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1.
Ann Hematol ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989250

RESUMO

Azacitidine (AZA) is a DNA hypomethylation agent administered in myeloid neoplasms; however, there is still a lack of established predictors of response. We studied 113 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (n = 85) or acute myeloid leukemia (n = 28) who received AZA to assess the predictive value on response of clinical features, cytogenetics, and molecular markers. Overall, 46 patients (41%) responded to AZA. Platelet doubling after the first AZA cycle was associated with a better response (68% vs. 32% responders, P = 0.041). Co-occurrence of chromosome 7 abnormalities and 17p deletion was associated with a worse response (P = 0.039). Pre-treatment genetic mutations were detected in 98 patients (87%) and methylation of CDKN2B and DLC-1 promoters were detected in 50 (44%) and 37 patients (33%), respectively. Patients with SF3B1 mutations showed a better response to AZA (68% vs. 35% responders, P = 0.008). In contrast, subjects with mutations in transcription factors (RUNX1, SETBP1, NPM1) showed a worse response (20% vs. 47% responders, P = 0.014). DLC-1 methylation pre-treatment was associated with poor clinical features and its reduction post-treatment resulted in a better response to AZA in MDS patients (P = 0.037). In conclusion, we have identified several predictors of response to AZA that could help select the best candidates for this treatment.

2.
Acta Biomater ; 102: 458-467, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783141

RESUMO

Engineering of materials consisting of hypertrophic cartilage, as physiological template for de novo bone formation through endochondral ossification (ECO), holds promise as a new class of biological bone substitutes. Here, we assessed the efficiency and reproducibility of bone formation induced by the combination of ceramic granules with fractionated human adipose tissue ("nanofat"), followed by in vitro priming to hypertrophic cartilage. Human nanofat was mixed with different volumetric ratios of ceramic granules (0.2-1 mm) and cultured to sequentially induce proliferation (3 weeks), chondrogenesis (4 weeks), and hypertrophy (2 weeks). The resulting engineered constructs were implanted ectopically in nude mouse. The presence of ceramic granules regulated tissue formation, both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, their dispersion in nanofat at a ratio of 1:16 led to significantly increased cell number and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in vitro, as well as amount and inter-donor reproducibility of bone formation in vivo. Our findings outline a strategy for efficient utilization of nanofat for bone regeneration in an autologous setting, which should now be tested at an orthotopic site. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we assessed the efficiency and reproducibility of bone formation by a combination of ceramic granules and fractionated human adipose tissue, also known as nanofat, in vitro primed into hypertrophic cartilage. The resulting engineered cartilaginous constructs, when implanted ectopically in nude mouse, resulted in bone and bone marrow formation, more reproducibly and strongly that nanofat alone. This project evaluates the impact of ceramic granules on the functionality and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitors inside their native adipose tissue niche and outlines a novel strategy for an efficient application of nanofat for bone regeneration in an autologous setting.

3.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 17(1): 44-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532261

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes intramammary infections and bulk tank milk (BTM) contamination in dairy operations around the world in spite of on-farm application of preventive measures. The study was conducted on a 30-cow dairy farm in the Ñuble Region of Chile. For BTM culture and somatic cell count (SCC) analysis, three consecutive BTM samples were collected. Samples for bacterial culture (n = 16) were collected from macroscopic adherence on previously washed, sanitized, and dry milking equipment surfaces in direct contact with milk during milking or cooling. A total of 48 S. aureus isolates from BTM, milking equipment, and cows' quarters with intramammary infections were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Selected milking equipment pieces were removed for biofilm visualization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). S. aureus was isolated from all three BTM samples; the average SCC for the three BTM samples was 1,429,333 cells/mL. Fourteen of the 16 samples of milking equipment (87.5%) were culture positive for S. aureus. Biofilms were visualized by SEM in all four removed milking equipment pieces. Microorganisms observed by SEM in those biofilms were mainly coccus-shaped bacteria, and microbiological culture of these biofilms yielded viable S. aureus isolates in all samples. All pulsotypes observed among S. aureus isolates from BTM were indistinguishable from those in milking equipment surfaces. All PFGE pulsotypes observed among S. aureus isolates from biofilms on rubber liners were indistinguishable from isolates from intramammary infections in cows. Our findings suggest that milking equipment films may act as source of S. aureus contamination for BTM and cows during milking, thus compromising the microbiological quality of milk used for manufacturing dairy products.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Implantation of autologous chondrocytes for cartilage repair requires harvesting of undamaged cartilage, implying an additional joint arthroscopy surgery and further damage to the articular surface. As alternative possible cell sources, in this study we assessed the proliferation and chondrogenic capacity of debrided Knee Chondrocytes (dKC) and Nasal Chondrocytes (NC) collected from the same patients. METHODS: Matched NC and dKC pairs from 13 patients enrolled in two clinical studies (NCT01605201 and NCT026739059) were expanded in monolayer and then chondro-differentiated in 3D collagenous scaffolds in medium with or without Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGFß1). Cell proliferation and amount of cartilage matrix production by these two cell types were assessed. RESULTS: dKC exhibited an inferior proliferation rate than NC, and a lower capacity to chondro-differentiate. Resulting dKC-grafts contained lower amounts of cartilage specific matrix components glycosaminoglycans and type II collagen. The cartilage forming capacity of dKC did not significantly correlate with specific clinical parameters and was only partially improved by medium supplemention with TGFß1. CONCLUSIONS: dKC exhibit a reproducibly poor capacity to engineer cartilage grafts. Our in vitro data suggest that NC would be a better suitable cell source for the generation of autologous cartilage grafts.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731767

