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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695692

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), the most severe form of T-cell immunodeficiency, can be screened at birth by quantifying T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Early detection of this condition speeds up the establishment of appropriate treatment and increases the patient's life expectancy. Newborn screening for SCID started in January 2017 in Catalonia, the first Spanish and European region to universally include this testing. The results obtained in the first 2 years of experience are evaluated here. All babies born between January 2017 and December 2018 were screened. TREC quantification in DBS (1.5 mm diameter) was performed with the Enlite Neonatal TREC kit from PerkinElmer (Turku, Finland). In 2018, the retest cutoff in the detection algorithm was updated based on the experience gained in the first year, and changed from 34 to 24 copies/µL. This decreased the retest rate from 3.34 to 1.4% (global retest rate, 2.4%), with a requested second sample rate of 0.23% and a positive detection rate of 0.02%. Lymphocyte phenotype (T, B, NK populations), expression of CD45RA/RO isoforms, percentage and intensity of TCR αß and TCR γδ, presence of HLA-DR+ T lymphocytes, and in vitro lymphocyte proliferation were studied in all patients by flow cytometry. Of 130,903 newborns screened, 30 tested positive, 15 of which were male. During the study period, one patient was diagnosed with SCID: incidence, 1 in 130,903 births in Catalonia. Thirteen patients had clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (non-SCID) with an incidence of 1 in 10,069 newborns (43% of positive detections). Nine patients were considered false-positive cases because of an initially normal lymphocyte count with normalization of TRECs between 3 and 6 months of life, four infants had transient lymphopenia due to an initially low lymphocyte count with recovery in the following months, and three patients are still under study. The results obtained provide further evidence of the benefits of including this disease in newborn screening programs. Longer follow-up is needed to define the exact incidence of SCID in Catalonia.

2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701864

RESUMO

It is known that the immunoregulatory networks in human Chagas disease play a key role in parasitemia control during the acute phase. However, little is known regarding the control of parasitemia during the chronic phase. The aim of the study was to describe the serum cytokine profile of Trypanosoma cruzi chronically infected patients and to evaluate its relationship with the presence or absence of parasitemia in peripheral blood. This is a prospective observational study where adult Chagas disease patients were included. Patients previously treated for Chagas disease, pregnant women, and immunosuppressed patients were excluded. Demographic and clinical information was collected, and T. cruzi real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serum cytokine profile were determined in peripheral blood. Forty-five patients were included. Trypanosoma cruzi RT-PCR in peripheral blood resulted positive in 19 (42.2%) patients. No differences in the serum cytokine profile were found depending on cardiac or digestive involvement. However, patients with positive T. cruzi RT-PCR had a higher median concentration of IL-10 and IL-1beta and a lower median concentration of IL-8 than those with negative T. cruzi PCR. These results reinforce the key role that this anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) plays in parasitemia control.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2325, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681265

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) refer to a clinically, immunologically, and genetically heterogeneous group of over 350 disorders affecting development or function of the immune system. The increasing use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly facilitated identification of genetic defects in PID patients in daily clinical practice. Several NGS approaches are available, from the unbiased whole exome sequencing (WES) to specific gene panels. Here, we report on a 3-year experience with clinical exome sequencing (CES) for genetic diagnosis of PIDs. We used the TruSight One sequencing panel, which includes 4,813 disease-associated genes, in 61 unrelated patients (pediatric and adults). The analysis was done in 2 steps: first, we focused on a virtual PID panel and then, we expanded the analysis to the remaining genes. A molecular diagnosis was achieved in 19 (31%) patients: 12 (20%) with mutations in genes included in the virtual PID panel and 7 (11%) with mutations in other genes. These latter cases provided interesting and somewhat unexpected findings that expand the clinical and genetic spectra of PID-related disorders, and are useful to consider in the differential diagnosis. We also discuss 5 patients (8%) with incomplete genotypes or variants of uncertain significance. Finally, we address the limitations of CES exemplified by 7 patients (11%) with negative results on CES who were later diagnosed by other approaches (more specific PID panels, WES, and comparative genomic hybridization array). In summary, the genetic diagnosis rate using CES was 31% (including a description of 12 novel mutations), which rose to 42% after including diagnoses achieved by later use of other techniques. The description of patients with mutations in genes not included in the PID classification illustrates the heterogeneity and complexity of PID-related disorders.

