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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496753

RESUMO

Integration of the ON-OFF cooperative spin crossover (SCO) properties of FeII coordination polymers as components of electronic and/or spintronic devices is currently an area of great interest for potential applications. This requires the selection and growth of thin films of the appropriate material onto selected substrates. In this context, two new series of cooperative SCO two-dimensional FeII coordination polymers of the Hofmann-type formulated {FeII(Pym)2[MII(CN)4]·xH2O}n and {FeII(Isoq)2[MII(CN)4]}n (Pym = pyrimidine, Isoq = isoquinoline; MII = Ni, Pd, Pt) have been synthesized, characterized, and the corresponding Pt derivatives selected for fabrication of thin films by liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE). At ambient pressure, variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, magnetic, and calorimetric studies of the Pt and Pd microcrystalline materials of both series display strong cooperative thermal induced SCO properties. In contrast, this property is only observed for higher pressures in the Ni derivatives. The SCO behavior of the {FeII(L)2[PtII(CN)4]}n thin films (L = Pym, Isoq) were monitored by magnetization measurements in a SQUID magnetometer and compared with the homologous samples of the previously reported isostructural {FeII(Py)2[PtII(CN)4]}n (Py = pyridine). Application of the theory of regular solutions to the SCO of the three derivatives allowed us to evaluate the effect on the characteristic SCO temperatures and the hysteresis, as well as the associated thermodynamic parameters when moving from microcrystalline bulk solids to nanometric thin films.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(20): 9372-9381, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307978

RESUMO

Controlling and understanding the mechanisms that harness crystallization processes is of utmost importance in contemporary materials science and, in particular, in the realm of reticular solids where it still remains a great challenge. In this work, we show that environments mimicking microgravity conditions can harness the size and shape of functional biogenic crystals such as peptide-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In particular, we demonstrate formation of the largest single crystals with controlled nonequilibrium shapes of peptide-based MOFs reported to date (e.g., those featuring curved crystal habits), as opposed to the typical polyhedral microcrystals obtained under bulk crystallization conditions. Such unique nonequilibrium morphologies arise from the interplay between the diffusion-controlled supply of precursors in simulated microgravity environments and the physical constraints imposed during crystal growth. In fact, our method mimics two main strategies of morphogenesis in biomineralization, i.e., spatial and morphological control, both being largely unexplored in the field of self-assembled functional materials. The presented results may open new opportunities to study and understand fundamental questions of relevance to materials science, such as how the size and shape of artificial crystals can influence their properties and functions while providing a strategy to tailor the size and shape of peptide-based MOF single crystals to specific applications.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172557

RESUMO

Reticular chemistry has boosted the design of thousands of metal and covalent organic frameworks for unlimited chemical compositions, structures, and sizable porosities. The ability to generate porous materials at will on the basis of geometrical design concepts is responsible for the rapid growth of the field and the increasing number of applications derived. Despite their promising features, the synthesis of targeted homo- and heterometallic titanium-organic frameworks amenable to these principles is relentlessly limited by the high reactivity of this metal in solution that impedes the controlled assembly of titanium molecular clusters. We describe an unprecedented methodology for the synthesis of heterometallic titanium frameworks by metal-exchange reactions of MOF crystals at temperatures below those conventionally used in solvothermal synthesis. The combination of hard (titanium) and soft (calcium) metals in the heterometallic nodes of MUV-10(Ca) enables controlled metal exchange in soft positions for the generation of heterometallic secondary building units (SBUs) with variable nuclearity, controlled by the metal incorporated. The structural information encoded in the newly formed SBUs drives an MOF-to-MOF conversion into bipartite nets compatible with the connectivity of the organic linker originally present in the crystal. Our simulations show that this transformation has a thermodynamic origin and is controlled by the terminations of the (111) surfaces of the crystal. The reaction of MUV-10(Ca) with first-row transition metals permits the production of crystals of MUV-101(Fe,Co,Ni,Zn) and MUV-102(Cu), heterometallic titanium MOFs isostructural with archetypical solids such as MIL-100 and HKUST. In comparison to de novo synthesis, this metal-induced topological transformation provides control over the formation of hierarchical micro-/mesopore structures at different reaction times and enables the formation of heterometallic titanium MOFs not accessible under solvothermal conditions at high temperature, thus opening the door for the isolation of additional titanium heterometallic phases not linked exclusively to trimesate linkers.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(9): 3362-3368, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195588

