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1.
Ann Hematol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076827

RESUMO

Lymphomas are a large, heterogeneous group of neoplasms with well-defined characteristics, and this heterogeneity highlights the importance of epidemiological data. Knowledge of local epidemiology is essential to optimise resources, design clinical trials, and identify minority entities. Given there are few published epidemiological data on lymphoma in Spain, the Spanish Lymphoma and Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant Group created the RELINF project. The aim of this project is to determine the frequencies and distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in Spain and to analyse survival. We developed an online platform for the prospective collection of data on newly diagnosed cases of lymphoma in Spain between January 2014 and July 2018; 11,400 patients were registered. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) were the most frequent lymphomas in our series. Marginal B cell lymphoma frequency was higher than that reported in other studies, representing more than 11% of mature B cell lymphomas. Peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) was the most common subtype of T cell lymphoma, and NK/T cell lymphomas were more frequent than expected (5.4% of total). Hodgkin's lymphoma accounted for 12% of lymphoproliferative syndromes. Overall survival was greater than 90% at 2 years for indolent B cell lymphomas, and approximately 60% for DLBCL, somewhat lower than that previously reported. Survival was poor for PTCL-NOS and angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma, as expected; however, it was somewhat better than that in other studies for anaplastic large cell anaplastic lymphoma kinase lymphomas. This is the first prospective registry to report the frequencies, distribution, and survival of lymphomas in Spain. The frequencies and survival data we report here are globally consistent with that reported in other Western countries. These updated frequencies and survival statistics are necessary for developing appropriate management strategies for neoplasias in the Spanish population.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085520

RESUMO

The biology and clinical impact of bone marrow (BM) infiltration in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unclear in the rituximab era. We retrospectively analyzed 232 patients diagnosed with DLBCL at our center between 1999 and 2014. Concordant-presence of large cells similar to those of the lymph node biopsy- and discordant-infiltration by small cells forming lymphoid aggregates, lacking cytological atypia-BM infiltration was defined by histological criteria and further characterized by flow cytometry (FCM). Cell of origin (COO) was determined using Hans' algorithm. For the clonal relationship between tumor and discordant BM, the VDJH rearrangement was analyzed. Survival analyses were restricted to 189 patients treated with rituximab and chemotherapy. Thirty-six (16%) had concordant, and 37 (16%) discordant BM infiltration. FCM described different indolent lymphomas among discordant cases, clonally related with DLBCL in 10/13 available samples. Median follow-up was 58 months. 5-year-progression-free survival (PFS) for non-infiltrated, discordant and concordant groups was 68%, 65% and 30%, respectively (p < 0.001). Combining COO and BM infiltration, patients with discordant BM and non-germinal center B-cell COO also had decreased 5-year-PFS (41.9%). In multivariate analysis, concordant BM had an independent effect on PFS (HR 2.5, p = 0.01). Five-year cumulative incidence of central nervous system (CNS) relapse was 21%, 4% and 1% in concordant, discordant and non-infiltrated groups, respectively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, concordant BM infiltration represents a subset with poor prognosis, whereas the prognostic impact of discordant BM infiltration could be limited to non-CGB cases.

3.
Neurochem Res ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981059

RESUMO

Information processing is onerous. Curiously, active brain tissue does not fully oxidize glucose and instead generates a local surplus of lactate, a phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. Why engage in inefficient ATP production by glycolysis when energy demand is highest and oxygen is plentiful? Aerobic glycolysis is associated to classic biochemical effects known by the names of Pasteur, Warburg and Crabtree. Here we discuss these three interdependent phenomena in brain cells, in light of high-resolution data of neuronal and astrocytic metabolism in culture, tissue slices and in vivo, acquired with genetically-encoded fluorescent sensors. These sensors are synthetic proteins that can be targeted to specific cell types and subcellular compartments, which change their fluorescence in response to variations in metabolite concentration. A major site of acute aerobic glycolysis is the astrocyte. In this cell, a Crabtree effect triggered by K+ coincides with a Warburg effect mediated by NO, superimposed on a slower longer-lasting Warburg effect caused by glutamate and possibly by NH4+. The compounded outcome is that more fuel (lactate) and more oxygen are made available to neurons, on demand. Meanwhile neurons consume both glucose and lactate, maintaining a strict balance between glycolysis and respiration, commanded by the Na+ pump. We conclude that activity-dependent Warburg and Crabtree effects in brain tissue, and the resulting aerobic glycolysis, do not reflect inefficient energy generation but the marshalling of astrocytes for the purpose of neuronal ATP generation. It remains to be seen whether neurons contribute to aerobic glycolysis under physiological conditions.