4.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 66, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis, a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated systemic immune response to infection, associates with reduced responsiveness to subsequent infections. How such tolerance is acquired is not well understood but is known to involve epigenetic and transcriptional dysregulation. METHODS: Bead arrays were used to compare global DNA methylation changes in patients with sepsis, non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and healthy controls. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to dissect functional reprogramming and signaling pathways related to the acquisition of these specific DNA methylation alterations. Finally, in vitro experiments using human monocytes were performed to test the induction of similar DNA methylation reprogramming. RESULTS: Here, we focused on DNA methylation changes associated with sepsis, given their potential role in stabilizing altered phenotypes. Tolerized monocytes from patients with sepsis display changes in their DNA methylomes with respect to those from healthy controls, affecting critical monocyte-related genes. DNA methylation profiles correlate with IL-10 and IL-6 levels, significantly increased in monocytes in sepsis, as well as with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score; the observed changes associate with TFs and pathways downstream to toll-like receptors and inflammatory cytokines. In fact, in vitro stimulation of toll-like receptors in monocytes results in similar gains and losses of methylation together with the acquisition of tolerance. CONCLUSION: We have identified a DNA methylation signature associated with sepsis that is downstream to the response of monocytes to inflammatory signals associated with the acquisition of a tolerized phenotype and organic dysfunction.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1016, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current scenario of newborn screening is changing as DNA studies are being included in the programs of several countries. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) disorders can be detected using quantitative PCR assays to measure T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), a byproduct of correct T-cell development. However, in addition to SCID, other T-cell-deficient phenotypes such as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 22q11.2 duplication syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, and trisomy 21 are detected. METHODS: We present our experience with the detection of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and 22q11.2 duplication syndrome in a series of 103,903 newborns included in the newborn screening program of Catalonia (Spain). RESULTS: Thirty newborns tested were positive (low TREC levels) and five were found to have copy number variations at the 22q11 region (4 deletions and 1 duplication) when investigated with array comparative genomic hybridization technology and MLPA. CONCLUSION: Newborn screening for SCID enables detection of several conditions, such as 22q syndromes, which should be managed by prompt, proactive approaches with adequate counseling for families by a multidisciplinary team.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 82, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures present at the terminal region of the chromosomes. Mutations in genes coding for proteins involved in telomere maintenance are causative of a number of disorders known as telomeropathies. The genetic origin of these diseases is heterogeneous and has not been determined for a significant proportion of patients. METHODS: This article describes the genetic characterization of a cohort of patients. Telomere length was determined by Southern blot and quantitative PCR. Nucleotide variants were analyzed either by high-resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing of selected exons or by massive sequencing of a panel of genes. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with telomere length below the 10% of normal population, affected with three telomeropathies: dyskeratosis congenita (4), aplastic anemia (22) or pulmonary fibrosis (21) were analyzed. Eighteen of these patients presented known pathogenic or novel possibly pathogenic variants in the telomere-related genes TERT, TERC, RTEL1, CTC1 and ACD. In addition, the analyses of a panel of 188 genes related to haematological disorders indicated that a relevant proportion of the patients (up to 35%) presented rare variants in genes related to DNA repair or in genes coding for proteins involved in the resolution of complex DNA structures, that participate in telomere replication. Mutations in some of these genes are causative of several syndromes previously associated to telomere shortening. CONCLUSION: Novel variants in telomere, DNA repair and replication genes are described that might indicate the contribution of variants in these genes to the development of telomeropathies. Patients carrying variants in telomere-related genes presented worse evolution after diagnosis than the rest of patients analyzed.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Disceratose Congênita/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Telômero/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , RNA/genética , Telomerase/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2397, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386343