RESUMO

A novel gas sensing mechanism exploiting lanthanide luminescence modulation upon NO2 adsorption is demonstrated here. Two isostructural lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are used, including an amino group as the sensitive recognition center for NO2 molecules. The transfer of energy from the organic ligands to Ln is strongly dependent on the presence of NO2, resulting in an unprecedented photoluminescent sensing scheme. Thereby, NO2 exposition triggers either a reversible enhancement or a decrease in the luminescence intensity, depending on the lanthanide ion (Eu or Tb). Our experimental studies combined with density functional theory and complete active space self-consistent field calculations provide an understanding of the nature and effects of NO2 interactions within the MOFs and the signal transduction mechanism.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(36): 14403-14410, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478367

RESUMO

A high degree of crystallinity is an essential aspect in two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks, as many properties depend strongly on the structural arrangement of the different layers and their constituents. We introduce herein a new design strategy based on core-twisted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as rigid nodes that give rise to a two-dimensional covalent organic framework with a wavy honeycomb (chairlike) lattice. The concave-convex self-complementarity of the wavy two-dimensional lattice guides the stacking of framework layers into a highly stable and ordered covalent organic framework that allows a full 3D analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealing its chairlike honeycomb facets and aligned mesoporous channels. Remarkably, the waviness of the framework does not disrupt the interlayer π-π stacking that shows charge transporting properties similar to those of planar covalent organic frameworks. The implementation of core-twisted aromatics as building blocks for covalent organic frameworks brings new possibilities in the design of highly ordered organic materials.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(36): 14306-14316, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426632

RESUMO

Selective separation of enantiomers is a substantial challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. Chromatography on chiral stationary phases is the standard method, but at a very high cost for industrial-scale purification due to the high cost of the chiral stationary phases. Typically, these materials are poorly robust, expensive to manufacture, and often too specific for a single desired substrate, lacking desirable versatility across different chiral analytes. Here, we disclose a porous, robust homochiral metal-organic framework (MOF), TAMOF-1, built from copper(II) and an affordable linker prepared from natural l-histidine. TAMOF-1 has shown to be able to separate a variety of model racemic mixtures, including drugs, in a wide range of solvents of different polarity, outperforming several commercial chiral columns for HPLC separations. Although not exploited in the present article, it is worthy to mention that the preparation of this new material is scalable to the multikilogram scale, opening unprecedented possibilities for low-energy chiral separation at the industrial scale.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(33): 13124-13133, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319033

RESUMO

The chemistry of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) relies on the controlled linking of organic molecules and inorganic secondary building units to assemble an unlimited number of reticular frameworks. However, the design of porous solids with chemical stability still remains limited to carboxylate or azolate groups. There is a timely opportunity to develop new synthetic platforms that make use of unexplored metal binding groups to produce metal-linker joints with hydrolytic stability. Living organisms use siderophores (iron carriers in Greek) to effectively assimilate iron in soluble form. These compounds make use of hard oxo donors as hydroxamate or catecholate groups to coordinate metal Lewis acids such as iron, aluminum, or titanium to form metal complexes very stable in water. Inspired by the chemistry of these microorganisms, we report the first hydroxamate MOF prepared by direct synthesis. MUV-11 (MUV = materials of Universidad de Valencia) is a crystalline, porous material (close to 800 m2·g-1) that combines photoactivity with good chemical stability in acid conditions. By using a high-throughput approach, we also demonstrate that this new chemistry is compatible with the formation of single-crystalline phases for multiple titanium salts, thus expanding the scope of accessible precursors. Titanium frameworks are regarded as promising materials for photocatalytic applications. Our photoelectrochemical and catalytic tests suggest important differences for MUV-11. Compared to other Ti-MOFs, changes in the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity have been rationalized with computational modeling, revealing how the chemistry of siderophores can introduce changes to the electronic structure of the frontier orbitals, relevant to the photocatalytic activity of these solids.

9.
Chem Sci ; 10(14): 4082-4088, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049190

RESUMO

Enzymatic catalysis is of great importance to the chemical industry. However, we are still scratching the surface of the potential of biocatalysis due to the limited operating range of enzymes in harsh environments or their low recyclability. The role of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as active supports to help overcome these limitations, mainly by immobilization and stabilization of enzymes, is rapidly expanding. Here we make use of mild heating and a non-polar medium during incubation to induce the translocation of a small enzyme like protease in the mesoporous MOF MIL-101(Al)-NH2. Our proteolytic tests demonstrate that protease@MIL-101(Al)-NH2 displays higher activity than the free enzyme under all the conditions explored and, more importantly, its usability can be extended to extreme conditions of pH and high temperatures. MOF immobilization is also effective in providing the biocomposite with long-term stability, recyclability and excellent compatibility with competing enzymes. This simple, one-step infiltration strategy might accelerate the discovery of new MOF-enzyme biocatalysts that meet the requirements for biotechnological applications.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(27): 9179-9183, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050125

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks can be used as porous templates to exert control over polymerization reactions. Shown here are the possibilities offered by these crystalline, porous nanoreactors to capture highly-reactive intermediates for a better understanding of the mechanism of polymerization reactions. By using a cyclodextrin framework the polymerization of pyrrole is restricted, capturing the formation of terpyrrole cationic intermediates. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction is used to provide definite information on the supramolecular interactions that induce the formation and stabilization of a conductive array of cationic complexes.

