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1.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(7): 449-458, sept. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175953

RESUMO

Introducción: Desde la descripción hace 5 décadas de la hidrocefalia crónica del adulto idiopática (HCAi), su fisiopatología ha sido considerada básicamente relacionada con el efecto que la dilatación ventricular ejerce sobre las estructuras adyacentes al sistema ventricular. Sin embargo, las alteraciones en el flujo sanguíneo cerebral (FSC) y, sobre todo, la reducción en el recambio licuoral parecen emerger como componentes fisiopatológicos principales de esta enfermedad. Desarrollo: En la HCAi se observa una compresión del tracto piramidal, de los circuitos cortico-subcorticales fronto-estriatales y fronto-reticulares, y de las fibras profundas del fascículo longitudinal superior. En el cuerpo calloso se objetiva un descenso en el número de fibras comisurales, que son reemplazadas por gliosis. El FSC se encuentra alterado, con un patrón de última pradera en la región subcortical adyacente a los ventrículos, correspondiente a la intersección entre las arterias subependimarias y las arterias perforantes dependientes de los grandes troncos arteriales de la circulación anterior. El recambio diario del LCR se ve disminuido en un 75%, lo que conlleva una reducción del aclaramiento de neurotóxicos y la interrupción de las señalizaciones neuroendocrinas y paracrinas que ocurren a través del LCR. Conclusiones: La HCAi emerge como una entidad nosológica compleja, en la que los efectos de la microangiopatía subcortical y la disminución del recambio de LCR desempeñan un papel fundamental. Esta base fisiopatológica aleja la HCAi del concepto clásico de hidrocefalia y la acerca al perfil de otras enfermedades neurodegenerativas, como la enfermedad de Alzheimer o la enfermedad de Binswanger


Introduction: Since its description five decades ago, the pathophysiology of idiopathic chronic adult hydrocephalus (iCAH) has been traditionally related to the effect that ventricular dilatation exerts on the structures surrounding the ventricular system. However, altered cerebral blood flow, especially a reduction in the CSF turnover rate, are starting to be considered the main pathophysiological elements of this disease. Development: Compression of the pyramidal tract, the frontostriatal and frontoreticular circuits, and the paraventricular fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus have all been reported in iCAH. At the level of the corpus callosum, gliosis replaces a number of commissural tracts. Cerebral blood flow is also altered, showing a periventricular watershed region limited by the subependymal arteries and the perforating branches of the major arteries of the anterior cerebral circulation. The CSF turnover rate is decreased by 75%, leading to the reduced clearance of neurotoxins and the interruption of neuroendocrine and paracrine signalling in the CSF. Conclusions: iCAH presents as a complex nosological entity, in which the effects of subcortical microangiopathy and reduced CSF turnover play a key role. According to its pathophysiology, it is simpler to think of iCAH more as a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer disease or Binswanger disease than as the classical concept of hydrocephalus


Assuntos
Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Pressão do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/diagnóstico , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico
2.
Rev. esp. med. nucl. imagen mol. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(2): 87-93, mar.-abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171452

RESUMO

Objetivo. El depósito cortical de amiloide, una seña de identidad de la enfermedad de Alzheimer, se ha observado en la hidrocefalia a presión normal (HPN). Nuestro objetivo fue comparar el patrón de retención de 11C-PIB PET/TC en pacientes con HPN y sujetos sanos. Material y métodos. Hemos comparado el patrón de retención de 11C-PIB en 13 casos de HPN seleccionados para cirugía derivativa con una población control normal. Las imágenes se analizaron visualmente y puntuaron de 1-4 (de ligera a muy alta retención de PIB) tanto en la sustancia gris como en la sustancia blanca (SB). La puntuación se analizó por separado en las regiones infra y supratentoriales de ambos grupos. Se emitió un informe clínico en términos de positivo, negativo o dudoso/equívoco. Resultados. Ocho 11C-PIB PET/TC se informaron como negativos, 3 positivos y 2 dudosos. Cinco de 13 pacientes mostraron al menos una región cortical con retención de PIB de intensidad mayor que la observada en el grupo control. En general, la retención de PIB en la SB de los pacientes con HPN tuvo puntuaciones menores que en el grupo control, mostrando una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la SB infratentorial (92/104 vs. 54/56, p<0,05) y una tendencia a ser menor en las regiones supratentoriales (70/84 vs. 122/156; p=0,327), en particular en la región periventricular superior (25/28 vs. 40/52; p=0,134). Conclusiones. Los patrones de retención de 11C-PIB parecen ser diferentes en los pacientes con HPN comparados con sujetos normales. La retención de PIB en la SB de la HPN aparece menos intensa que en sujetos sanos y estos muestran un mayor grado de retención de PIB en las regiones corticales. Esto merece ser tomado en consideración (AU)