RESUMO

LRBA deficiency was first described in 2012 as an autosomal recessive disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the LRBA gene (OMIM #614700). It was initially characterized as producing early-onset hypogammaglobulinemia, autoimmune manifestations, susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease, and recurrent infection. However, further reports expanded this phenotype (including patients without hypogammaglobulinemia) and described LRBA deficiency as a clinically variable syndrome with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. We present the case of a female patient who presented with type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, oral thrush, and enlarged liver and spleen at the age of 8 months. She later experienced recurrent bacterial and viral infections, including pneumococcal meningitis and Epstein Barr viremia. She underwent two consecutive stem cell transplants at the age of 8 and 9 years, and ultimately died. Samples from the patient and her parents were subjected to whole exome sequencing, which revealed a homozygous 1-bp insertion in exon 23 of the patient's LRBA gene, resulting in frameshift and premature stop codon. The patient's healthy mother was heterozygous for the mutation and her father tested wild-type. This finding suggested that either one copy of the paternal chromosome 4 bore a deletion including the LRBA locus, or the patient inherited two copies of the mutant maternal LRBA allele. The patient's sequencing data showed a 1-Mb loss of heterozygosity region in chromosome 4, including the LRBA gene. Comparative genomic hybridization array of the patient's and father's genomic DNA yielded normal findings, ruling out genomic copy number abnormalities. Here, we present the first case of LRBA deficiency due to a uniparental disomy (UPD). In contrast to classical Mendelian inheritance, UPD involves inheritance of 2 copies of a chromosomal region from only 1 parent. Specifically, our patient carried a small segmental isodisomy of maternal origin affecting 1 Mb of chromosome 4.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the accurate diagnosis of immunodeficiencies is crucial to compare patients' immunology laboratory values with age-sex matched controls, yet there is a paucity of normal values for most populations. OBJECTIVES: To define appropriate reference values of extended lymphocyte subpopulations and T-cell receptor excision circle (TRECs) levels in healthy pediatric donors between 1 month and 18 years of age. METHODS: Extended immunophenotyping values were obtained by analysis of multiparameter flow cytometry panels for the following subpopulations: CD4+ and CD8+ Naive, Effector, Effector Memory and Central Memory, T helper subpopulations and their degrees of activation, T Regulatory cells, Recent Thymic Emigrants (RTE), B Lymphocyte subpopulations (Transitional, Naive, Preswitch-Memory, Switch-Memory, Plasmablasts, CD21low, and Exhausted), and subpopulations for Monocytes, NK cells and Dendritic Cells. RESULTS: Median values and the 10th and 90th percentiles were obtained for 32 lymphocyte and monocyte subpopulations, and for TRECs levels in each age group of children. Naive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell populations tended to decrease with age, with significant difference between the groups, in parallel with the reduction in thymic function assessed by TRECs counts and the recent thymic emigrant population. Relative numbers of Th cell populations tended to increase with age. The percentage of class-switched B cell populations showed a significant increase between the youngest group and the others. CONCLUSION: This study provides essential data for interpreting extended immunophenotyping profiles in the pediatric and young adult populations, which could be of value for the diagnosis of PIDs and immune-mediated diseases, particularly those associated with subtle immunological abnormalities. © 2018 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

9.
Clin Immunol ; 195: 49-58, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063981

RESUMO

Monoallelic loss-of-function mutations in NFKB1 were recently recognized as the most common monogenic cause of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The prototypic clinical phenotype of NFKB1-deficient patients includes common CVID features, such as hypogammaglobulinaemia and sinopulmonary infections, plus other highly variable individual manifestations. Here, we describe a patient with a profound CVID phenotype and severe gastrointestinal manifestations, including chronic and recurrent diarrhoea. Using an NGS customized panel of 323 genes related to primary immunodeficiencies, we identified a novel monoallelic loss-of-function mutation in NFKB1 leading to a truncated protein (c.1149delT/p.Gly384Glu ∗ 48). Interestingly, we also found a rare variant in NOD2 previously associated with Crohn's disease (p.His352Arg). Our patient had hypogammaglobulinaemia with a small number of B cells, most of which were naïve. The most noteworthy findings included marked skewing towards a Th1 phenotype in peripheral blood T cells and excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNFα). The patient's 6-year-old daughter, a carrier of the NFKB1 mutation, is clinically asymptomatic, but has started to show cellular and molecular changes. This case of NFKB1 deficiency appears to be a combination of immunodeficiency and a hyperinflammatory state. The current situation of the patient's daughter provides a glimpse of the preclinical phase of the condition.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882021