RESUMO

In this study, 34 Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) compounds were screened for potential anabolic and anti-inflammatory properties on human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes. The anabolic effects were assessed by measuring the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) relative to the DNA content using a 3D pellet culture model. The most chondrogenic compounds were tested in an inflammatory model consisting of 3 days of treatment with cytokines (IL-1ß/TNF-α) with or without supplementation of TCM compounds. The anti-inflammatory effects were assessed transcriptionally, biochemically and histologically. From the 34 compounds, Vanilic acid (VA), Epimedin A (Epi A) and C (Epi C), 2''-O-rhamnosylicariside II (2-O-rhs II), Icariin, Psoralidin (PS), Protocatechuicaldehyde (PCA), 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) showed the most profound anabolic effects. After induction of inflammation, pro-inflammatory and catabolic genes were upregulated, and GAG/DNA was decreased. VA, Epi C, PS, PCA, 4-HBA and 5-HMF exhibited anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory effects and prevented the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory markers including metalloproteinases and cyclooxygenase 2. After two weeks of treatment with TCM compounds, the GAG/DNA ratio was restored compared with the negative control group. Immunohistochemistry and Safranin-O staining confirmed superior amounts of cartilaginous matrix in treated pellets. In conclusion, VA, Epi C, PS, PCA, 4-HBA and 5-HMF showed promising anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616429

RESUMO

Extracellular matrices (ECMs) have emerged as promising off-the-shelf products to induce bone regeneration, with the capacity not only to activate osteoprogenitors, but also to influence the immune response. ECMs generated starting from living cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the potential to combine advantages of native tissue-derived ECMs (e.g., physiological presentation of multiple regulatory factors) with those of synthetic ECMs (e.g., customization and reproducibility of composition). MSC-derived ECMs could be tailored by enrichment not only in osteogenic cytokines, but also in immunomodulatory factors, to skew the innate immune response toward regenerative processes. After reviewing the different immunoregulatory properties of ECM components, here we propose different approaches to engineer ECMs enriched in factors capable to regulate macrophage polarization, recruit host immune and mesenchymal cells, and stimulate the synthesis of other immunoinstructive cytokines. Finally, we offer a perspective on the possible evolution of the paradigm based on biological and chemico-physical design considerations, and the use of gene editing approaches.

7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4757-4766, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Azacitidine (AZA) is a hypomethylating agent used in myeloid neoplasms, however, approximately half of patients show treatment failure or relapse. This in vitro study investigated the effect of the combination of AZA with the natural compound curcumin (CUR) in increasing its efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the effects of AZA plus CUR on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines (U-937, HL-60, K-562, and OCI-AML3) and bone marrow samples of patients. RESULTS: The results showed a synergy between AZA and CUR in all leukemic lines and in most leukemic samples, with a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis compared to the activity of each drug separately. In addition, AZA plus CUR showed low cytotoxicity in healthy samples. CONCLUSION: A remarkable antioncogenic effect of the combination of AZA plus CUR was shown, providing a basis for future studies analyzing the clinical efficacy of these drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
8.
Biomaterials ; 223: 119468, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505394

