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1.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 19(7): 679-683, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30095373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is extensive evidence of the efficacy of anti-microbial drugs in preventing infections from surgical efforts. Our objective was to describe the results obtained in our annual surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) audit in the years 2013-2017. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of SAP in surgical procedures carried out between 2013 and 2017 in a tertiary-level hospital. We examined the results from the services of general surgery, vascular surgery, neurosurgery, the breast unit, otolaryngology, maxillofacial surgery, traumatology, urology, pediatric surgery, gynecology, and plastic surgery. RESULTS: Establishment of six process quality indicators and their evaluation in the annual audit were carried out by the pharmacy service for approximately 500 operations. The indicators that had a high percentage of compliance were indication for SAP, choice of anti-microbial agent, dose and route of administration, and administration of an intra-operative dose when this was appropriate. In contrast, time of administration of the first dose and duration of prophylaxis had a worse percentage of compliance. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance with the SAP protocols in our hospital is high. We consider that these better results are attributable to the establishment of quality indicators of SAP and to the annual audit that evaluates said indicators. Communication of the results obtained in the audit to the surgical services, which have as part of their objectives included in their management contracts compliance with said SAP protocols, encourages improvement. The use of prophylaxis kits is an improvement strategy that facilitates the correct choice of anti-microbial agent and prevents SAP from being prolonged inappropriately.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Auditoria Médica/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/normas , Humanos , Auditoria Médica/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054222

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to collect retrospective data on the prescription of clopidogrel, describe the conditions of its use in the paediatric population of a tertiary referral hospital, and evaluate its use based on the current scientific evidence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational and descriptive study between March 2010 and March 2017. We included all patients under the age of 18 who were discharged from our hospital for home treatment with clopidogrel within the study period. We collected data on the following: demographic data, diagnosis, indication for clopidogrel, start and end date of treatment, presence or absence of concomitant treatment with acetylsalicylic acid or other antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, concomitant treatment with proton pump inhibitors, effectiveness, and adverse effects. RESULTS: The study included a total of 11 patients (45% male). The mean age was 3.1 years (range, 1 month-8 years). The prescribed dose of clopidogrel was 0.2mg/kg/day in all patients, and 10/11 patients received concomitant treatment with acetylsalicylic acid with the purpose of optimising antiplatelet therapy. None of the children received concomitant treatment with anticoagulants, and only one of them received treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. We did not find evidence of haemorrhagic complications or other adverse effects associated with clopidogrel. CONCLUSION: Based on our experience, a clopidogrel dose of 0.2mg/kg/day is a safe and effective treatment, regardless of the patient's age. The good tolerance observed in our study could be related to the adjustment of the optimal dose with the aim of achieving platelet aggregation without increasing the risk of adverse effects.

3.
Compr Psychiatry ; 81: 28-32, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of coronary vascular disease event (CVDE) and the prevalence metabolic syndrome (MS) and its cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in patients with severe mental illnesses enrolled in an assertive treatment community program (ATC) in Spain. METHOD: We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study with all of the patients included in an ATC program in 2016 in a health area with 547,328 inhabitants in Galicia, Spain. We identified the CVRF in all the individuals, and calculated MS and 10-year CVDE. We also compared the prevalence of all traits in our cohort and the general population. RESULTS: The 10-year median of coronary vascular disease event (CVDE10) was 8.4%. The percentage of individuals with high CVDE10 (>5%) was 41.2% The CVDE10 median was higher in men than women (10.5% vs 5.1%, p<0.001). MS was detected in 50% of patients without differences between men and women (51.2% vs 48.2%). A prevalence of 68% was found for smoking, 55% for dyslipidemia, 47% for obesity, 29% for impaired glucose metabolism, and 38% for hypertension. Women showed a higher prevalence of obesity measured by elevated waist circumference (88.9% vs 55.6%, p=0.003). Men showed a higher prevalence of arterial hypertension (46.6% vs 22.2%, p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The SMD Patients enrolled in ATC programs had a 1.5-times higher prevalence of MS and 8 times higher CVDE10 than those reported in the general population. Individual CVRF were also higher in the SMD patients. Prevention, early detection, and comprehensive treatment are important issues for patients with severe mental illnesses.

