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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665322

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Molecular tests have improved the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules. The Afirma Gene Sequencing Classifier (GSC) was developed to improve the specificity of the Gene Expression Classifier (GEC). Independent studies are needed to assess the performance of GSC. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare the performance of GEC and GSC in the assessment of indeterminate nodules. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analysis of Bethesda III and IV nodules tested with GEC or GSC in an academic center between December 2011 and September 2018. Benign call rates (BCR) and surgical outcomes were compared. Histopathologic data were collected on nodules that were surgically resected to calculate measures of test performance. RESULTS: The BCR was 41% (73/178) for GEC and 67.8% (82/121) for GSC (p<0.001). Among specimens with dominant Hürthle cell cytology, the BCR was 22% (6/27) for GEC and 63.2% (12/19) for GSC (p=0.005). The overall surgery rate decreased from 47.8% in the GEC group to 34.7% in the GSC group (p=0.025). One GEC-benign and three GSC-benign nodules proved to be malignant in surgical excision. GSC had a statistically significant higher specificity (94% vs 60%, p<0.001) and positive predictive value (PPV) (85.3% vs 40%, p<0.001) compared to GEC. While sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) dropped with GSC (97.0% vs 90.6% and 98.6% vs 96.3%, respectively), these differences were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: GSC reclassified more indeterminate nodules as benign and improved the specificity and PPV of the test. These enhancements appear to be resulting in fewer diagnostic surgeries.

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3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584199

RESUMO

The consumption of processed meat has been associated with non-cardia gastric cancer, but evidence regarding a possible role of red meat is more limited. This study aims to quantify the association between meat consumption, namely white, red and processed meat, and the risk of gastric cancer, through individual participant data meta-analysis of studies participating in the 'Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project'. Data from 22 studies, including 11,443 cases and 28,029 controls, were used. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were pooled through a two-stage approach based on random-effects models. An exposure-response relationship was modelled, using one and two-order fractional polynomials, to evaluate the possible non-linear association between meat intake and gastric cancer. An increased risk of gastric cancer was observed for the consumption of all types of meat (highest vs. lowest tertile), which was statistically significant for red (OR: 1.24; 95%CI: 1.00-1.53), processed (OR: 1.23; 95%CI: 1.06-1.43) and total meat (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.09-1.55). Exposure-response analyses showed an increasing risk of gastric cancer with increasing consumption of both processed and red meat, with the highest OR being observed for an intake of 150 g/day of red meat (OR: 1.85; 95%CI: 1.56-2.20). This work provides robust evidence on the relation between the consumption of different types of meat and gastric cancer. Adherence to dietary recommendations to reduce meat consumption may contribute to a reduction in the burden of gastric cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 749-760, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Literature on the separate effects of physical activities (PA) on risk of breast cancer (BC) sub-types is heterogeneous. We investigated domain-specific associations between PA and BC risk by menopausal status and molecular subtype. METHODS: 1389 histologically confirmed invasive BC cases and 1712 controls from the MCC-Spain study were included (age: 20-85 years). Questionnaire information on PA at work, at home, and during leisure time, including recreational PA and sedentary time, and data on reproductive history, anthropometry, family history of BC, diet, and lifestyles were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Information on the expression of oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2 receptors was available for > 95% of the cases. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of BC sub-types. RESULTS: Occupational PA (OPA) intensity was associated with higher BC risk. Associations were stronger for pre-menopausal (ORactive/very active vs. sedentary job 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22, 2.91) and ER+/PR+, HER2- tumours (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.28, 2.53). Sedentary time was associated with higher risk of post-menopausal BC (OR6-9 vs. <3 h/day 1.69; 95% CI 1.22, 2.32). Moderate-to-high-intensity household (HPA) and recreational PA (RPA) were inversely associated with BC occurrence in pre- and post-menopausal women, with estimated 14-33% lower risks (P for trend < 0.001) above 1000 MET·min/week. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of HPA and RPA were associated with lower risk of BC, with heterogeneity by molecular type, whereas sitting time was a consistent independent risk factor of BC risk. The positive association found for OPA with ER+/PR+ BC deserves further investigation.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10847, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350458