RESUMO

Exposure of cells to externally applied magnetic fields or to scaffolding materials with intrinsic magnetic properties (magnetic actuation) can regulate several biological responses. Here, we generated novel magnetized nanocomposite hydrogels by incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogels containing cells from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of human adipose tissue. We then investigated the effects of an external Static Magnetic Field (SMF) on the stimulation of osteoblastic and vasculogenic properties of the constructs, with MNPs or SMF alone used as controls. MNPs migrated freely through and out of the material following the magnetic gradient. Magnetically actuated cells displayed increased metabolic activity. After 1 week, the enzymatic activity of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), the expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2, Collagen I, Osterix), and the mineralized matrix deposition were all augmented as compared to controls. With magnetic actuation, strong activation of endothelial, pericytic and perivascular genes paralleled increased levels of VEGF and an enrichment in the CD31+ cells population. The stimulation of signaling pathways involved in the mechanotransduction, like MAPK8 or Erk, at gene and protein levels suggested an effect mediated through the mechanical stimulation. Upon subcutaneous implantation in mice, magnetically actuated constructs exhibited denser, more mineralized and faster vascularized tissues, as revealed by histological and micro-computed tomographic analyses. The present study suggests that magnetic actuation can stimulate both the osteoblastic and vasculogenic potentials of engineered bone tissue grafts, likely at least partially by mechanically stimulating the function of progenitor cells.

9.
Ann Plast Surg ; 83(4): 464-467, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524744

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In reconstructive surgery, fat volume augmentation is often necessary for esthetic or functional reasons. As an alternative to synthetic and xenogeneic materials, autologous fat grafting (AFG) based on liposuction is gaining popularity, yet successful transplantation and long-term volume maintenance are difficult. Standard tumescent solution formulations neglect adipocyte and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell survival during extraction, as well as SVF differentiation into adipocytes thereafter, all of which are crucial for the success of AFG. Here we hypothesized that addition of ascorbic acid (AA) to the tumescent solution could prevent liposuction-induced cell damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of 0.1 mmol/L AA in tumescent solution was investigated in a previously described ex vivo model of AFG. Briefly, excision fat was infiltrated with tumescent solution, with or without AA, and incubated for 20 minutes at 37°C. Hand-assisted liposuction was then performed with a blunt cannula. Total cell viability, clonogenicity, and differentiation capacity of the SVF cells were assessed. RESULTS: With AA, 10.3% more cells and in particular 14.9% more adipocytes survived liposuction. Clonogenicity, adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation by SVF cells remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of AA successfully improved survival of adipocytes during liposuction without affecting SVF growth and differentiation. This study therefore identified a useful supplement to the tumescent solution which may lead to improving AFG success.

10.
Cell Prolif ; 52(6): e12653, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bioreactor-based production systems have the potential to overcome limitations associated with conventional tissue engineering manufacturing methods, facilitating regulatory compliant and cost-effective production of engineered grafts for widespread clinical use. In this work, we established a bioreactor-based manufacturing system for the production of cartilage grafts. MATERIALS & METHODS: All bioprocesses, from cartilage biopsy digestion through the generation of engineered grafts, were performed in our bioreactor-based manufacturing system. All bioreactor technologies and cartilage tissue engineering bioprocesses were transferred to an independent GMP facility, where engineered grafts were manufactured for two large animal studies. RESULTS: The results of these studies demonstrate the safety and feasibility of the bioreactor-based manufacturing approach. Moreover, grafts produced in the manufacturing system were first shown to accelerate the repair of acute osteochondral defects, compared to cell-free scaffold implants. We then demonstrated that grafts produced in the system also facilitated faster repair in a more clinically relevant chronic defect model. Our data also suggested that bioreactor-manufactured grafts may result in a more robust repair in the longer term. CONCLUSION: By demonstrating the safety and efficacy of bioreactor-generated grafts in two large animal models, this work represents a pivotal step towards implementing the bioreactor-based manufacturing system for the production of human cartilage grafts for clinical applications. Read the Editorial for this article on doi:10.1111/cpr.12625.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Condrócitos/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte , Doença Aguda , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Modelos Animais , Ovinos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
11.
iScience ; 19: 504-513, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442666