11.
Chem Sci ; 10(15): 4313-4321, 2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057758

RESUMO

Most developments in the chemistry and applications of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been made possible thanks to the value of reticular chemistry in guiding the unlimited combination of organic connectors and secondary building units (SBUs) into targeted architectures. However, the development of new titanium-frameworks still remains limited by the difficulties in controlling the formation of persistent Ti-SBUs with predetermined directionality amenable to the isoreticular approach. Here we report the synthesis of a mesoporous Ti-MOF displaying a MIL-100 topology. MIL-100(Ti) combines excellent chemical stability and mesoporosity, intrinsic to this archetypical family of porous materials, with photoactive Ti3(µ3-O) metal-oxo clusters. By using high-throughput synthetic methodologies, we have confirmed that the formation of this SBU is thermodynamically favored as it is not strictly dependent on the metal precursor of choice and can be regarded as an adequate building block to control the design of new Ti-MOF architectures. We are confident that the addition of a mesoporous solid to the small number of crystalline, porous titanium-frameworks available will be a valuable asset to accelerate the development of new porous photocatalysts without the pore size limitations currently imposed by the microporous materials available.

12.
Chem Sci ; 10(14): 4038-4047, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015944

RESUMO

Mastering the nanostructuration of molecular materials onto solid surfaces and understanding how this process affects their properties are of utmost importance for their integration into solid-state electronic devices. This is even more important for spin crossover (SCO) systems, in which the spin transition is extremely sensitive to size reduction effects. These bi-stable materials have great potential for the development of nanotechnological applications provided their intrinsic properties can be successfully implemented in nanometric films, amenable to the fabrication of functional nanodevices. Here we report the fabrication of crystalline ultrathin films (<1-43 nm) of two-dimensional Hofmann-type coordination polymers by using an improved layer-by-layer strategy and a close examination of their SCO properties at the nanoscale. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data in combination with extensive atomic force microscopy analysis reveal critical dependence of the SCO transition on the number of layers and the microstructure of the films. This originates from the formation of segregated nanocrystals in early stages of the growth process that coalesce into a continuous film with an increasing number of growth cycles for an overall behaviour reminiscent of the bulk. As a result, the completeness of the high spin/low spin transition is dramatically hindered for films of less than 15 layers revealing serious limitations to the ultimate thickness that might be representative of the performance of the bulk when processing SCO materials as ultrathin films. This unprecedented exploration of the particularities of the growth of SCO thin films at the nanoscale should encourage researchers to put a spotlight on these issues when contemplating their integration into devices.

13.
Nanoscale ; 11(6): 2848-2854, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681119

RESUMO

The integrated analytical approach developed in this study offers a powerful methodology for the structural characterisation of complex molecular nanomaterials. Structures of a covalent organic framework based on boronate esters (COF-5) and a conjugated microporous polymer (Aza-CMP) have been investigated by a combination of several electron microscopy techniques elucidating the three-dimensional topology of the complex polycrystalline (COF) and non-crystalline (CMP) materials. Unexpected, aperiodic mesoporous channels of 20-50 nm in diameter were found to be penetrating the COF and CMP particles, which cannot be detected by X-ray diffraction techniques. The mesopores appear to be stable under a range of different conditions and accessible to gas molecules, exhibiting a particular bonding capability with CO2 in the case of the CMP. The mesoporosity is unrelated to the intrinsic chemical structures of the COF or CMP but rather it reflects the mechanisms of polymer particle formation in a polycondensation reaction. The mesopores may be templated by clusters of solvent molecules during the COF or CMP synthesis, leaving cavities within the polymer particles. The unexpected mesoporosity discovered in COF and CMP materials begs for re-assessment of the nature of framework materials and may open new opportunities for applications of these molecular materials in gas sorption or catalysis.

14.
Dalton Trans ; 47(41): 14734-14740, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283944

RESUMO

Here we report the structural flexibility of a Dy-based single-ion magnet MOF in which its magnetic properties can be modified through a ligand substitution process involving an increase of the charge density of the coordination environment.

