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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824476

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by mucosa damage associated with an uncontrolled inflammatory response. This immunological impairment leads to altered inflammatory mediators such as IL-33, which is shown to increase in the mucosa of active UC (aUC) patients. MicroRNAs present a distorted feature in inflamed colonic mucosa and are potential IL-33 regulating candidates in UC. Therefore, we studied the microRNA and mRNA profiles in inflamed colonic samples of UC patients, evaluating the effect of a microRNA (selected by in silico analysis and its expression in UC patients), on IL-33 under inflammatory conditions. We found that inflamed mucosa (n = 8) showed increased expression of 40 microRNAs and 2,120 mRNAs, while 49 microRNAs and 1,734 mRNAs were decreased, as determined by microarrays. In particular, IL-33 mRNA showed a 3.8-fold increase and eight members of a microRNA family (miR-378), which targets IL-33 mRNA in the 3'UTR, were decreased (-3.9 to -3.0 times). We selected three members of the miR-378 family (miR-378a-3p, miR-422a, and miR-378c) according to background information and interaction energy analysis, for further correlation analyses with IL-33 expression through qPCR and ELISA, respectively. We determined that aUC (n = 24) showed high IL-33 levels, and decreased expression of miR-378a-3p and miR-422a compared to inactive UC (n = 10) and controls (n = 6). Moreover, both microRNAs were inversely correlated with IL-33 expression, while miR-378c does not show a significant difference. To evaluate the effect of TNFα on the studied microRNAs, aUC patients with anti-TNF therapy were compared to aUC receiving other treatments. The levels of miR-378a-3p and miR-378c were higher in aUC patients with anti-TNF. Based on these findings, we selected miR-378a-3p to exploring the molecular mechanism involved by in vitro assays, showing that over-expression of miR-378a-3p decreased the levels of an IL-33 target sequence ß-gal-reporter gene in HEK293 cells. Stable miR-378a-3p over-expression/inhibition inversely modulated IL-33 content and altered viability of HT-29 cells. Additionally, in an inflammatory context, TNFα decreased miR-378a-3p levels in HT-29 cells enhancing IL-33 expression. Together, our results propose a regulatory mechanism of IL-33 expression exerted by miR-378a-3p in an inflammatory environment, contributing to the understanding of UC pathogenesis.

2.
Tumour Biol ; 40(11): 1010428318810059, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419802

RESUMO

A complex network of chemokines can influence cancer progression with the recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells, including macrophages to the supporting tumor stroma promoting carcinogenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between tissue and plasma chemokine levels involved in macrophage recruitment with tumor-associated macrophage profile markers and clinicopathological features such as tumor-node-metastases stage, desmoplasia, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor plasma content. Plasma and tumor/healthy mucosa were obtained from Chilean patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. Chemokines were evaluated from tissue lysates (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CX3CL1) by Luminex. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon match-paired test ( p < 0.05). Macrophage markers (CD68, CD163, and iNOS) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry samples derived from colorectal cancer patients. Correlation analysis between chemokines and macrophage markers and clinicopathological features were performed using Spearman's test. Plasmatic levels of chemokines and inflammatory mediators' vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-α were evaluated by Luminex. Tumor levels of CCL2 (mean ± standard deviation = 530.1 ± 613.9 pg/mg), CCL3 (102.7 ± 106.0 pg/mg), and CCL4 (64.98 ± 48.09 pg/mg) were higher than those found in healthy tissue (182.1 ± 116.5, 26.79 ± 22.40, and 27.06 ± 23.69 pg/mg, respectively p < 0.05). The tumor characterization allowed us to identify a positive correlation between CCL4 and the pro-tumor macrophages marker CD163 ( p = 0.0443), and a negative correlation of iNOS with desmoplastic reaction ( p = 0.0467). Moreover, we identified that tumors with immature desmoplasia have a higher CD163 density compared to those with a mature/intermediated stromal tissue ( p = 0.0288). Plasmatic CCL4 has shown a positive correlation with inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor) that have previously been associated with poor prognosis in patients. In conclusion High expression of CCL4 in colon cancer could induce the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and specifically a pro-tumor macrophage profile (CD163+ cells). Moreover, plasmatic chemokines could be considered inflammatory mediators associated to CRC progression as well as tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor. These data reinforce the idea of chemokines as potential therapeutic targets or biomarker in CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL3/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL4/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
3.
Rev Med Chil ; 145(4): 419-430, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an heterogeneous disease. Three carcinogenic pathways determine its molecular profile: microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability (CIN) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Based on the new molecular classification, four consensus CRC molecular subtypes (CMS) are established, which are related to clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of the tumor. AIM: To classify Chilean patients with sporadic CRC according to the new consensus molecular subtypes of carcinogenic pathways. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective analytical study of 53 patients with a mean age of 70 years (55% males) with CRC, operated at a private clinic, without neoadjuvant treatment. From normal and tumor tissue DNA of each patient, CIN, MSI and CIMP were analyzed. Combining these variables, tumors were classified as CMS1/MSI-immune, CMS2/canonical, CMS3/metabolic and CMS4/mesenchymal. RESULTS: CMS1 tumors (19%) were located in the right colon, were in early stages, had MMR complex deficiencies and 67% had an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene. CMS2 tumors (31%) were located in the left colon, had moderate differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, lymphatic and mucin. CMS3 tumors (29%) were also left-sided, with absence of vascular and lymphatic invasion, and 29% had an activating mutation of the KRAS oncogene. CMS4 tumors (21%) showed advanced stages and presence of metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This new molecular classification contributes to understanding the heterogeneity of tumors. It is possible to differentiate molecular subgroups of a single pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, opening the door to personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chile , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(4): 419-430, abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-902494

RESUMO

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an heterogeneous disease. Three carcinogenic pathways determine its molecular profile: microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability (CIN) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Based on the new molecular classification, four consensus CRC molecular subtypes (CMS) are established, which are related to clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of the tumor. Aim: To classify Chilean patients with sporadic CRC according to the new consensus molecular subtypes of carcinogenic pathways. Material and Methods: Prospective analytical study of 53 patients with a mean age of 70 years (55% males) with CRC, operated at a private clinic, without neoadjuvant treatment. From normal and tumor tissue DNA of each patient, CIN, MSI and CIMP were analyzed. Combining these variables, tumors were classified as CMS1/MSI-immune, CMS2/canonical, CMS3/metabolic and CMS4/mesenchymal. Results: CMS1 tumors (19%) were located in the right colon, were in early stages, had MMR complex deficiencies and 67% had an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene. CMS2 tumors (31%) were located in the left colon, had moderate differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, lymphatic and mucin. CMS3 tumors (29%) were also left-sided, with absence of vascular and lymphatic invasion, and 29% had an activating mutation of the KRAS oncogene. CMS4 tumors (21%) showed advanced stages and presence of metastases. Conclusions: This new molecular classification contributes to understanding the heterogeneity of tumors. It is possible to differentiate molecular subgroups of a single pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, opening the door to personalized medicine.

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