RESUMO

Antibodies to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG) have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Because SGG may correlate with impaired gut epithelia, we assessed the association of antibodies to bacterial flagellin C (FliC), a measure potentially related to this impairment, with CRC and the CRC-specific interaction with antibodies to SGG proteins. Antibodies to FliC and SGG pilus proteins Gallo2178 and Gallo2179 were measured in two independent studies, a combined study from Nijmegen and Detroit (93 CRC cases, 74 controls) and a replication data set including 576 cases and 576 controls from the Spanish multicenter multicase-control study (MCC-Spain). Logistic regression was applied to assess whether antibodies to FliC were associated with CRC and modified the association of antibodies to SGG proteins with CRC. Antibodies to FliC were associated with those to SGG Gallo2178 among CRC cases, resulting in an interaction in the association of antibodies to Gallo2178 with CRC (p = 0.007). This association was only present among individuals with high antibody responses to FliC (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.45-4.06). In conclusion, our findings suggest that colorectal tumorigenesis could be accompanied by an impaired integrity of the epithelium that could result in associated increased antibody responses to bacterial proteins.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 79-88, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the recognized role of Helicobacter pylori in the etiology of non-cardia gastric cancer (GC), there is still insufficient epidemiological evidence for the involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the relation of antibody profile and antibody reactivity intensity against four individual EBV proteins to GC risk. METHODS: We used information from 281 GC cases and 2071 age and sex frequency matched controls recruited in the frame of the MCC-Spain multicase-control study, between 2008 and 2013. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and environmental factors were assessed in face-to-face interviews. Antibody responses to four EBV proteins (EBNA-1, ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18) were analyzed by multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using logistic regression mixed models to evaluate the association of seropositivity and antibody reactivity against EBV proteins with GC, adjusting for GC risk factors. Stratified analyses by tumor location (cardia vs. non-cardia) and morphology (intestinal vs. diffuse) were done. RESULTS: Among controls, seropositivity for EA-D, ZEBRA, EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was 85%, 91%, 97% and 99%, respectively. Even though seropositivity for none of the studied proteins was associated with a higher GC risk, increasing antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was associated with higher OR of GC. This association was present for cardia and non-cardia cancer cases, and for intestinal and diffuse types. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that EBV may play a role in GC etiology, and highlight the importance of evaluating specific antibodies and the dose-response relations when studying widespread infections.

9.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234427

RESUMO

Inflammation and antioxidant capacity have been associated with colorectal and breast cancer. We computed the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and the total dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and associated them with colorectal and breast cancer risk in the population-based multi case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). We included 1852 colorectal cancer and 1567 breast cancer cases, and 3447 and 1486 population controls, respectively. DII score and NEAC were derived using data from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for energy-adjusted DII (E-DII), and a score combining E-DII and NEAC. E-DII was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.93, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:1.60-2.32; p-trend: <0.001); this increase was observed for both colon and rectal cancer. Less pronounced increased risks were observed for breast cancer (OR = 1.22, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:0.99-1.52, p-trend: >0.10). The combined score of high E-DII scores and low antioxidant values were associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.48, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI: 1.26-1.74; p-trend: <0.001), but not breast cancer. This study provides evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk while findings for breast cancer were less consistent.