Objective. Cortical cerebral amyloid disease, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, has also been observed in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The aim of this study was to compare the 11C-PIB PET/CT retention pattern in iNPH patients and healthy subjects. Material and methods. A comparison was made of the 11C-PIB PET/CT retention pattern in 13 iNPH patients selected for surgical deviation, compared to a normal control population. Images were visually analyzed and scored for gray matter and white matter (WM) from 1 to 4 (slight to very high PIB retention). The scoring was analyzed in both groups separately for infra- and supra-tentorial regions. A comprehensive clinical report was presented in terms of positive, negative, or equivocal. Results. 11C-PIB PET/CT scan were reported as negative in 8, positive in 3, and equivocal in 2. Five of 13 patients showed at least one cortical area with PIB retention with an intensity higher than that observed in the control group. Overall, white matter (WM) PIB retention of iNPH scored lower than in the control group, showing a statistically significant difference in the infratentorial WM (92/104 vs 54/56; p<.05) and a tendency to be lower in the supratentorial regions (70/84 vs 122/156, p=.327), in particular in the upper periventricular region (25/28 vs 40/52; p=.134). Conclusions. The PIB retention pattern seems to be different in NPH, compared to normal subjects. PIB retention in WM of NPH appears less intense than in healthy subjects, and they show a higher degree of PIB retention in cortical regions. This deserves to be taken it into account (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Substância Cinzenta , Substância Branca , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloidose/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol ; 37(2): 87-93, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28869176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cortical cerebral amyloid disease, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, has also been observed in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The aim of this study was to compare the 11C-PIB PET/CT retention pattern in iNPH patients and healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comparison was made of the 11C-PIB PET/CT retention pattern in 13 iNPH patients selected for surgical deviation, compared to a normal control population. Images were visually analyzed and scored for gray matter and white matter (WM) from 1 to 4 (slight to very high PIB retention). The scoring was analyzed in both groups separately for infra- and supra-tentorial regions. A comprehensive clinical report was presented in terms of positive, negative, or equivocal. RESULTS: 11C-PIB PET/CT scan were reported as negative in 8, positive in 3, and equivocal in 2. Five of 13 patients showed at least one cortical area with PIB retention with an intensity higher than that observed in the control group. Overall, white matter (WM) PIB retention of iNPH scored lower than in the control group, showing a statistically significant difference in the infratentorial WM (92/104 vs 54/56; p<.05) and a tendency to be lower in the supratentorial regions (70/84 vs 122/156, p=.327), in particular in the upper periventricular region (25/28 vs 40/52; p=.134). CONCLUSIONS: The PIB retention pattern seems to be different in NPH, compared to normal subjects. PIB retention in WM of NPH appears less intense than in healthy subjects, and they show a higher degree of PIB retention in cortical regions. This deserves to be taken it into account.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Carbono/farmacocinética , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Tiazóis/farmacocinética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amiloide/análise , Córtex Cerebral/química , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos
4.
Neurologia ; 33(7): 449-458, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since its description five decades ago, the pathophysiology of idiopathic chronic adult hydrocephalus (iCAH) has been traditionally related to the effect that ventricular dilatation exerts on the structures surrounding the ventricular system. However, altered cerebral blood flow, especially a reduction in the CSF turnover rate, are starting to be considered the main pathophysiological elements of this disease. DEVELOPMENT: Compression of the pyramidal tract, the frontostriatal and frontoreticular circuits, and the paraventricular fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus have all been reported in iCAH. At the level of the corpus callosum, gliosis replaces a number of commissural tracts. Cerebral blood flow is also altered, showing a periventricular watershed region limited by the subependymal arteries and the perforating branches of the major arteries of the anterior cerebral circulation. The CSF turnover rate is decreased by 75%, leading to the reduced clearance of neurotoxins and the interruption of neuroendocrine and paracrine signalling in the CSF. CONCLUSIONS: iCAH presents as a complex nosological entity, in which the effects of subcortical microangiopathy and reduced CSF turnover play a key role. According to its pathophysiology, it is simpler to think of iCAH more as a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer disease or Binswanger disease than as the classical concept of hydrocephalus.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Ventrículos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Pressão do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico
5.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 151(11): 1465-72, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19424656