RESUMO

The generation of humanized ectopic ossicles (hOss) in mice has been proposed as an advanced translational and fundamental model to study the human hematopoietic system. The approach relies on the presence of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) supporting the engraftment of transplanted human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). However, the functional distribution of hMSCs within the humanized microenvironment remains to be investigated. Here, we combined genetic tools and quantitative confocal microscopy to engineer and subsequently analyze hMSCs' fate and distribution in hOss. Implanted hMSCs reconstituted a humanized environment including osteocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and stromal cells associated with vessels. By imaging full hOss, we identified rare physical interactions between hMSCs and human CD45+/CD34+/CD90+ cells, supporting a functional contact-triggered regulatory role of hMSCs. Our study highlights the importance of compiling quantitative information from humanized organs, to decode the interactions between the hematopoietic and the stromal compartments.

12.
Ann Hematol ; 98(10): 2319-2328, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396671

RESUMO

Triple-negative primary myelofibrosis (TN-PMF) and other myeloid neoplasms with associated bone marrow fibrosis such as the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS-F) or the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN-F) are rare entities, often difficult to distinguish from each other. Thirty-four patients previously diagnosed with TN-PMF (n = 14), MDS-F (n = 18), or MDS/MPN-F (n = 2) were included in the present study. After central revision of the bone marrow histology, diagnoses according to the 2016-WHO classification were TN-PMF (n = 6), MDS-F (n = 19), and MDS/MPN-F (n = 9), with TN-PMF genotype representing only 4% of a cohort of 141 molecularly annotated PMF. Genomic classification according to next-generation sequencing and cytogenetic study was performed in 28 cases. Median number of mutations was 4 (range 1-7) in cases with TP53 disruption/aneuploidy or with chromatin-spliceosome mutations versus 1 mutation (range 0-2) in other molecular subgroups (p < 0.0001). The number of mutations and the molecular classification were better than PMF and MDS conventional scoring systems to predict survival and progression to acute leukemia. In conclusion, TN-PMF is an uncommon entity when the 2016 WHO criteria are strictly applied. Genomic classification may help in the prognostic assessment of patients with myeloid neoplasms with bone marrow fibrosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Mielofibrose Primária , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/classificação , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/classificação , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/classificação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Mielofibrose Primária/classificação , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 24(5): 562-567, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348016

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Engineering functional organs starting from stem or progenitor cells holds promise to address the urgent need for organ transplants. However, to date, the development of complex organ structures remains an open challenge. RECENT FINDINGS: Among multiple approaches to organ regeneration that are being investigated, two main directions can be identified, namely the patterned deposition of cells to impose specific structures, using bioprinting technologies, and (ii) the spontaneous development of organoids, according to principles of self-organization. In this review, we shortly describe the advantages and limitations of these paradigms and we discuss how they can synergize their positive features to better control and robustly develop organs from stem cells, toward organogenesis by design. SUMMARY: The outlined possibilities to bring together tools and concepts of bioprinting and self-organization will be relevant not only to generate implantable organs, but also to dissect fundamental mechanisms of organogenesis and to test therapeutic strategies in modeled pathological settings.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10904, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358874

RESUMO

A discrete-time Quantum Walk (QW) is an operator driving the evolution of a single particle on the lattice, through local unitaries. In a previous paper, we showed that QWs over the honeycomb and triangular lattices can be used to simulate the Dirac equation. We apply a spacetime coordinate transformation upon the lattice of this QW, and show that it is equivalent to introducing spacetime-dependent local unitaries -whilst keeping the lattice fixed. By exploiting this duality between changes in geometry, and changes in local unitaries, we show that the spacetime-dependent QW simulates the Dirac equation in (2 + 1)-dimensional curved spacetime. Interestingly, the duality crucially relies on the non linear-independence of the three preferred directions of the honeycomb and triangular lattices: The same construction would fail for the square lattice. At the practical level, this result opens the possibility to simulate field theories on curved manifolds, via the quantum walk on different kinds of lattices.