4.
Ars pharm ; 58(2): 67-73, 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-165310

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar el grado de cumplimiento del ‘Protocolo de Utilización de Cloruro potásico’ implantado en nuestro hospital, mediante la realización de auditorías periódicas presenciales, durante el periodo 2013-2016. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de las auditorías realizadas a los 6 meses post-implantación (principios de 2013), y después cada año (2014-2016). Los indicadores de evaluación se establecen siguiendo las recomendaciones recogidas en el Protocolo y se refieren al almacenamiento, prescripción, preparación y administración de soluciones de potasio. Las unidades asistenciales evaluadas son: unidades autorizadas (almacenamiento y doble chequeo en la preparación y antes de la administración) y en todas las unidades de críticos y urgencias clínicas (prescripción y etiquetado correcto para su administración). Resultados: Se audita un total de 55 unidades asistenciales, que han mostrado un 100% de cumplimiento para los indicadores referentes a prescripción y etiquetado correcto. De dichas unidades, 12 (críticos y urgencias) están autorizadas para disponer de ampollas de cloruro potásico 1M. En estas 12, no se obtuvo un cumplimiento correcto de los otros dos indicadores, debido a que una no realizó su almacenamiento de forma adecuada (2014) y, en otras tampoco se cumplimentó el registro de doble chequeo (3 en 2013, 1 en 2014 y 2015). Conclusión: Las auditorías mostraron el correcto seguimiento de dicho Protocolo para la mayoría de los criterios evaluados, si bien, ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de realizar estrategias periódicas de intensificación y recuerdo para garantizar el adecuado cumplimiento de todas las recomendaciones establecidas (AU)


Objective: To analyze the degree of compliance with the ‘Guidelines for the safe use of potassium chloride’ implemented in our hospital, using periodic audits, during the period 2013-2016. Methods: Descriptive study of the audits carried out at 6 months post-implementation (beginning of 2013) and then every year (2014-2016). The evaluation indicators were developed following the recommendations included in the Guidelines and referred to storage, prescription, preparation and administration of potassium solutions. The patient care units evaluated are: critical care authorized units (storage and independent double checks during preparation of solutions and before its administration) and all patient care units (prescription and correct labeling for its correct administration). Results: There were audited 55 patient care units, which showed a compliance of 100% for the prescription and correct labeling indicators. Of those units, 12 (critical and emergency units) are authorized to have concentrated potassium chloride ampoules 1M. These 12 units did not have a correct compliance with the other two indicators, because one unit did not show a correct storage (in 2014) and the double check required was not verified by 3 units in 2013, one in 2014 and 2015. Conclusion: The audits showed the correct follow-up with the Guidelines for most of the evaluated criteria, however demonstrated the need to carry out periodic strategies of intensification and remembrance to guarantee the correct compliance of all the established recommendations (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Cloreto de Potássio/administração & dosagem , Uso de Medicamentos/normas , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Auditoria Clínica/métodos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Tratamento Farmacológico/normas , Composição de Medicamentos/normas
5.
Farm. hosp ; 40(3): 141-149, mayo-jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-152836

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the level of adherence to treatment with imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and its association with therapeutic response. Materials and methods: Study conducted on October, 2013 – March, 2014, including patients diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia on treatment with imatinib in the hospital. Therapeutic adherence was assessed through the standard Morisky-Green Questionnaire and the medication dispensing record. Those patients who did not complete 6 months of treatment and/or did not complete the questionnaire were excluded. Therapeutic response was assessed following clinical guidelines. The descriptive analysis of variables and correlation was conducted through Pearsons’s Chi-Square Test. Results: The study included 31 patients. When assessing the level of association between response variables and therapeutic adherence: 1. The highest molecular response was reached by 68.4% of those patients with high adherence, and by 75% of those patients with intermediate adherence. 2. Complete molecular response was achieved by 57.9% of patients with high adherence, and by 58.3% of patients with intermediate adherence. No statistically significant differences were found in response variables between patients with high and intermediate therapeutic adherence. No association was observed between level of adherence and therapeutic response. Conclusions: We cannot confirm that a different level of therapeutic adherence might have an impact on response to imatinib, though this should be taken into account in cases of therapeutic failure or sub-optimal response (AU)