RESUMO

Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen that can cause a multitude of severe infections. In neurosurgical patients the usual presentation is ventriculitis associated with external ventricular drainage. Carbapenems have been considered the gold standard for the treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis, but resistant isolates are increasing worldwide, reducing the therapeutic options. In many cases polymyxins are the only possible alternative, but their poor blood-brain barrier penetration could require them to be directly administered intraventricularly and clinical experience with this route is limited. We review the literature concerning intraventricular use of colistin (polymyxin E) for A. baumannii ventriculitis and add three cases successfully treated with this method. Our experience suggests that intraventricular colistin is a potentially effective and safe therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii central nervous system infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Colistina/administração & dosagem , Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Ventrículos Laterais/cirurgia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/patologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/fisiopatologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/fisiologia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Encefalite/microbiologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/microbiologia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Injeções Intraventriculares/métodos , Ventrículos Laterais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos Laterais/microbiologia , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/complicações , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/microbiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Ventriculostomia/métodos
6.
Rev Neurol ; 46(6): 336-9, 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18368676

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intracranial subdural empyema (ISE) is an infrequent infectious disorder of diverse etiology and difficult to diagnose because of its non-specific clinical features. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of patients diagnosed of ISE in a third-level university hospital in a 15-year period. RESULTS: Five men were included (mean age: 39.3 years). The most frequent primary source of infection was otic and sinusal (60%). The initial clinical manifestations were fever, headache, alteration of consciousness, and neurological focal symptoms. The mean time elapsed between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 3.6 days. Diagnosis was performed by computed tomography in all patients. ISE was localized in the left hemisphere in 60% of cases mainly affecting the parietal lobe (80%). Anaerobic and streptococci germs were the most frequently isolated microorganisms. Therapy was based on antibiotics and surgical drainage in 100% of the cases. The surgical procedure used in the evacuation of empyema was craniotomy in all the patients. The mean time elapsed between diagnosis and surgery was 8.4 days. The mean Intensive Care Unit stay was 12.8 days, whereas the overall mean in-hospital stay was 45.2 days. Mortality was 40%. CONCLUSION: ISE, although infrequent, displays a high morbimortality that can be reduced with an early therapeutic approach which may include the surgical evacuation in all the cases.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/microbiologia , Empiema Subdural , Adulto , Idoso , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Encefalopatias/terapia , Empiema Subdural/diagnóstico , Empiema Subdural/epidemiologia , Empiema Subdural/terapia , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 46(6): 336-339, 16 mar., 2008. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-65432

RESUMO

El empiema subdural intracraneal (ESI) es un proceso infeccioso infrecuente, de etiología diversa yde difícil diagnóstico por presentar una clínica inespecífica. Pacientes y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo de los pacientes diagnosticados de ESI en un hospital universitario de tercer nivel durante un período de 15 años. Resultados. Se diagnosticaron cinco varones (media de edad: 39,3 años). El foco primario más frecuente fue ótico y sinusal (60%). Las manifestaciones clínicasiniciales fueron fiebre, cefalea, alteración del nivel de conciencia y síntomas neurológicos focales. El tiempo medio transcurrido desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta el diagnóstico fue de 3,6 días. El diagnóstico se realizó mediante tomografía computarizada en todos los pacientes. El ESI asentó sobre el hemisferio izquierdo en el 60% de los casos y afectó predominantementeal lóbulo parietal (80%). Los microorganismos aislados con mayor frecuencia fueron gérmenes anaerobios yestreptococos. El tratamiento se basó en terapia antibiótica y drenaje quirúrgico en el 100% de los casos. La técnica empleada para la evacuación del ESI fue la craneotomía en todos los pacientes. El tiempo medio transcurrido entre el diagnóstico yla intervención quirúrgica fue de 8,4 días. La estancia media en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos fue de 12,8 días, mientras que la hospitalaria global fue de 45,2 días. La mortalidad fue del 40%. Conclusión. El ESI, aunque infrecuente, presenta unaalta morbimortalidad, que puede disminuir con un abordaje terapéutico precoz, que debe incluir en todos los casos la evacuación quirúrgica de la colección