15.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(3)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160380

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are key contributors of the tumour microenvironment and are known to promote cancer progression through reciprocal communication with cancer cells, but how they become activated is not fully understood. Here, we investigate how breast cancer cells from different stages of the metastatic cascade convert MSCs into tumour-associated MSCs (TA-MSCs) using unbiased, global approaches. Using mass spectrometry, we compared the secretomes of MCF-7 cells, invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, and sublines isolated from bone, lung, and brain metastases and identified ECM and exosome components associated with invasion and organ-specific metastasis. Next, we used synthetic hydrogels to investigate how these different secretomes activate MSCs in bioengineered 3D microenvironments. Using kinase activity profiling and RNA sequencing, we found that only MDA-MB-231 breast cancer secretomes convert MSCs into TA-MSCs, resulting in an immunomodulatory phenotype that was particularly prominent in response to bone-tropic cancer cells. We have investigated paracrine signalling from breast cancer cells to TA-MSCs in 3D, which may highlight new potential targets for anticancer therapy approaches aimed at targeting tumour stroma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteoma , Microambiente Tumoral , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
16.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 3(7): 545-557, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160722

RESUMO

Owing to population aging, the social impact of osteoarthritis (OA)-the most common musculoskeletal disease-is expected to increase dramatically. Yet, therapy is still limited to palliative treatments or surgical intervention, and disease-modifying OA (DMOA) drugs are scarce, mainly because of the absence of relevant preclinical OA models. Therefore, in vitro models that can reliably predict the efficacy of DMOA drugs are needed. Here, we show, using a newly developed microphysiological cartilage-on-a-chip model that enables the application of strain-controlled compression to three-dimensional articular cartilage microtissue, that a 30% confined compression recapitulates the mechanical factors involved in OA pathogenesis and is sufficient to induce OA traits. Such hyperphysiological compression triggers a shift in cartilage homeostasis towards catabolism and inflammation, hypertrophy, and the acquisition of a gene expression profile akin to those seen in clinical osteoarthritic tissue. The cartilage on-a-chip model may enable the screening of DMOA candidates.

18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 73: 93-97, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029791

RESUMO

We analyze the evolutionary dynamics of ninety carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates collected between 1990 and 2015 in Chile. CRAB were identified at first in an isolate collected in 2005, which harbored the ISAba1-blaOXA-69 arrangement. Later, OXA-58- and OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains emerged in 2007 and 2009, respectively. This phenomenon was associated with variations in the epidemiology of OXA-type carbapenemases, linked to nosocomial lineages belonging to ST109, ST162, ST15 (CC15) and ST318 (CC15).

19.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20032, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950502

RESUMO

The effects of oncological treatment, congenital anomalies, traumatic injuries and post-infection damage critically require sufficient amounts of tissue for structural and functional surgical reconstructions. The patient’s own body is typically the gold standard source of transplant material, but in children autologous tissue is available only in small quantities and with severe morbidity at donor sites. Engineering of tissue grafts starting from a small amount of autologous material, combined with suitable surgical manipulation of the recipient site, is expected to enhance child and adolescent health, and to offer functional restoration for long-term wellbeing. Moreover, engineered tissues based on patient-derived cells represent invaluable models to investigate mechanisms of disease and to develop/test novel therapeutic approaches. In view of these great opportunities, here we introduce the currently limited successful implementation of tissue engineering in paediatric settings and discuss the open challenges in the field. A particular focus is on the specific needs and envisioned strategies in the areas of bone and osteochondral regeneration in children.

20.
Ann Plast Surg ; 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882410

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In reconstructive surgery, fat volume augmentation is often necessary for esthetic or functional reasons. As an alternative to synthetic and xenogeneic materials, autologous fat grafting (AFG) based on liposuction is gaining popularity, yet successful transplantation and long-term volume maintenance are difficult. Standard tumescent solution formulations neglect adipocyte and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell survival during extraction, as well as SVF differentiation into adipocytes thereafter, all of which are crucial for the success of AFG. Here we hypothesized that addition of ascorbic acid (AA) to the tumescent solution could prevent liposuction-induced cell damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of 0.1 mmol/L AA in tumescent solution was investigated in a previously described ex vivo model of AFG. Briefly, excision fat was infiltrated with tumescent solution, with or without AA, and incubated for 20 minutes at 37°C. Hand-assisted liposuction was then performed with a blunt cannula. Total cell viability, clonogenicity, and differentiation capacity of the SVF cells were assessed. RESULTS: With AA, 10.3% more cells and in particular 14.9% more adipocytes survived liposuction. Clonogenicity, adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation by SVF cells remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of AA successfully improved survival of adipocytes during liposuction without affecting SVF growth and differentiation. This study therefore identified a useful supplement to the tumescent solution which may lead to improving AFG success.

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