10.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether short sleep duration or high sleep variability may predict less weight loss and reduction in measures of adiposity in response to lifestyle interventions is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the 12-month changes in weight and adiposity measures between those participants with short or adequate sleep duration and those with low or high sleep variability (intra-subject standard deviation of the sleep duration) in PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus, a primary prevention trial based on lifestyle intervention programs. METHODS: Prospective analysis of 1986 community-dwelling subjects (mean age 65 years, 47% females) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus trial was conducted. Accelerometry-derived sleep duration and sleep variability and changes in average weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) attained after 12-month interventions were analyzed. RESULTS: The adjusted difference in 12-month changes in weight and BMI in participants in the third tertile of sleep variability was 0.5 kg (95% CI 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.021) and 0.2 kg/m2 (0.04 to 0.4; p = 0.015), respectively, as compared with participants in the first tertile. The adjusted difference in 12-month changes from baseline in WC was -0.8 cm (-1.5 to -0.01; p = 0.048) in participants sleeping <6 h, compared with those sleeping between 7 and 9 h. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the less variability in sleep duration or an adequate sleep duration the greater the success of the lifestyle interventions in adiposity.

11.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(3): 235-241, mayo-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-3107

RESUMO

Objective: To document the prevalence of poor mental health by gender and social class, and to analyze if poor mental health is associated with the family roles or the employment status inside and outside the household. Method: A cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of the Spanish population was carried out (n = 14,247). Mental health was evaluated using GHQ-12. Employment status, marital status, family roles (main breadwinner and the person who mainly carries out the household work) and educational level were considered as explanatory variables. Multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender and social class were fitted and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were obtained. Results: Gender and social class differences in the prevalence of poor mental health were observed. Unemployment was associated with higher prevalence. Among men the main breadwinner role was related to poor mental health mainly in those that belong to manual classes (aOR = 1.2). Among women, mainly among nonmanual classes, these problems were associated to marital status: widowed, separated or divorced (aOR = 1.9) and to dealing with the household work by themselves (aOR = 1.9). Conclusions: In Spain, gender and social class differences in mental health still exist. In addition, family roles and working situation, both inside and outside the household, could constitute a source of inequalities in mental health


Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de mala salud mental por sexo y clase social, y analizar si la salud mental se relaciona con los roles familiares y la situación laboral fuera y dentro del hogar. Método: Se realizó un diseño transversal basado en una muestra representativa de la población española (n = 14.247). La salud mental se evaluó mediante el GHQ-12. Se consideraron como variables explicativas la situación laboral, el estado civil, el rol familiar (sustentador principal y persona que realiza el trabajo doméstico) y el nivel de estudios. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión logística estratificados por sexo y se obtuvieron las odds ratio ajustadas (ORa). Resultados: Se observaron diferencias en la prevalencia de mala salud mental por sexo y clase social. El desempleo se asoció con mayor prevalencia. En hombres pertenecientes a clases menos favorecidas, el rol de sustentador principal se relacionó con mala salud mental (Ora = 1,2) En mujeres que pertenecían a clases más favorecidas, el estado civil viuda, separada o divorciada (ORa = 1,9) y realizar el trabajo doméstico solas (ORa = 1,9) se relacionaron con mala salud mental. Conclusiones: En España, en salud mental continúa habiendo diferencias de sexo y clase social. Además, el rol familiar y la situación laboral fuera y dentro del ámbito doméstico podrían constituir también una fuente de desigualdad en salud mental

12.
Virulence ; 10(1): 511-526, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131706

RESUMO

Protein prenylation is a crucial post-translational modification largely mediated by two heterodimeric enzyme complexes, farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase type-I (GGTase-I), each composed of a shared α-subunit and a unique ß-subunit. GGTase-I enzymes are validated drug targets that contribute to virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans and to the yeast-to-hyphal transition in Candida albicans. Therefore, we sought to investigate the importance of the α-subunit, RamB, and the ß-subunit, Cdc43, of the A. fumigatus GGTase-I complex to hyphal growth and virulence. Deletion of cdc43 resulted in impaired hyphal morphogenesis and thermo-sensitivity, which was exacerbated during growth in rich media. The Δcdc43 mutant also displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall stress agents and to cell wall synthesis inhibitors, suggesting alterations of cell wall biosynthesis or stress signaling. In support of this, analyses of cell wall content revealed decreased amounts of ß-glucan in the Δcdc43 strain. Despite strong in vitro phenotypes, the Δcdc43 mutant was fully virulent in two models of murine invasive aspergillosis, similar to the control strain. We further found that a strain expressing the α-subunit gene, ramB, from a tetracycline-inducible promoter was inviable under non-inducing in vitro growth conditions and was virtually avirulent in both mouse models. Lastly, virulence studies using C. albicans strains with tetracycline-repressible RAM2 or CDC43 expression revealed reduced pathogenicity associated with downregulation of either gene in a murine model of disseminated infection. Together, these findings indicate a differential requirement for protein geranylgeranylation for fungal virulence, and further inform the selection of specific prenyltransferases as promising antifungal drug targets for each pathogen.