4.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(1): 19-22, 1 ene., 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET2-4199

RESUMO

Introducción: La tromboflebitis del seno cavernoso es una enfermedad infecciosa grave con alta mortalidad y morbilidad. Su diagnóstico suele ser tardío y requiere múltiples visitas a urgencias en la mayoría de casos, y el pronóstico es altamente dependiente de su rápido tratamiento. A pesar de su gravedad, la evidencia con respecto al tratamiento con corticoides y anticoagulación es escasa y controvertida. Entre sus complicaciones se encuentra la arteritis, la cual puede confundirse con una vasculitis de mediano-gran vaso, como en este caso. Caso clínico: Mujer de 26 años, que acude por una cefalea y un edema palpebral izquierdo. En las pruebas de imagen se evidencia trombosis del seno cavernoso izquierdo y una estrechez importante de la arteria carótida interna. Se interpreta el cuadro como secundario a un proceso vascular inflamatorio y se inician corticoides, con buena respuesta. Sin embargo, al poco tiempo se presenta fiebre y edema palpebral contralateral. En los hemocultivos se obtiene un crecimiento de Streptococcus intermedius y se diagnostica una tromboflebitis del seno cavernoso. A pesar del inicio de antibióticos y anticoagulación, sufre una hemiplejía derecha secundaria a la formación de abscesos frontotemporales. Se procede al drenaje quirúrgico y la paciente cursa con buena evolución. Ante la ausencia de otros focos infecciosos, y debido a la procedencia oral del germen, se realiza una exodoncia múltiple profiláctica. Conclusión: Se recomienda considerar la tromboflebitis como una opción diagnóstica tanto en las cefaleas con síntomas oculares como en la arteritis de mediano-gran vaso para su tratamiento oportuno


Introduction: Thrombophlebitis of the cavernous sinus is a severe infectious disease with high mortality and morbidity. It is usually diagnosed at a late stage and requires a number of visits to the emergency department in most cases, and the prognosis is highly dependent on prompt treatment. Despite its severity, evidence regarding treatment with corticosteroids and anticoagulation therapy is scarce and controversial. One of its complications is arteritis, which can be mistaken for medium to large vessel vasculitis, as in this case. Case Report: A 26-year-old female, who visited due to headache and left palpebral oedema. Imaging tests revealed thrombosis in the left cavernous sinus and significant narrowing of the internal carotid artery. The clinical picture was interpreted as secondary to an inflammatory vascular process and treatment with corticosteroids was initiated, with a good response. However, soon afterwards, fever and contralateral palpebral oedema developed. In the blood cultures a growth of Streptococcus intermedius was obtained and thrombophlebitis of the cavernous sinus was diagnosed. Despite initiating antibiotic and anticoagulation therapy, the patient suffered a right hemiplegia secondary to the formation of frontotemporal abscesses. Surgical drainage was performed and the patient progressed well. In the absence of other infectious foci, and due to the oral origin of the germ, a prophylactic multiple exodontia was performed. Conclusion: Thrombophlebitis should be considered as a diagnostic option both in headaches with ocular symptoms and in medium to large vessel arteritis so that they can be treated in a timely manner

5.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782146

RESUMO

The International Prognostic Index (IPI) is the most widely used score for non-Hodgkin lymphoma but lacks the ability to identify a high-risk population in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Low absolute lymphocyte count and high monocytes have proved to be unfavourable factors. Red-cell distribution width (RDW) has been associated with inflammation and beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) with tumour load. The retrospective study included 992 patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. In the multivariate analysis, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS), stage, bulky mass, B2M, RDW, and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) were independently related to progression-free survival (PFS). A new prognosis score was generated with these variables including age categorized into three groups (0, 1, 2 points); ECOG ≥ 3-4 with two; stage III/IV, bulky mass, high B2M, LMR < 2·25 and RDW > 0·96 with one each; for a maximum of 9. This score could improve the discrimination of a very high-risk subgroup with five-year PFS and overall survival (OS) of 19% and 24% versus 45% and 59% of R (revised)-IPI respectively. This score also showed greater predictive ability than IPI. A new score is presented including complete blood cell count variables and B2M, which are readily available in real-life practice without additional tests. Compared to R-IPI, it shows a more precise high-risk assessment and risk discrimination for both PFS and OS.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224527, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671132