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of life-threatening influenza A virus (IAV) disease remains elusive, as infection is benign in most individuals. We studied two relatives who died from influenza. We Sanger sequenced GATA2 and evaluated the mutation by gene transfer, measured serum cytokine levels, and analyzed circulating T- and B-cells. Both patients (father and son, P1 and P2) died in 2011 of H1N1pdm IAV infection at the ages of 54 and 31 years, respectively. They had not suffered from severe or moderately severe infections in the last 17 (P1) and 15 years (P2). A daughter of P1 had died at 20 years from infectious complications. Low B-cell, NK- cell, and monocyte numbers and myelodysplastic syndrome led to sequence GATA2. Patients were heterozygous for a novel, hypomorphic, R396L mutation leading to haplo-insufficiency. B- and T-cell rearrangement in peripheral blood from P1 during the influenza episode showed expansion of one major clone. No T-cell receptor excision circles were detected in P1 and P3 since they were 35 and 18 years, respectively. Both patients presented an exuberant, interferon (IFN)-γ-mediated hypercytokinemia during H1N1pdm infection. No data about patients with viremia was available. Two previously reported adult GATA2-deficient patients died from severe H1N1 IAV infection; GATA2 deficiency may predispose to life-threatening influenza in adulthood. However, a role of other genetic variants involved in immune responses cannot be ruled out. Patients with GATA2 deficiency can reach young adulthood without severe infections, including influenza, despite long-lasting complete B-cell and natural killer (NK) cell deficiency, as well as profoundly diminished T-cell thymic output.

11.
Front Immunol ; 9: 636, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867916

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and poor response to vaccines. Its diagnosis is made based on clinical and immunological criteria, after exclusion of other diseases that can cause similar phenotypes. Currently, less than 20% of cases of CVID have a known underlying genetic cause. We have analyzed whole-exome sequencing and copy number variants data of 36 children and adolescents diagnosed with CVID and healthy relatives to estimate the proportion of monogenic cases. We have replicated an association of CVID to p.C104R in TNFRSF13B and reported the second case of homozygous patient to date. Our results also identify five causative genetic variants in LRBA, CTLA4, NFKB1, and PIK3R1, as well as other very likely causative variants in PRKCD, MAPK8, or DOCK8 among others. We experimentally validate the effect of the LRBA stop-gain mutation which abolishes protein production and downregulates the expression of CTLA4, and of the frameshift indel in CTLA4 producing expression downregulation of the protein. Our results indicate a monogenic origin of at least 15-24% of the CVID cases included in the study. The proportion of monogenic patients seems to be lower in CVID than in other PID that have also been analyzed by whole exome or targeted gene panels sequencing. Regardless of the exact proportion of CVID monogenic cases, other genetic models have to be considered for CVID. We propose that because of its prevalence and other features as intermediate penetrancies and phenotypic variation within families, CVID could fit with other more complex genetic scenarios. In particular, in this work, we explore the possibility of CVID being originated by an oligogenic model with the presence of heterozygous mutations in interacting proteins or by the accumulation of detrimental variants in particular immunological pathways, as well as perform association tests to detect association with rare genetic functional variation in the CVID cohort compared to healthy controls.

12.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e22420, 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement of immunoglobulins and complement proteins are frontline tests used in the assessment of immune system integrity, and reference values can vary with age. Their measurement provides an insight into the function of the innate and adaptive immune systems. METHODS: We generated pediatric reference ranges for IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, the IgG and IgA subclasses, and C3 and C4 using the Optilite™ turbidimetric analyzer. RESULTS: The concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgD showed an increase with age, as expected, while IgM remained stable between the age groups. For the IgG subclasses, no significant differences were observed in IgG1 or IgG3, while IgG2 and IgG4 concentrations increased steadily with age. The concentration of IgG2 plateaued at 15-18 years, while IgG4 plateaued at 10-14 years. The trend of concentrations across all groups was IgG1 > IgG2 > IgG3 > IgG4. For both IgA1 and IgA2, concentrations increased significantly with age, plateauing at 15-18 years. The median IgA1 concentration was greater than IgA2 across all groups. There was a good correlation between the total IgG or IgA concentration and summation of their subclasses (R2  = 0.89, P < .0001, slope y = 0.98x + 14.51 mg/dL and R2  = 0.91, P < .0001, slope y = 1.35x-3.28 mg/dL, respectively). The concentration of C3 and C4 remained stable across the groups, with no significant differences observed. CONCLUSION: We have generated age-specific reference ranges in healthy children for C3, C4, IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD and the IgG and IgA subclasses using the Optilite™ turbidimetric analyzer. These ranges will help identify individuals with abnormal concentrations, thus will aid in the diagnosis of both primary and secondary immunological disorders.