13.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 10(5): 974-984, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a progressive age-related skeletal muscle disorder associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes. Muscle wasting is often accompanied by an increase in body fat, leading to 'sarcopenic obesity'. The aim of the present study was to analyse the association of lifestyle variables such as diet, dietary components, physical activity (PA), body composition, and inflammatory markers, with the risk of sarcopenic obesity. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis based on baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study was performed. A total of 1535 participants (48% women) with overweight/obesity (body mass index: 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 ; age: 65.2 ± 4.9 years old) and metabolic syndrome were categorized according to sex-specific tertiles (T) of the sarcopenic index (SI) as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Anthropometrical measurements, biochemical markers, dietary intake, and PA information were collected. Linear regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between variables. RESULTS: Subjects in the first SI tertile were older, less physically active, showed higher frequency of abdominal obesity and diabetes, and consumed higher saturated fat and less vitamin C than subjects from the other two tertiles (all P < 0.05). Multiple adjusted linear regression models evidenced significant positive associations across tertiles of SI with adherence to the Mediterranean dietary score (P-trend < 0.05), PA (P-trend < 0.0001), and the 30 s chair stand test (P-trend < 0.0001), whereas significant negative associations were found with an inadequate vitamin C consumption (P-trend < 0.05), visceral fat and leucocyte count (all P-trend < 0.0001), and some white cell subtypes (neutrophils and monocytes), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet count (all P-trend < 0.05). When models were additionally adjusted by potential mediators (inflammatory markers, diabetes, and waist circumference), no relevant changes were observed, only dietary variables lost significance. CONCLUSIONS: Diet and PA are important regulatory mediators of systemic inflammation, which is directly involved in the sarcopenic process. A healthy dietary pattern combined with exercise is a promising strategy to limit age-related sarcopenia.

14.
Pancreas ; 48(5): 656-661, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Autologous islet transplantation (AIT) is performed to preserve insulin secretory function in chronic pancreatitis patients undergoing total pancreatectomy (TP). No data exist on the effect of time lapse on beta cell function post TP-AIT. We aimed to investigate the factor of time lapse on beta cell function following TP-AIT. METHODS: Retrospectively, we identified 31 adult patients with chronic pancreatitis who underwent TP-AIT between 2008 and 2016. Changes in beta cell function were assessed using (1) BETA-2 scores and (2) analysis of posttransplant mixed-meal tolerance testing. RESULTS: Significant decrease in functional beta cell capacity expressed by BETA-2 scores was seen in the first 2 years following TP-AIT, with an annual decrease of 6.3 points in median BETA-2 score (interquartile range, 4.6-11.6; P = 0.002). In the mixed-meal tolerance testing analysis, nonsignificant trends toward higher glucose, lower insulin, and lower C-peptide were seen with time lapse. Additionally, higher hemoglobin A1c values (P = 0.033) and higher insulin requirements (P = 0.04) were seen with longer follow-up after AIT. CONCLUSIONS: A steady drop in functional beta cell capacity was observed in the 2 years following TP and AIT. To our knowledge, to date this is the first report of the BETA-2 score applicability in the AIT setting.