RESUMO

Mitochondrial toxicity is a primary source of pre-clinical drug attrition, black box warning and post-market drug withdrawal. Methods that detect mitochondrial toxicity as early as possible during the drug development process are required. Here we introduce a new method for detecting mitochondrial toxicity based on MDA-MB-231 cells stably expressing the genetically encoded FRET lactate indicator, Laconic. The method takes advantage of the high cytosolic lactate accumulation observed during mitochondrial stress, regardless of the specific toxicity mechanism, explained by compensatory glycolytic activation. Using a standard multi-well plate reader, dose-response curve experiments allowed the sensitivity of the methodology to detect metabolic toxicity induced by classical mitochondrial toxicants. Suitability for high-throughput screening applications was evaluated resulting in a Z'-factor > 0.5 and CV% < 20 inter-assay variability. A pilot screening allowed sensitive detection of commercial drugs that were previously withdrawn from the market due to liver/cardiac toxicity issues, such as camptothecin, ciglitazone, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and terfenadine, in ten minutes. We envisage that the availability of this technology, based on a fluorescent genetically encoded indicator, will allow direct assessment of mitochondrial metabolism, and will make the early detection of mitochondrial toxicity in the drug development process possible, saving time and resources.

7.
J Biol Chem ; 294(52): 20135-20147, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719150

RESUMO

Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) is an H+-coupled symporter highly expressed in metastatic tumors and at inflammatory sites undergoing hypoxia or the Warburg effect. At these sites, extracellular lactate contributes to malignancy and immune response evasion. Intriguingly, at 30-40 mm, the reported Km of MCT4 for lactate is more than 1 order of magnitude higher than physiological or even pathological lactate levels. MCT4 is not thought to transport pyruvate. Here we have characterized cell lactate and pyruvate dynamics using the FRET sensors Laconic and Pyronic. Dominant MCT4 permeability was demonstrated in various cell types by pharmacological means and by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion. Respective Km values for lactate uptake were 1.7, 1.2, and 0.7 mm in MDA-MB-231 cells, macrophages, and HEK293 cells expressing recombinant MCT4. In MDA-MB-231 cells MCT4 exhibited a Km for pyruvate of 4.2 mm, as opposed to >150 mm reported previously. Parallel assays with the pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) indicated that previous Km estimates based on substrate-induced acidification were severely biased by confounding pH-regulatory mechanisms. Numerical simulation using revised kinetic parameters revealed that MCT4, but not the related transporters MCT1 and MCT2, endows cells with the ability to export lactate in high-lactate microenvironments. In conclusion, MCT4 is a high-affinity lactate transporter with physiologically relevant affinity for pyruvate.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 72(3): 677-681, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640101

RESUMO

Hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathies (CAA) are rare disorders of early onset and severe course. We describe a 47-year-old patient with Iowa-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) mutation-related hereditary CAA that manifested with concomitant lobar hemorrhage and venous sinus thrombosis. To analyze the cerebral amyloid-ß burden, an amyloid-PET was performed, demonstrating low cortical retention except for the calcarine cortex. High amyloid retention was also found in the thalamus and pallidum. The co-occurrence of CAA and venous thrombosis has not been previously reported in Iowa CAA and its mechanism is yet to be elucidated. Low cortical florbetapir-PET uptake does not rule out CAA in young patients, who may benefit from genetic testing to reach diagnosis when suspicion is strong.

9.
Ecol Evol ; 9(18): 10734-10745, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624577

RESUMO

Social monogamy has evolved multiple times and is particularly common in birds. However, it is not well understood why some species live in long-lasting monogamous partnerships while others change mates between breeding attempts. Here, we investigate mate fidelity in a sequential polygamous shorebird, the snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus), a species in which both males and females may have several breeding attempts within a breeding season with the same or different mates. Using 6 years of data from a well-monitored population in Bahía de Ceuta, Mexico, we investigated predictors and fitness implications of mate fidelity both within and between years. We show that in order to maximize reproductive success within a season, individuals divorce after successful nesting and re-mate with the same partner after nest failure. Therefore, divorced plovers, counterintuitively, achieve higher reproductive success than individuals that retain their mate. We also show that different mating decisions between sexes predict different breeding dispersal patterns. Taken together, our findings imply that divorce is an adaptive strategy to improve reproductive success in a stochastic environment. Understanding mate fidelity is important for the evolution of monogamy and polygamy, and these mating behaviors have implications for reproductive success and population productivity.

