvage therapy. Treatment with chemoradiation approaches has not significantly improved patient outcomes. Similarly, trials of therapies targeting MPNST genomic drivers have thus far been unsuccessful. Improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MPNST indicates frequent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cell signaling pathway. MEK inhibitors have shown activity in preclinical studies; however, their clinical efficacy has not been reported to date. We describe here a case of sustained complete response to MEK inhibition in an adolescent patient with a recurrent metastatic MPNST with multiple alterations in the MAPK pathway, guided by a precision oncology approach.

19.
Psychooncology ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Psychosocial Standards of Care (PSSC) in paediatric oncology prescribe the minimum standards for education support. It is unknown, however, if published education support programmes for children with cancer meet the PSSC standards for education support. Successful implementation of standards for education support is challenging but may be achieved with guidance. We aimed to (1) review education support programmes for childhood cancer patients and survivors against the PSSC standards and (2) provide practical recommendations for future research and implementation of education support programmes. METHODS: We searched PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Educational Resources Information and Center databases. We reviewed the education support programmes using five evaluation criteria derived from the PSSC and summarised the structure of identified programmes. We examined the features and limitations of programmes that met all evaluation criteria. RESULTS: We identified 20 education support programmes in paediatric oncology, including peer programmes (n = 3), teacher programmes (n = 5), and school re-entry programmes (SRPs n = 12). We found that three SRPs met all evaluation criteria and that SRP components were timed according to the child's position on the cancer trajectory (e.g., diagnosis and treatment, school re-entry, and follow up throughout schooling). The supporting evidence of the programmes, however, is unclear due to the lack of adequately designed studies. CONCLUSIONS: SRPs provide a promising structure for future education support programmes. We recommend strategies for developing and evaluating education support that adheres to the PSSC and adapts to international and local contexts.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(5): 1438-1451, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TERT gene rearrangement with transcriptional superenhancers leads to TERT overexpression and neuroblastoma. No targeted therapy is available for clinical trials in patients with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Anticancer agents exerting the best synergistic anticancer effects with BET bromodomain inhibitors were identified by screening an FDA-approved oncology drug library. The synergistic effects of the BET bromodomain inhibitor OTX015 and the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib were examined by immunoblot and flow cytometry analysis. The anticancer efficacy of OTX015 and carfilzomib combination therapy was investigated in mice xenografted with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell lines or patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor cells, and the role of TERT reduction in the anticancer efficacy was examined through rescue experiments in mice. RESULTS: The BET bromodomain protein BRD4 promoted TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell proliferation through upregulating TERT expression. Screening of an approved oncology drug library identified the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib as the agent exerting the best synergistic anticancer effects with BET bromodomain inhibitors including OTX015. OTX015 and carfilzomib synergistically reduced TERT protein expression, induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, and induced TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell apoptosis which was blocked by TERT overexpression and endoplasmic reticulum stress antagonists. In mice xenografted with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell lines or PDX tumor cells, OTX015 and carfilzomib synergistically blocked TERT expression, induced tumor cell apoptosis, suppressed tumor progression, and improved mouse survival, which was largely reversed by forced TERT overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: OTX015 and carfilzomib combination therapy is likely to be translated into the first clinical trial of a targeted therapy in patients with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma.

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