15.
Biomolecules ; 9(5)2019 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035368

RESUMO

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infection is a common cause of severe lower respiratory tract diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Both virus replication and the associated inflammatory immune response are believed to be behind these pathologies. So far, no vaccine or effective treatment is available for this viral infection. With the aim of finding new strategies to counteract HRSV replication and modulate the immune response, specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were generated targeting the mRNA coding for the viral fusion (F) protein or nucleoprotein (N), or for two proteins involved in intracellular immune signaling, which are named tripartite motif-containing protein 25 (TRIM25) and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I). Furthermore, two additional bispecific siRNAs were designed that silenced F and TRIM25 (TRIM25/HRSV-F) or N and RIG-I (RIG-I/HRSV-N) simultaneously. All siRNAs targeting N or F, but not those silencing TRIM25 or RIG-I alone, significantly reduced viral titers. However, while siRNAs targeting F inhibited only the expression of the F mRNA and protein, the siRNAs targeting N led to a general inhibition of viral mRNA and protein expression. The N-targeting siRNAs also induced a drastic decrease in the expression of genes of the innate immune response. These results show that both virus replication and the early innate immune response can be regulated by targeting distinct viral products with siRNAs, which may be related to the different role of each protein in the life cycle of the virus.

16.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disparities and lifestyle factors are likely to determine the overall quality of the diet. In addition, overeating is compatible with inadequate micronutrient intake and it can lead to adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess adequacy of dietary nutrient intake and to investigate the influence of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors on nutrient density in a large primary cardiovascular prevention trial conducted in healthy participants with metabolic syndrome (MetS) to assess the cardiovascular effects of an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (PREDIMED-Plus). METHODS: Baseline cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus trial with 6646 Spanish participants (aged 55-75 years in men and 60-75 years in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS. Energy and nutrient intake (for 10 nutrients) were calculated using a validated 143-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and nutrient density was estimated dividing the absolute nutrient intake by total energy intake. The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated according to dietary reference intakes. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to examine associations between socioeconomic status or lifestyle factors and nutrient density. RESULTS: A considerable proportion of the screened participants showed a deficient intake of vitamins A, D, E, B9, calcium, magnesium and dietary fibre. Inadequate intake of four or more of the ten nutrients considered was present in 17% of participants. A higher nutrient density was directly and significantly associated with female sex, higher educational level and a better adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Lifestyle factors such as non-smoking and avoidance of sedentary lifestyles were also independently associated with better nutrient density. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MetS, despite being overweight, exhibited suboptimal nutrient intake, especially among men. Low nutrient density diet can be largely explained by differences in socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. These results highlight the importance of focussing on nutritional education in vulnerable populations, taking into account nutrient requirements.

17.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035497

RESUMO

Dietary guidelines emphasize the importance of a varied diet to provide an adequate nutrient intake. However, an older age is often associated with consumption of monotonous diets that can be nutritionally inadequate, increasing the risk for the development or progression of diet-related chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). To assess the association between dietary diversity (DD) and nutrient intake adequacy and to identify demographic variables associated with DD, we cross-sectionally analyzed baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus trial: 6587 Spanish adults aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity who also had MetS. An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient inadequacy was defined as an intake below 2/3 of the dietary reference intake (DRI) forat least four of 17 nutrients proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between DDS and the risk of nutritionally inadequate intakes. In the higher DDS quartile there were more women and less current smokers. Compared with subjects in the highest DDS quartile, those in the lowest DDS quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake: odds ratio (OR) = 28.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.80-39.21). When we estimated food varietyfor each of the food groups, participants in the lowest quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake for the groups of vegetables, OR = 14.03 (95% CI 10.55-18.65), fruits OR = 11.62 (95% CI 6.81-19.81), dairy products OR = 6.54 (95% CI 4.64-9.22) and protein foods OR = 6.60 (95% CI 1.96-22.24). As DDS decreased, the risk of inadequate nutrients intake rose. Given the impact of nutrient intake adequacy on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, health policies should focus on the promotion of a healthy varied diet, specifically promoting the intake of vegetables and fruit among population groups with lower DDS such as men, smokers or widow(er)s.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035601