10.
Cancer Med ; 8(16): 6955-6966, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consensus is lacking regarding the optimal salvage therapy for patients with follicular lymphoma who relapse after or are refractory to immunochemotherapy. METHODS: This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of response-adapted therapy with rituximab, bendamustine, mitoxantrone, and dexamethasone (RBMD) in follicular lymphoma patients who relapsed after or were refractory to first-line immunochemotherapy. Sixty patients received three treatment cycles, and depending on their response received an additional one (complete/unconfirmed complete response) or three (partial response) cycles. Patients who responded to induction received rituximab maintenance therapy for 2 years. RESULTS: Thirty-three (55%) and 42 (70%) patients achieved complete/unconfirmed complete response after three cycles and on completing induction therapy (4-6 cycles), respectively (final overall response rate, 88.3%). Median progression-free survival was 56.4 months (median follow-up, 28.3 months; 95% CI, 15.6-51.2). Overall survival was not reached. Progression-free survival did not differ between patients who received four vs six cycles (P = .6665), nor between patients who did/did not receive rituximab maintenance after first-line therapy (P = .5790). Median progression-free survival in the 10 refractory patients was 25.5 months (95% CI, 0.6-N/A) and was longer in patients who had shown progression of disease after 24 months of first-line therapy (median, 56.4 months; 95% CI, 19.8-56.4) than in those who showed early progression (median, 42.31 months; 95% CI, 24.41-NA) (P = .4258). Thirty-six (60%) patients had grade 3/4 neutropenia. Grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia and infection were recorded during induction (4/60 [6.7%] and 5/60 [8.3%] patients, respectively) and maintenance (2/43 [4.5%] and 4/43 [9.1%] patients, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This response-adapted treatment with RBMD followed by rituximab maintenance is an effective and well-tolerated salvage treatment for relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma following first-line immunochemotherapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT01133158.

11.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 3(2)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is part of a group of connective tissue diseases that affect the synthesis and processing of collagen leading to alterations in the structure of many tissues and organs. CASE SUMMARY: Herein, we reported a case of a patient with prolapse of the four cardiac valves. Non-significant regurgitation of the mitral, aortic, and tricuspid valves was observed. The pulmonary regurgitation (PR) was considered significant. Dilatation of the right ventricle with preserved systolic function was also noted. A cardiac magnetic resonance confirmed the findings of the echocardiogram and determined a severe PR (regurgitant fraction of 41%). The physical examination revealed hyperlaxity of the joints, skin hyperelasticity, defects in wound healing, and abdominal hernias suggesting EDS. The stress test did not develop any symptoms or complex arrhythmias. In this patient, the heart team initially decided medical treatment and evolutionary control. At the moment, he remains asymptomatic. DISCUSSION: Valvular involvement in EDS is an infrequent event and the compromise of the four cardiac valves is exceptional. The existence of severe PR with a marked increase in ventricular volumes, even in the absence of symptoms, in most cases requires an intervention on the valve. However, in patients with EDS, there are a high rate of complications and interventions should be avoided as much as possible.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(31): 2815-2824, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339826

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The PRIMA study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00140582) established that 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line immunochemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with follicular lymphoma compared with observation. Here, we report the final PFS and overall survival (OS) results from the PRIMA study after 9 years of follow-up and provide a final overview of safety. METHODS: Patients (> 18 years of age) with previously untreated high-tumor-burden follicular lymphoma were nonrandomly assigned to receive one of three immunochemotherapy induction regimens. Responding patients were randomly assigned (stratified by induction regimen, response to induction treatment, treatment center, and geographic region) 1:1 to receive 2 years of rituximab maintenance (375 mg/m2, once every 8 weeks), starting 8 weeks after the last induction treatment, or observation (no additional treatment). All patients in the extended follow-up provided their written informed consent (data cutoff: December 31, 2016). RESULTS: In total, 1,018 patients completed induction treatment and were randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance (n = 505) or observation (n = 513). Consent for the extended follow-up was provided by 607 patients (59.6%) of 1,018 (rituximab maintenance, n = 309; observation, n = 298). After data cutoff, median PFS was 10.5 years in the rituximab maintenance arm compared with 4.1 years in the observation arm (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.73; P < .001). No OS difference was seen in patients randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance or observation (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40; P = .7948); 10-year OS estimates were approximately 80% in both study arms. No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSION: Rituximab maintenance after induction immunochemotherapy provides a significant long-term PFS, but not OS, benefit over observation.