Objetivo: El objetivo es evaluar el grado de adhesión terapéutica a imatinib en pacientes con leucemia mieloide crónica y su relación con la respuesta terapéutica. Material y métodos: Estudio realizado en octubre 2013-marzo 2014 que incluye a pacientes diagnosticados de leucemia mieloide crónica en tratamiento con imatinib en el hospital. Se evaluó la adhesión terapéutica mediante el cuestionario estandarizado Morisky-Green y el registro de dispensaciones de medicación. Se excluyeron aquellos que no completaron 6 meses de tratamiento y/o no realizaron el cuestionario. La respuesta terapéutica se evaluó siguiendo guías clínicas. Se realizó el análisis descriptivo de variables y correlación mediante test Chi-cuadrado de Pearson. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 pacientes. Al evaluar el grado de asociación entre variables de respuesta y adhesión terapéutica: 1. La respuesta molecular mayor fue alcanzada por el 68,4% de los pacientes con alta adhesión y por el 75% de los pacientes con adhesión media. 2. La respuesta molecular completa fue alcanzada por el 57,9% de los pacientes con alta adhesión y por el 58,3% de los pacientes con adhesión media. No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las variables de respuesta entre pacientes con adhesión terapéutica alta y media. No se observó asociación entre el grado de adhesión y la respuesta terapéutica. Conclusiones: No podemos afirmar que el distinto grado de adhesión terapéutica influya en la respuesta al imatinib, aunque debería considerarse en casos de fallo terapéutico o respuesta subóptima (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacocinética , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Farm Hosp ; 40(3): 141-9, 2016 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27145384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of adherence to treatment with imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and its association with therapeutic response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study conducted on October, 2013 - March, 2014, including patients diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia on treatment with imatinib in the hospital. Therapeutic adherence was assessed through the standard Morisky-Green Questionnaire and the medication dispensing record. Those patients who did not complete 6 months of treatment and/or did not complete the questionnaire were excluded. Therapeutic response was assessed following clinical guidelines. The descriptive analysis of variables and correlation was conducted through Pearsons's Chi-Square Test. RESULTS: The study included 31 patients. When assessing the level of association between response variables and therapeutic adherence: 1. The highest molecular response was reached by 68.4% of those patients with high adherence, and by 75% of those patients with intermediate adherence. 2. Complete molecular response was achieved by 57.9% of patients with high adherence, and by 58.3% of patients with intermediate adherence. No statistically significant differences were found in response variables between patients with high and intermediate therapeutic adherence. No association was observed between level of adherence and therapeutic response. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot confirm that a different level of therapeutic adherence might have an impact on response to imatinib, though this should be taken into account in cases of therapeutic failure or sub-optimal response.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ther Drug Monit ; 38(3): 305-12, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the impact of voriconazole administration on everolimus dose, trough concentrations and concentration/dose (C0/D) ratio in order to determine the appropriate management of this interaction in lung transplant patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of 16 of consecutive lung transplant patients on a stable everolimus-based regimen to which oral voriconazole was added from January 2013 to February 2014. Everolimus blood levels were measured using the Thermo Scientific QMS Everolimus Immunoassay on an ARCHITECT-C8000 analyzer. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess the exposure parameter variations before, during, and after azole withdrawal. A statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19.0. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included. Voriconazole treatment led to a significant 8.7-fold increase in the everolimus C0/D ratio. Although initially the daily dose was reduced to 48.5% ± 20.5%, and subsequently to 79.5% ± 7.1%, the desired therapeutic levels were achieved in all patients when it was decreased to 86.6% ± 3.9%. After its withdrawal, the C0/D ratio returned to values similar to the baseline situation. The comparison of exposure parameters studied at stable moments, before and after the completion of azole treatment with the cotreatment period, revealed significant changes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Oral voriconazole is a strong inhibitor of everolimus metabolism, requiring a dose reduction of around 87%. At the time of azole withdrawal, the dose should be increased to achieve C0/D ratio values similar to the initial situation. In our clinical practice, for a safe coadministration, a preemptive decrease to 75% of everolimus dose with the first azole prescription is recommended. Close monitoring of the everolimus concentrations and corresponding dosage adjustments are necessary until the target levels are achieved during both periods.


Assuntos
Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Pulmão , Voriconazol/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações de Medicamentos , Everolimo/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Voriconazol/farmacologia
8.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 36(5): 1038-41, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25608697

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe the off-label conditions of use for levosimendan in the paediatric population of a tertiary referral hospital. This is a retrospective observational study conducted between January 2007 and January 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 100 % of paediatric patients who received intravenous perfusions of levosimendan during the study period. The following data were gathered: age, sex, diagnosis, dose administered, duration and date of the perfusion, number of perfusions per patient, previous inotropic and concomitant treatment, side effects and survival. A total of 32 patients were included in the study (56 % male). The mean age at the moment of administration was 4 months (range 2 days-15 years). During the study period, a total of 70 infusions were recorded. Fifteen of the 32 patients (46.9 %) received repeat doses, with a mean interval between doses of 8 days (range 3-37 days). The doses used were between 0.05 and 0.2 mcg/kg/min. Loading doses were not used in any cases. At the moment of receiving the infusion, all of the patients were receiving conventional treatment without any response, including inotropic support in 88 % of the cases. The administration of levosimendan was only suspended in one case due to the appearance of severe hypotension. In the rest of the administrations, it was well tolerated, without registering any severe side effect during the infusion process. Levosimendan proved to be a safe, effective strategy in our paediatric population. The good tolerance observed may be related to the absence of an initial bolus or loading dose.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrazonas/administração & dosagem , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazonas/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Simendana , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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