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between the dietary flavonoid intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. Investigating the relationship between the different classes of flavonoids and the histological types and origin of GC can be of interest to the research community. We used data from a population-based multi-case control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from 12 different regions of Spain. 2700 controls and 329 GC cases were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of flavonoid intakes and log2. Flavonoid intake was associated with a lower GC risk (ORlog2 = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.65-0.89; ORq4vsq1 = 0.60; 95%CI = 0.40-0.89; ptrend = 0.007). Inverse and statistically significant associations were observed with anthocyanidins, chalcones, dihydroflavonols and flavan-3-ols. The isoflavanoid intake was positively associated with higher cancer risk, but without reaching a statistical significance. In general, no differences were observed in the GC risk according to the location and histological type. The flavonoid intake seems to be a protective factor against GC within the MCC-study. This effect may vary depending on the flavonoid class but not by the histological type and location of the tumor. Broader studies with larger sample size and greater geographical variability are necessary.

19.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between dietary fat and fat subtype and breast cancer development. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study with 1181 cases of incident breast cancer, diagnosed between 2007 and 2012, and 1682 population controls frequency matched (by age, sex, and region) from the Spanish multicenter case-control study MCC-Spain. RESULTS: We found a significant protective effect in premenopausal women of total fat intake [OR 0.51 95% CI (0.31-0.86) highest versus lowest tertile], but no effect was observed in menopausal women [OR 1.15 95% CI (0.83-1.60)]. Analyzing by type of fat, this protective effect persisted only for the monounsaturated fatty acids [OR 0.51 95% CI (0.32-0.82)]. In contrast, other fatty acids did not have a significant effect. In addition, a protection against risk of breast cancer was found when polyunsaturated fats were "substituted" by monounsaturated, maintaining the same total fat intake [OR 0.68 95% CI (0.47-0.99)]. Finally, analyzing by breast cancer subtype, we found no effect, except in premenopausal women where intake of moderate [OR 0.52 95% CI (0.33-0.82)] and high monounsaturated fatty acids [OR 0.47 95% CI (0.27-0.82)] maintains a protective effect against ER/PR + tumors. In contrast, in menopausal women, a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids was associated with higher risk of HER2 + tumors [OR 2.00 95% CI (0.97-4.13)]. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a differential effect of monounsaturated fatty acids according to menopausal status and breast cancer subtype.

20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease remains the global leading cause of death. We evaluated at baseline the association between the adherence to eight a priori high-quality dietary scores and the prevalence of individual and clustered cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in the PREDIMED-Plus cohort. METHODS: All PREDIMED-Plus participants (6874 men and women aged 55-75 years, with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) were assessed. The prevalence of 4 CVRF (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia), using standard diagnoses criteria, were considered as outcomes. The adherence to eight a priori-defined dietary indexes was calculated. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate differences in mean values of factors and prevalence ratios for individual and clustered CVRF. RESULTS: Highest conformity to any dietary pattern did not show inverse associations with hypertension. The modified Mediterranean Diet Score (PR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99), Mediterranean Diet Adherence Score (MEDAS) (PR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.98), the pro-vegetarian dietary pattern (PR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99) and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (PR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.87-0.96) were inversely associated with prevalence of obesity. We identified significant inverse trend among participants who better adhered to the MEDAS and the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS) in the mean number of CVRF across categories of adherence. Better adherence to several high-quality dietary indexes was associated with better blood lipid profiles and anthropometric measures. CONCLUSIONS: Highest adherence to dietary quality indexes, especially Mediterranean-style and PDQS scores, showed marginal associations with lower prevalence of individual and clustered CVRF among elderly adults with metabolic syndrome at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

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