13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1302-1310.e4, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and "atypical" SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. METHODS: In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of "atypical" SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance, prospective data from this study will be a helpful resource for guiding the difficult HSCT decisions in patients with P-CID.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
14.
Pediatrics ; 138(2)2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436506

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency that leads to severe recurrent infection and inflammatory complications that are usually difficult to diagnose and treat. Several hyperinflammation mechanisms, such as decreased neutrophil apoptosis, toll-like receptor activation imbalance, Th17 cell induction, Nrf2 activity deficiency, and inflammasome activation, have been described in CGD patients However, there have been no reports of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis as an inflammatory complication in CGD, and the differential diagnosis of this condition with infectious osteomyelitis is challenging. Thalidomide has been used to treat several inflammatory manifestations in CGD patients with good clinical results. Here, we report the case of a previously asymptomatic 11-year-old boy who consulted for difficulty walking and pain at the back of the right thigh, with increased inflammatory markers. Multifocal bone involvement was seen on bone scintigraphy, and acute-phase reactants were elevated. On the basis of a suspected diagnosis of infectious osteomyelitis, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was started, with no clinical response. Bone biopsy and microbiological tests yielded negative results; at that point, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis was suspected. The patient was unresponsive to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and corticosteroids. Thalidomide was started, and within 6 months, clinical and radiologic resolution of the condition was achieved with no adverse effects. More than 1 year after stopping thalidomide, the patient remained free of symptoms and inflammatory parameters are within normal levels. Thalidomide has a favorable safety profile compared with other alternatives and could be considered a feasible therapeutic option for this type of condition in selected patients.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Criança , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/etiologia , Cintilografia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(4): e0004663, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27115603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). RESULTS: Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated with significantly higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR determined in peripheral blood.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/imunologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Immunol ; 163: 60-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26748374

RESUMO

Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a monogenic autoimmune disease characterized by early-onset life-threatening multisystemic autoimmunity. This rare hereditary disorder is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, which plays a key role in the differentiation and function of CD4(+)CD25(+) natural regulatory T cells (Tregs), essential for the establishment and maintenance of natural tolerance. We identified a novel mutation in the FOXP3 gene affecting the Phe367 residue of the protein (F367V) in a family with three male siblings affected by IPEX. Two other mutations affecting the FOXP3 Phe367 residue (F367L and F367C) have been described previously. This unique situation of three mutations affecting the same residue in FOXP3 led us to study the molecular impact of these mutations on the structure of FOXP3 protein. Structure analysis showed that Phe367 is involved in a rich interaction network related to both monomer and dimer structure stabilization, and is crucial for FOXP3 regulatory activity. The relevance of this location is confirmed by the results of SIFT and PolyPhen-2 pathogenicity predictions for F367V mutation. In summary, as assessment of the pathogenicity of a novel mutation is crucial to achieve a proper molecular diagnosis, we analysed the impact of mutations affecting the Phe367 residue using a combined approach that provides a mechanistic view of their pathogenic effect.