Intracranial subdural empyema (ISE) is an infrequent infectious disorder of diverse etiology anddifficult to diagnose because of its non-specific clinical features. Patients and methods. Retrospective study of patients diagnosed of ISE in a third-level university hospital in a 15-year period. Results. Five men were included (mean age: 39.3 years). Themost frequent primary source of infection was otic and sinusal (60%). The initial clinical manifestations were fever, headache, alteration of consciousness, and neurological focal symptoms. The mean time elapsed between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 3.6 days. Diagnosis was performed by computed tomography in all patients. ISE was localized in the left hemisphere in 60% of cases mainly affecting the parietal lobe (80%). Anaerobic and streptococci germs were the most frequently isolated microorganisms. Therapy was based on antibiotics and surgical drainage in 100% of the cases. The surgical procedure used in the evacuation of empyema was craniotomy in all the patients. The mean time elapsed between diagnosis and surgery was 8.4 days. The mean Intensive Care Unit stay was 12.8 days, whereas the overall mean in-hospital stay was 45.2 days. Mortality was 40%. Conclusion. ISE, although infrequent, displays a high morbimortality that can be reduced with an early therapeutic approach which may include the surgical evacuation in all the cases


Assuntos
Humanos , Empiema Subdural/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/cirurgia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Otite/complicações , Sinusite/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estatísticas de Sequelas e Incapacidade
8.
Neurologia ; 19(10): 738-60, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15568172

RESUMO

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is the most severe consequence of degenerative disease of cervical spine. In this article we perform a bibliographic review, addressing current controversies in its pathophysiology. Present work lines of most groups dedicated to the study of this condition are focused on improving surgical techniques designed for the treatment of this disease. Pathophysiological studies are scarce, and most of our pathophysiological knowledge of cervical spondylotic myelopathy is based in works done in 60s and 70s. Literature of the last decade lacks neurochemichal studies parallel to those existing for acute spinal injury. In the same way, only three prospective clinical trials comparing conservative and surgical treatment have been done, and none of them has demonstrated clear superiority of surgery. Given the high prevalence of this disease, the need for deep knowledge of its pathophysiologic, neurochemichal and molecular basis, and the optimization of surgical treatment is justified. This probably implies the need for prospective randomized trials to determine which patients are going to benefit from surgery.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais , Doenças da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Osteofitose Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Osteofitose Vertebral/complicações
9.
Neurocirugia (Astur) ; 13(4): 321-5, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12355656

RESUMO

Spinal extradural angiolipomas are rare benign tumours, accounting for only 0.14-1.2% of all spinal neoplasms. They are usually localized within the thoracic extradural space of the spinal canal and their common clinical presentation is myelopathy, mainly in the way of a slowly progressive paraparesis and sometimes in an acute form. We report the case of a 85 year old man who complained of bilateral lower limb weakness with sphincter disturbance of acute instauration. The MRI showed a posterior extradural lesion at L1-L2 level that compressed conus medularis and cauda equina. He underwent urgent surgical treatment and we achieved total resection of the lesion via a L1-L2 laminectomy. The pathological examination confirmed the tumour as an angiolipoma.


Assuntos
Angiolipoma/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiolipoma/complicações , Angiolipoma/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Laminectomia/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Região Lombossacral/patologia , Região Lombossacral/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Paraparesia/etiologia , Paraparesia/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/complicações , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia
10.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-26279

RESUMO

Los angiolipomas espinales extradurales son tumores de carácter benigno poco frecuentes, que representan el 0,14-1,2 por ciento de todas las neoplasias raquídeas y se localizan preferentemente a nivel torácico. Clínicamente suelen presentarse como mielopatía, que puede debutar de forma aguda o instaurarse crónicamente. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 85 años con clínica de inicio agudo consistente en paraparesia espástica, acompañada de alteración de esfínteres. En la RM dorso-lumbar se objetivó una neoformación intrarraquídea a nivel L1-L2, que ocupaba el espacio epidural posterior, comprimiendo el cono medular y la cauda equina. El paciente fue intervenido con carácter urgente, realizándose una laminectomía L1-L2 y consiguiéndose la exéresis total de la neoformación. El estudio anatomopatológico fue informado como angiolipoma (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso , Masculino , Humanos , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Angiolipoma , Progressão da Doença , Paraparesia , Extremidade Inferior , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doença Aguda , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Laminectomia , Região Lombossacral , Eletromiografia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal
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