14.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther ; 12(4): 194-203, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) with early therapy failure (ETF) within 2 years of frontline therapy have poor overall survival (OS). We recently reported the results of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients from the Grupo Español de Linfomas y Trasplantes de Médula Ósea (GELTAMO) registry treated with rituximab prior to ASCT and with ETF after first-line immunochemotherapy, leading to 81% 5-year OS since ASCT. We explored whether ASCT is also an effective option in the pre-rituximab era-that is, in patients treated in induction and rescued only with chemotherapy. METHODS: ETF was defined as relapse/progression within 2 years of starting first-line therapy. We identified two groups: the ETF cohort (n = 87) and the non-ETF cohort (n = 47 patients receiving ASCT but not experiencing ETF following first-line therapy). RESULTS: There was a significant difference in 5-year progression-free survival between the ETF and non-ETF cohorts (43% vs. 57%, respectively; p = .048). Nevertheless, in patients with ETF with an interval from first relapse after primary treatment to ASCT of <1 year, no differences were observed in 5-year progression-free survival (48% vs. 66%, respectively; p = .44) or in 5-year OS (69% vs. 77%, p = .4). Patients in the ETF cohort transplanted in complete remission showed a plateau in the OS curves, at 56%, beyond 13.7 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: ASCT may be a curative option for ETF in patients who respond to rescue chemotherapy, without the need for immunotherapy or other therapies, and should be considered as an early consolidation, especially in patients with difficult access to rituximab.

15.
J Arthroplasty ; 34(9): 2051-2057, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because the gold standard for the treatment of Vancouver type-B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFFs) is yet to be defined, we sought to analyze the complication rate between the impaction bone grafting (IBG) technique with a cemented stem and reconstruction with an uncemented distally-fixed modular stem (DFMS). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 54 B3 PFFs operated between 2000 and 2016, comparing the complication rate of 33 patients treated with the IBG technique (group A) with 21 patients treated with a DFMS (group B). Median follow-up of groups A and B were 75 months (interquartile range [IQR], 36-111 months) and 55 months (IQR, 32-73 months), respectively (P = .008). Median age of groups A and B were 78 years (IQR, 74-83 years) and 81 years (IQR, 74-86 years), respectively (P = .30). Median grade of Endo-Klink femoral bone defect was 3 (IQR, 3-3) for both groups (P = .11). We performed a multiple regression analysis to determine risk factors for complications including the following variables: age, initial diagnosis, and surgical technique. RESULTS: As for infection outcomes, 2-stage revision surgery was more frequent in group A than in group B (4 vs 0, P = .003). Group A presented more implant failures than group B (5 vs 1, P = .195). We found 4 dislocations in group B and 2 in group A (P = .192). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between surgical technique and complication rate (P = .01). The IBG technique presented an odds risk for complications of 4.77 (P = .016; IQR, 1.33-17.21). CONCLUSION: Femoral reconstruction with the IBG technique evidenced an ostensibly higher complication rate than that of DFMS for the treatment of B3 PFF.

16.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(7): 52, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209206

RESUMO

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a heterogeneous disease whose pathogenesis remains partially unknown. Around 20% of FL patients experience early progression or treatment-refractory disease and 2-3% of patients per year experience histological transformation (HT) into a more aggressive lymphoma (tFL). Here, we evaluate the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) gene usage and mutational status in 187 FL cases to assess its impact on clinical outcome and histological transformation. The IGHV gene repertoire was remarkably biased in FL. The IGHV4-34 (14%), IGHV3-23 (14%), IGHV3-48 (10%), IGHV3-30 (9%) and IGHV3-21 (7%) genes accounted for more than half of the whole cohort. IGHV3-48 was overrepresented in cases of tFL (19%) compared with non-transformed FL at 5 years (5%, P = 0.05). Patients with the IGHV3-48 gene were significantly more likely to have had HT after 10 years than those who used other genes (71% vs. 25%, P < 0.05), irrespective of the therapy they received. Moreover, IGHV3-30 was also overrepresented in cases of FL (9%) and tFL (13%) compared with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in which it was nearly absent. In conclusion, our results indicate a role for antigen selection in the development of FL, while the use of IGHV3-48 could help predict histological transformation.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211802