Assuntos
Diarreia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/congênito , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/congênito , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diarreia/imunologia , Dimerização , Eczema/genética , Eczema/imunologia , Eosinofilia/genética , Eosinofilia/imunologia , Evolução Fatal , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/imunologia , Hemorragia/genética , Hemorragia/imunologia , Hepatomegalia/genética , Hepatomegalia/imunologia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Lactente , Infecções por Klebsiella/genética , Infecções por Klebsiella/imunologia , Leucocitose/genética , Leucocitose/imunologia , Pneumopatias/genética , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Masculino , Meningoencefalite/genética , Meningoencefalite/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Fenilalanina/genética , Sepse/genética , Sepse/imunologia , Esplenomegalia/genética , Esplenomegalia/imunologia , Trombocitopenia/genética , Trombocitopenia/imunologia , Timo/anormalidades
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 61(11): 1688-94, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26265500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benznidazole is the drug of choice for Chagas disease. The major drawback of this drug is the high adverse events rate, being cutaneous reactions the most frequent one, leading to definitive withdrawal of treatment in 15%-30% of patients. METHODS: Prospective observational study where adult Chagas disease patients accepting to receive benznidazole (100 mg/8 hours for 60 days) were included. The objective was to characterize the skin toxicity of benznidazole in patients with Chagas disease, determine the serum cytokine profile, and evaluate the potential association with specific HLA alleles and benznidazole concentration. Serum cytokine levels were measured at day 0, 15, and 60 of treatment. Class I and II HLA alleles were determined. When cutaneous reaction was detected, a skin biopsy was performed. Serum benznidazole concentration was determined at the time of cutaneous reaction, or at day 15 of treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were included, 20(38.5%) had cutaneous reaction, and median time of appearance was 9 days. Skin biopsies showed histopathological findings consistent with drug eruption. Patients with cutaneous drug-reaction had higher proportion of eosinophilia during treatment, and higher interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10 serum concentrations at day 15 of treatment than those without cutaneous reaction. Treatment interruption (that included moderate-severe cutaneous reactions) was more frequent in patients carrying HLA-B*3505 allele (45.5% vs 15.4%, P = .033). No differences in benznidazole serum concentration were found. CONCLUSIONS: Benznidazole related cutaneous reaction rate is high, and it was produced by a delayed hypersensitivity reaction with a Th2 response. Carrying HLA-B*3505 allele could be associated with moderate-severe cutaneous reaction.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Erupção por Droga/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/induzido quimicamente , Nitroimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Tripanossomicidas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alelos , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Erupção por Droga/genética , Feminino , Genes MHC Classe I , Genes MHC da Classe II , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Tardia/imunologia , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-5/sangue , Masculino , Nitroimidazóis/imunologia , Nitroimidazóis/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Transpl Immunol ; 31(1): 11-6, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24810779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In kidney transplants operational tolerance has been associated with up-regulation of B cell differentiation genes and an increased number of total, naive and transitional peripheral B cells. The aim is to evaluate tolerance biomarkers in different cohorts of stable renal transplants under immunosuppression. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in renal transplants. We evaluate genetic tolerance signature and lymphocyte subsets in stable transplants treated with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) at 1 (n=15), 5 (n=14) and 10 (n=16) years, and azathioprine-treated transplants followed 30 years (n=8). Healthy volunteers (n=10) and patients with chronic rejection (n=15) served as controls. RESULTS: We confirm that peripheral expression of IGKV1D-13 and IGKV4-1 genes by RT-PCR distinguish tolerant (n=10) from stable transplants (n=10) provided by the International Tolerance Network. Tolerance signature was defined as the lowest expression for both genes in tolerant patients. In CNI-treated patients, genetic signature of tolerance and B cells showed a time-dependent increase not observed in azathioprine-treated patients (p<0.01). Genetic tolerance signature was observed in 0% at 1, 7% at 5 and 25% at 10-years while it was not observed in azathioprine-treated and chronic rejection patients. Fifteen out of 16 CNI-treated transplants at 10 years were revaluated 3 months apart. Nine did not show the tolerance signature in any determination, 4 in one and 2 in both determinations. Genetic signature of tolerance was associated with an increase of total, naive and transitional B cells (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: IGKV1D-13 and IGKV4-1 gene expression and its linked B cell populations increase during follow up in CNI-treated patients. At 10 years, 2 out of 15 CNI treated patients consistently express biomarkers associated with true tolerance. In azathioprine-treated patients these biomarkers were down-regulated.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/genética , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/genética , Transplante de Rim , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Cadeias kappa de Imunoglobulina/genética , Imunofenotipagem , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transcriptoma
20.
Hum Mutat ; 34(10): 1329-39, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23864330

RESUMO

IL-12Rß1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by predisposition to recurrent and/or severe infections caused by otherwise poorly pathogenic mycobacteria and salmonella. IL-12Rß1 is a receptor chain of both the IL-12 and the IL-23 receptor and deficiency of IL-12Rß1 thus abolishes both IL-12 and IL-23 signaling. IL-12Rß1 deficiency is caused by bi-allelic mutations in the IL12RB1 gene. Mutations resulting in premature stop codons, such as nonsense, frame shift, and splice site mutations, represent the majority of IL-12Rß1 deficiency causing mutations (66%; 46/70). Also every other morbid mutation completely inactivates the IL-12Rß1 protein. In addition to disease-causing mutations, rare and common variations with unknown functional effect have been reported in IL12RB1. All these variants have been deposited in the online IL12RB1 variation database (www.LOVD.nl/IL12RB1). In this article, we review the function of IL-12Rß1 and molecular genetics of human IL12RB1.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Mutação , Receptores de Interleucina-12/deficiência , Receptores de Interleucina-12/genética , Efeito Fundador , Genes Recessivos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Penetrância , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Interleucina-12/metabolismo
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