15.
J Vis Exp ; (139)2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247466

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous inorganic materials with promising properties in gas storage and separation, catalysis and sensing. However, the main issue limiting their applicability is their poor stability in humid conditions. The common methods to overcome this problem involve the formation of strong metal-linker bonds by using highly charged metals, which is limited to a number of structures, the introduction of alkylic groups to the framework by post-synthetic modification (PSM) or chemical vapour deposition (CVD) to enhance overall hydrophobicity of the framework. These last two usually provoke a drastic reduction of the porosity of the material. These strategies do not permit to exploit the properties of the MOF already available and it is imperative to find new methods to enhance the stability of MOFs in water while keeping their properties intact. Herein, we report a novel method to enhance the water stability of MOF crystals featuring Cu2(O2C)4 paddle-wheel units, such as HKUST (where HKUST stands for Hong Kong University of Science & Technology), with the catechols functionalized with alkyl and fluoro-alkyl chains. By taking advantage of the unsaturated metal sites and the catalytic catecholase-like activity of CuII ions, we are able to create robust hydrophobic coatings through the oxidation and subsequent polymerization of the catechol units on the surface of the crystals under anaerobic and water-free conditions without disrupting the underlying structure of the framework. This approach not only affords the material with improved water stability but also provides control over the function of the protective coating, which enables the development of functional coatings for the adsorption and separations of volatile organic compounds. We are confident that this approach could also be extended to other unstable MOFs featuring open metal sites.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Adsorção , Catálise , Oxirredução , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Água/química
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(46): 15086-15090, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238608

RESUMO

Conductive metal-organic frameworks are opening new perspectives for the use of these porous materials for applications traditionally limited to more classical inorganic materials, such as their integration into electronic devices. This has enabled the development of chemiresistive sensors capable of transducing the presence of specific guests into an electrical response with good selectivity and sensitivity. By combining experimental data with computational modelling, a possible origin for the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon in ultrathin films (ca. 30 nm) of Cu-CAT-1 is described.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(28): 8453-8457, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873868

RESUMO

We report a new family of titanium-organic frameworks that enlarges the limited number of crystalline, porous materials available for this metal. They are chemically robust and can be prepared as single crystals at multi-gram scale from multiple precursors. Their heterometallic structure enables engineering of their photoactivity by metal doping rather than by linker functionalization. Compared to other methodologies based on the post-synthetic metallation of MOFs, our approach is well-fitted for controlling the positioning of dopants at an atomic level to gain more precise control over the band-gap and electronic properties of the porous solid. Changes in the band-gap are also rationalized with computational modelling and experimentally confirmed by photocatalytic H2 production.

18.
Dalton Trans ; 47(31): 10654-10659, 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850707

RESUMO

We investigate the structural response of a dense peptide metal-organic framework using in situ powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction under high-pressures. Crystals of Zn(GlyTyr)2 show a reversible compression by 13% in volume at 4 GPa that is facilitated by the ability of the peptidic linker to act as a flexible string for a cooperative response of the structure to strain. This structural transformation is controlled by changes to the conformation of the peptide, which enables a bond rearrangement in the coordination sphere of the metal and changes to the strength and directionality of the supramolecular interactions specific to the side chain groups in the dipeptide sequence. Compared to other structural transformations in Zn(ii) peptide MOFs, this behaviour is not affected by host/guest interactions and relies exclusively on the conformational flexibility of the peptide and its side chain chemistry.

19.
Adv Mater ; 30(10)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341257

RESUMO

Though generally considered insulating, recent progress on the discovery of conductive porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offers new opportunities for their integration as electroactive components in electronic devices. Compared to classical semiconductors, these metal-organic hybrids combine the crystallinity of inorganic materials with easier chemical functionalization and processability. Still, future development depends on the ability to produce high-quality films with fine control over their orientation, crystallinity, homogeneity, and thickness. Here self-assembled monolayer substrate modification and bottom-up techniques are used to produce preferentially oriented, ultrathin, conductive films of Cu-CAT-1. The approach permits to fabricate and study the electrical response of MOF-based devices incorporating the thinnest MOF film reported thus far (10 nm thick).

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(51): 44641-44648, 2017 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182857

RESUMO

Robust catechol coatings for enhanced moisture tolerance were produced in one step by direct reaction of Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) with synthetic catechols. We ascribe the rapid formation of homogeneous coatings around the metal-organic framework particles to the biomimetic catalytic activity of Cu(II) dimers in the external surface of the crystals. Use of fluorinated catechols results in hydrophobic, permeable coatings that protect HKUST from water degradation while retaining close to 100% of its original sorption capacity.

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