RESUMO

This research quantifies the bias caused in hospital productivity measurements when cost heterogeneity is not considered. A multi-output stochastic cost frontier under a normalised translog specification is used to approximate the structure of technology of a sample of public general hospitals in Spain during the period 2002-2009. To control for observable heterogeneity in costs, a set of variables related to hospital characteristics are included in the cost frontier specification (i.e., hospital complexity, degree of specialisation, availability of outpatient clinics, variety of high-technology equipment available, teaching activity and quality of care), whereas unobservable heterogeneity is accounted for by means of individual dummy variables. A measure of hospitals' cost efficiency is first obtained, and the analysis is then completed by measuring and decomposing the total factor productivity index (TFP-I) change. Findings reveal that controlling for heterogeneity decreases total productivity from an annual average rate of 0.028% to 1.330%, mainly driven by the negative contribution of the cost efficiency change component. Hence, a bias of 1.303 percentage points in the overall TFP-I is found as consequence of not controlling for heterogeneity. In addition to this, if heterogeneity factors are not accounted for, the mean cost efficiency index during the period analysed is 0.730, figure that increases up to 0.974 if heterogeneity is considered. Hence, the omission of heterogeneity leads to a bias of 24.4 percentage points in the mean cost efficiency. Therefore, not adjusting for heterogeneity in costs gives rise to distorted measurements of hospital productivity, as well as distortions in the contribution of each of its components, which may lead to the adoption of inadequate policies and decisions on resource allocation.

18.
Rev. bras. entomol ; 63(2): 108-111, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1045549

RESUMO

Abstract The Atlantic Forest of South America is one of the most degraded tropical forests and the cultivation of sugarcane is considered one of the main causes. In humid forests termites stand out with regard to their abundance and functional importance. The present study aimed to compare termite assemblages of fragments of the Atlantic Forest with that of the sugarcane matrices that surround them. Collections were performed in two sugarcane plantations in Northeast Brazil. In each plantation a fragment of Atlantic Forest and an adjacent sugarcane field were sampled using a standardized termite sampling protocol. A total of 39 species and 302 encounters were recorded. Species richness, relative abundance and composition differed significantly between forests and the matrices, with the presence of exclusive species in each environment—25 in the forests and seven in the matrices. Soil feeding species of the subfamily Apicotermitinae and species of open areas were found in the matrices. There was a marked difference between the assemblages of the matrices, possibly due to soil characteristics. The majority of the species found in the matrices do not cause damage to the crop, but instead act in the processes of soil decomposition and formation, thereby contributing to increased productivity.

20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(8): 2289-2294, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare antimicrobial susceptibility rates in a Spanish ICU before and after the introduction of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and also to compare these with susceptibility data from other Spanish ICUs without SDD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in the ICU of the University Hospital of Alava, where SDD was implemented in 2002. The SDD protocol consisted of a 2% mixture of gentamicin, colistin and amphotericin B applied on the buccal mucosa and a suspension of the same drugs in the gastrointestinal tract; additionally, for the first 3 days, systemic ceftriaxone was administered. From 1998 to 2013 we analysed the susceptibility rates for 48 antimicrobial/organism combinations. Interrupted time series using a linear dynamic model with SDD as an intervention was used. Data from other ICUs were obtained from the ENVIN-HELICS national registry. RESULTS: Only amoxicillin/clavulanic acid against Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis, and a high concentration of gentamicin against Enterococcus faecalis, resulted in a significant decrease in the susceptibility rate after the implementation of SDD, with a drop of 20%, 27% and 32%, respectively. Compared with other Spanish ICUs without SDD, the susceptibility rate was higher in the ICU of our hospital in most cases. When it was lower, differences were <10%, except for a high concentration of streptomycin against Enterococcus faecium, for which the difference was 19%. CONCLUSIONS: No relevant changes in the overall susceptibility rate after the implementation of SDD were detected. Susceptibility rates were not lower than those in the Spanish ICUs without SDD.

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